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THE JOTIRNAL OF THE MINISTRY OF 


AGRICULTURE 

VOL XLIV APRIL. 1937. TO MARCH. 1938 

INDEX 

1937 

No. I. APRIL - 
No. 2. MAY - 
No. 3. JUNE - 
No. 4. JULY - - . . 

No. 5. AUGUST - 
No. 6. SEPTEMBER - 
No. 7. OCTOBER - 
No. 8. NOVEMBER - - _ 

No. 9. DECEMBER - - - 

1938 

No 10. JANUARY 927-1040 

No. li. FEBRUARY 1041-1152 

No. 12. MARCH - - 1153-1256 



Pages 

1-104 

105-200 

201-304 

305-416 

417-512 

513-608 

609-712 

713-824 


HIS MAJESTY’S STATIONERY OFFICE 

LONDON :: EDINBURGH :: MANCHESTER ' BELFAST 






THE JOURNAL 

OF THE 

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE 

Vol. XLIV No. 1 April, 1937 


NOTES FOR THE MONTH 
Weed Destruction 

Ai’AKT iroin sprints ciiUivations that may be directed to 
weed destruction and the jireparation of a clean secd-bed for 
sugar-beet, root and other crops generally, a good deal may 
be done towards weed destruction by spraying cereal crops 
with a solution of sulphuric acid or suljihate of ammonia, or 
dusting them with cyanamide. 

There is plenty of iwidence to show that tlu'se methods are 
\'erv suciessful in destroying the bulk of Charlock and many 
other annual weeds, and so n-ducing tlu' distribution of further 
weed seeds upon the land. Another advantage is that the 
reduction in weeds will surely add to the yield ot cereal 
straw and gram. In addition, where the corn crop is in need 
of nitrogen the sulphate of ammonia or cyanamide used will 
provide what is required. If, however, the land is in good 
lu'art, and an increase in nitrogen may tend to make the 
crop “ go down '’--as where land has been sheeped — it will 
probably be better to use sulphuric acid lor weed destruction. 

Sulphate of ammonia may be used at the rate of l-lg cwt. 
in 8o to 100 gcd. of water pc-r acre; sulphuric acid is most 
commonly used as a 7 to 10 ^x'r cent, solution, or 7 to 10 gal. 
of Brown Oil of Vitriol (B.O.V.) in 93 or C)o gal. of water per 
acre; cyanamide is distributed, preferably by a blower, at the 
rate of i-i| cwt. per acre. The sprays may be used at any 
suitable time up to the end of May, and, if the corn is not too 
high, even into the first or second week of June. Cyanamide, 
however, should be applietl somewhat earlier, preferably 
when Charlock has lour rough leaves, or the cereal is no more 
than six inches high. It is best to carrj' out the treatment 
during a spell of fine wa-ather, though as far as the spraying is 
concerned heavy dewv or slight rain will matter little, while it 
is desirable to apply cyanamide early in the day when the 
dew' is on the leaf. 


A 


I 



Nuies I'OK THE Month 


This brief note is intended merely as a pointer to indicate 
the possibilities; tanners who have seen the results of correct 
treatment at the right moment, will appreciate the value of 
what has been done. It may be added that those who have, 
not hitherto made use of these methods of weed destruction 
in cereal ciops, but desire to do so this season, may safely 
follow the advice of the agricultural advisers of the organiza- 
tions that direct the distribution of the three materials in 
question; they may in the first place prefer to consult the 
Agricultural Organizes lor their county. 

The Output of Glasshouse Crops 

In thc‘ early part of last j^'ar the Ministry undertook a 
sjjecial inquiry into the output of crojis grown under glass 
in England and Wales during 1935. The main features of 
the results of the inquiry were published in the Ministry’s 
Agricultural Market Report for February 26, 1937; the follow- 
ing is a summary : — 

The total number of lorms dispatched was 15,118 compared 
with less than 8,000 in 1931 and about 6,000 in 1925. Replies 
that could be tabulated represented about 42 per cent, of the 
fonns dispatched and approximately one-half of the total 
glasshouse area of the country. On the basis of these rei>lies 
the total area of glass is estimated to be about 3,360 acres, 
including 3,100 acres of glasshouses and 260 acres of frames, 
compared with a total area of 3,150 acres in 1931. It is 
estimated that 59,000 tons of tomatoes, 75 million cucumbers 
and 2,030,000 lb. of grapes were sold in 1935 as against 54,000 
tons, 54 million and 1,150,000 lb., respectively, in 1931. No 
quantitative estimate ol the output of flowers, etc., is available, 
but the estimated values of the various crops sold in 1935 
compared with the two earlier inquiries, which are given in 
the following table' with the proportion of the total values 
represented by each crop, indicate that the output of the 
flowers, etc., group represents an increasing proportion of 
the total output. 

Inquiries were also made as to the labour employed and 
the cost of fuel used in the industry during 1935. I'rom 
the replies received to these questions it is estimated that 
41,100 workers were employed during the season although it 
seems probable that tt) some extent this figure includes 
workers who would be employed for part of their time on 
other agricultural operations. Of the paid workers, 27,0(X) 


2 



Notes for the Month 


were regularly and 8,800 casually employed, while unj^aid 
family or other workers totalled about 5,joo. The fuel bill 
of the industry in 1935 is estimated at approximately 
£880,000. 




I ‘I 

-3 

i‘J 3 i 

1933 




fro- 


Fro- 


id-o- 

1 )<'s‘ rijitioii 



portion 

ICsli- 

portion 

ICsti- 

jiortion 



mated 

of 

mated 

ot 

mated 

ot 



\ aliie 

Total 

\ ahie 

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3 \iliie 

Total 



i 

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13 

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<10 


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All (dhers 


230 

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Flowers. jM)lia;,i(‘ 

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Agricultural Statistics, 1935 (Part II) 

The Ministry’s Annual Report on the prices and supplies 
of agricultural produce and recinirements was published at 
the beginning of March. The Report discusses the movement 
in prices and changes in the source ot supply of the principal 
agricultural commodities in th(' year 1935, in comj)arison with 
those in j^revious years. The Report shows that the improve- 
ment in the general price level ol agricultural j)roducts that 
was recorded in 1934 was continued in 1935. The general 
index of prices reached 117 and was thus \ points higher than 
that for 1934. The group index for live stock and live stock 
products showed a decline of i point. The index for the 
cereals and farm crops group rose by 4 points, while that for 
fruit and vegetables rose to 184, an increase of 52 points abo\'(‘ 
that for 1934, and was the highest inde.x for this group since 
1922. In addition to the usual tables, tliree diagrams are 
included, showing a long-term comparison ot the prices of 
British and certain imported oats, the changes between 1899- 
Kpo and I 9 ^i 4‘35 '*1 Imnie production of l)eef, and the 
index numbers of the prices of fat and store sheep for the 
years 1911 to 1935. The review of the quantitative regulation 
of imported product; contained in the Report for 1934 has 

A 2 3 





Notes eok tuiv Month 


been brought up to date, and the recent changes in Customs 
duties arc included in an Apjx'ndix that shows in detail the 
period of operation, amount of duty, etc. 

Copies of the Report, which forms Part II of the Agricultural 
Statistics, 1935, may be purchased throiigh any bookseller, 
or direct from H.M. Stationery Office, Adastral House*, 
Kingsw'ay, London, W.('.2, price is. («/. net, or is. Sd. 
post free. 

Agricultural Indebtedness 

The Monthly Bulletin of Agricultural Economics, and 
Sociology* is publishing a well documented study on 
Agricultural Indebtedness. The first part of this study 
appeared in the January, 1937, number of the Bulletin and is 
divided into two sections, the first of which deals w'ith the 
problem of Agricultural Indebtedness in general, show'ing its 
progressive development after the* W'ar, its structure, its old 
and recent causes, its ct)nsequences and aggravation follovs- 
ing the w'orld economic crisis. Section two consists of a 
survey of the measures taken 1)\’ the various (iovernmi'nts 
to meet this situation and of the rt'sults of these* mt'asures. 
It is compiled on the basis of data gathered from credit 
institutions and special researche.s, and deals concrc'te'ly 
with the indebtedness problem and the means by which efiorts 
have been made to lighten its effects in the following countries ; 
(A) Central and We'stern Eurojie : (iermany, Belgium, 
France, Italy, Switzerland. The February issue of the 
Bulletin continued the study and dealt w'ith (B) Scandinavian 
countries and Finland : Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland. 
Other countries to lx* dealt w'ith in following issues are: (C) 
Central and Eastern Europe : Bulgaria, Clreece, Hungary*, 
Poland, Rumania, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia; (D) Baltic 
countries: Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia; (E) Asiatic countries: 
India, Japan; (F) North America: Canada, United States; 
(G) South America: Argentina, Brazil; (H) Australia. 

This study is related to the methodical work of obsei-vation 
and analysis on economic conditions of w'orld agricultun* in 
general— work the results of which are to be found in the 
annual volume published by the International Institute of 
Agriculture: The World Agricultural Situation. \ 

* Published by the Tiiternational Institute ot Aj^riculture, i, \'illa 
Pmberto, Koine. Obtainable from P. S. Kin.i; and Son Jjd , (ireat 
Smith Street, Pondon, S.W, i, ])nee 13s. hd. }>er annum. 

•f Obtainable from 1 *. S. Kini; and Son Ltd., juice los. 

4 



Notes for the Month 


National Institute of Ag^ricultural Botany 

The sev(‘nleonfh Report of tlie National Institute of Agri- 
cultural Botany is now available, and copies may be obtained 
on application to the Institute. The work of the Institute is 
directed to supplying the farmer with unbiassed information 
as to the seeds he sows, and tlu' report deals with methods by 
which this information was obtained in 1936. 

New varii'ties of all farm crops are tested by the Institute 
as soon as they ai)p(‘ar, the trials being conducted on a field 
scale at six permanent stations in England, and in some 
cases at additional centres on a fanner’s own land. In all 
instaiues the varieties are grown as they would be by 
the farmer himself. Eveiy feature of the varieties is noted 
and the results are of considerable value. For instance, 
()1 all the new varieties of winter whi-al that have been tested 
in the last ten years, only one has proved to be worthy of 
general recommendation by the Institute. This is the Dutch 
variety Juliana, which has in tht' past two years’ trials given 
slightly better results than Wilhelmina. 

The position with other crops is \’ery similar, and it is clear 
that fann(>rs will be wc'll advised, before deciding to grow 
a new variety, to apply to the Agricultural Organizer for their 
county, or direct to the Institute, for information as to the 
merits of the variety in cpiestion. 


Bibliography of Literature on Agricultural Meteorology 

The Ministry has issued a third ininu-ographed Bibliography 
of Litt- ratiire on Agricultural Meteorology in continuation of 
previous works published in 1932 and 1936, the former of 
which is no longtT obtainable. It is not claimed for the present 
bibliography that it is a com})lete refi'rence to papers, etc., 
dealing with agricultural mete(mology; it consists of the titles 
noted in the Ministry during the ordinary course of the 
administration of the Agricultural Meteorological Scheme from 
the jx'rusal of the original periodicals, digests, and other 
sources. The titles so noted between October, 1933, the 
end of September, 1936, are included. 

The bibliography has been widely circulated, both in 
(Ireat Britain, in the Dominions and Colonies, and elsew'here 
overseas. A few copies of the second and third bibliographies 
are available, gratis, to workers and others interested. 


5 



Notes the Month 


Applications should be addressed to the Secretary, Agri- 
cultural Meteorological C'ommittee, Ministry of Agriculture and 
Fisheries, lo, Whitehall Placr*, London, S.W.i. 


Interesting Birds : (2) The Nightjar 

The Nightjar is one of th(' most notable of our birds, being 
not only ol interesting and peculiar habit, but valuable to 
the agriculturist. It is, in fact, one of the most useful of all 
our summer r'isitors, and it is unfortunate that it has been 
burdened with certain local names that are likely to convey 
a false impression as to its real character. The names “ Fern 
Owl ” and “ Night Swallow ” are not objectionable, and are 
indeed rather apt, sinci' tlu' bird is of nocturnal habit, has a 
swallow-like flight, and is often found in clearings and on 
commons where bracken is plentiful. “ Nighthawk ” and 
" Goatsucker,” howe ver, an‘ misleading. The former name 
suggests that the bird is of a predatoiy nature and likely to be 
a menace to young poultry and other birds. The latter 
has its origin in an absurd belief that the bird sucks milk from 
goats, a belief that is, of course, entirely erroneous. 

In a quiet way the Nightjar is a handsome bird, its ])lumage 
being beautifully mottled with black and various shades of 
brown and grey. When at rest during the daytime', this 
colour scheme makes the bird difficult to detect, especially 
when perching on the branch ot a tree'. It lies lengthwise 
along the branch and not across it as do mo.st other birds. 
In such a situation it is easily mistaken tor a fungoid growth 
or a woody excrescence. 

The Nightjar does not make a ne-st, but lays its 2 eggs on the' 
bare ground, usually on a he ath ejr a common or in a cle'aring 
of a wood. The eggs, which are e'longated oval iji shajx', 
with very little difference' Ixitween their e'lids, are jm-ttily 
marbled w’ith brown, lilac and grey. 

The food of the Nightjar consists entirely of insects. The 
bird does much good work by destroying noctuid and other 
moths, many of which are harmful to agriculture, cockchafers, 
and other injurious insects. Its large, hair-fringed mouth is 
especially well adapted for the capture of these. In any list 
of beneficial birds the Nightjar would rank highty. It is never 
common in this country, and should be encouraged and 
protected in every possible way. 

6 




/<• t<ftr 


L'hti )i w th 



Notes for the Month 


Sugar-beet Seed 

The lollowing nolo has been rommunicated by the National 
Institute of Agricultural Botany: -- 

The Institute has conducted field trials with sugar-beet 
strains over a jx riod of tt years in the most important beet- 
growing districts of England. The results show that certain 
strains are superior to others on the basis of sugar yields, and 
also clearly indicate that some arc* more suitable than others 
for special circumstances, such as early sowing or for grow- 
ing on very rich soils. It should, howe\er, be pointed out 
that although the Institute’s trial centres are in typical beet- 
growing areas it is obvious that they cannot represent all 
classes of soils within each area, b'or this reason, although 
tin* results have been lound ol very wide application, it is 
advisable for growers to ask advice of the Factoiy Agri- 
culturist*^ whenever special conditions have to be met. Every 
grower -.hcmld, fher'etore, give caroful attention to the choice 
of ',train->, and in taking advantage of the wide choice ol 
seed oifered by lactones, should be influenced by the 
rcTommeridations of the N.I.A.B. and the Factory .Agri- 
cultural Deiraitments. 

riie lollowing strains have given high sugar yields 
in .iddition to satisfactory field behaviour and can be 
rc'commended for gc'tieral cultivation: Kleinwanzleben E, 
Sharpe’s I'higlish-grown Kleinwanzleben E, Kleinwanzleben 
N, Alaisters British Hilk'shog, Johnson’s Perfection, Kuhn P, 
Dipfu* E, Dippe W I., StiulH' K, and Hoerning H.S.; 
Dobrovice N, and Zapotil N have also, in cer tain areas, provc'd 
their rnei'its as reliable strains. 

Non-bolting strains have a sjKcial value for early sowing. 
Marsters British Hilkshog has proved almost completely 
resistant to bolting, and Kuhn P is almost as good. 
Johnson’s Pi'rfection, Kleinwanzleben E, Sharpe’s Klcin- 
wanzleben E, Kleinwanzlebt'ii N, and Sharpe’s Kleinwanzleben 
N, have also b<*en fairly free from bolters even when sown 
early. For districts when' conditions are usually \’eiy 
favourable to bolting, the Institute recommends Marsters or 
Kuhn P for tin* earliest sowings. 

k'or earlj' lifting, any of the strains mentioned in the 
preceding paragrapli will do well when sown early. The best 
“ E ” strains give good sugar yields e ven when lifted early, 
but they are more suitable lor late lifting since their great 

7 



Notes for the Month 


vigour and continued late growth lead to a still higher sugar 
yield when lifting is deferred until, say, the middle of 
November. 

Large topped strains are apt to be troublesome on very rich 
soils. In recent trials in the Fens, Marsters, which has the 
smallest tops, and Klcinwanzlcben E, although a large topped 
variety, gave the best results, followed by Kleinwanzleben 
Z, Kleinwanzh'ben N, Johnson’s Perfection, and Kuhn P. 
The last two have larger tops than Marsters but smaller ont's 
than the Kleinwanzleben strains. 

All the above* strains arc ultimat(*ly of Continental origin 
and much of the seed used here is grown abroad. Trials have, 
however, shown that English seed produced from stocks ol 
the above-mentioned C'ontinental .strains gives just as good 
results as foreign-grown seed, i)rovided it is properly grown 
and harvested under good conditieuis. 

Last year, preliminary observation ])lots were grown of 
two strains of .seed of Russian origin. These proved to bolt 
badly. It is understood that other Russian strains will bi* 
introduced in the coming year in the hope that th(*y may 
prove to be less j)rone to this defect. For growers who buy 
Russian seed it is suggested that it be used for the later 
sowings. 

Fuller particulars of the leading strains are given in a k allet 
that may be obtained free of charge from Factoiy Agri- 
culturists, County Agricultural Organizers, or direct from the 
Institute, Huntingdon Road, Cambridge. 

The Official Seed Testing Station in 1935-36 

The Report* for the year 1934-35 shows that, during the 
twelve months ended July 31, 1936, the Official Seed Testing 
Station tested 29,870 samples from outside sources. This is 
the highest number ever tested during the twelve-month 
period, and compares with the 1934-35 total of 28,327, itself 
a record figure. In addition, 2,035 samples were dealt with 
in the course of various investigations. 

Seed-borne Diseases. Celery seed samples were again 
submitted to the Station for examination for the presence of 
seed-borne diseases, and of the forty samples examined, only 
three were found to be free from infection with Septoria apii 

* The seventeenth Report of the National Institute of Agricultural 
Botany, Cambridge, 1935-36. 

8 



Notes for the Month 


(celery leaf-spot). Twenty-four contained up to lo pt',r cent, 
and six contained nion; than 6o }X‘r cent, of infected seed. 
Over half the samples were free from infection with Phoma 
apiicola (Phoma root-rot) and in only one instance did the 
degree of infection reach lo per cent. Fifteen samples 
contained from i per cent, to 9 per cent, of infected seed. 

Several samples of wheat were received, to be examined 
for adhering spores of Bunt (Tilletia caries). Helmintho- 
sporium avenue develo|)ed upon a number of oat samples 
during the course of the routine germination test, and special 
examination, upon request, was made for the presence of this 
organism in a few samples. Ascochyla pisi was recorded on 
a relatively large number of pea samples, and samples were 
submitted for examination for “ Marsh Spot.” Specimens 
of bunt balls, ergots, and ('arcockles wen* received for 
identification, with requests for information concerning the 
organisms responsible. 

Organic me rcury compounds in the form of seed dressings 
have become widely used for the control of certain seed-borne 
diseases of ctut'als, and are in certain instances likely to be 
of protective value when api>lied to other seeds. From 
inquiries received from time to time, it is evident that little 
is known with regard to their relative toxicity to seeds other 
than those of cereals, sugar-beet, mangolds, and peas, and 
work has now been commenced to investigate the toxicity of 
such compounds to the smaller seeds. 

Work has already been done to determine the effect upon 
the ” keeping quality ” of cereals, after having been dressed 
with organic mercurj’ compounds, and this work is now being 
further extended. 

Moisture Content of Seeds. The services of the Station 
in detennining the percentage moisture content of seed samples 
were taken advantage of to a greater extent than in any 
previous season, a total of 231 samples being submitted for 
this purpose. The majority of these samples were of sugar- 
beet .seed, some eighty samples coming from beet sugar 
iactories. The moisture content of seed plays a part in fixing 
the price of certain seeds, and is of importance in connexion 
with field trials. It is, however, perhaps not fully appreciated 
how great a part the moisture content plays in the complex 
question of loss of vitality of seeds. Too high a moisture 
content of stored seed, apart from the obvious risks, invariably 
leads to rapid loss of vitality, and in this connexion the 

9 



Notes for the Month 


Station has in course of preparation data showing the average 
moisture content of air-dry seed of most of the species listed 
in the Seeds Regulations. 

Wild White Clover Certification Scheme. During 
the season under review, the number of “ head ” samples 
collected from pastures inspected under the scheme and 
received at the Station reached 15. A further 24 were received 
during August of this 3^ear, bringing the total of plots sown 
down from “ head ” samples since 1930, to 914. In addition, 
type samples trom j)astures finally certified under the scheme 
have been sent to the Station and plots sown down from them 
for checking purposes, a total of 103 such samples having been 
received since 1931. 

Peas. From time to time the Station is asked to conduct 
greenhouse soil tests upon pea samples in addition to tests 
by the standard laboratorj' method. To Ix' of value, such 
tc'sts .should be conducted in a uniform manner under properly 
controlled conditions and in this connexion many tests have 
been made upon bulks of }^X!as of varying quality, in order to 
compare results by the standard sand method with those trom 
tests made under various “ greenhouse " conditions. The 
effects of a number of factors, such as d(‘pth of planting, nature 
of medium, and degree' of moisture' e)t seed bed, have' bee'n 
investigated. 

Arising from an inquiry coneerning a crop failure', an 
investigation was undertaken to dete'rmine the toxicity to peas 
of those arsenical salts and compounds available to the public. 
It was found that in certain e oncentrations arsenic in some* 
forms is highly toxic to peas. 

Plant specimens in considerable number were rece ived for 
identification during the year. In addition, almost every 
week during the se'ason the Station received seeds for identifi- 
cation, with requests in a number of instances for notes upon 
the species concerned. 


10 



LIVESTOCK INDUSTRY BILL: 

Livestock Markets and Central Slaughtering 

Two important parts ot the Livestock Industry Bill, 
namely, Part IV dealing with livestock markets, and Part V 
relating to slaughtering, have aroused widespread interest. 
The following extracts from statements made by the Minister 
during the discussion of the Bill in the House of Commons 
and in Standing Committee give a general indication of the 
intention and scope of these parts of the Bill. 

Part IV. Livestock Markets. [Second Heading — 
January 20. ] 1 now wisli to turn to the proposals for dealing 

with livestock markets. Though it is a difficult problem, 
from which (lovernments have at times shrunk in the past, 
some reform is overdue. It has been mentioned by commission 
aftt'r commission and committee after committee that the 
redundancy of markets inflicts damage upon producers. . . 
It is 90 years since the House passed a Markets Act, and in 
those go years immense changes have taken place. . . What 
is the object of a market ? Its object is to attract a sufficient 
number of jxitential buyers, so that there shall exist healthy 
competition between those buyers to secure the produce which 
is offered for sale, and it is obvious that where there are small 
and redundant markets there is no real competition; there is 
not a real market at all and the producer suffers. There are 
other ways in which markets need improvement. Some ot 
them do so little business that they have not been properly 
equipped, though the equipment of a market is often a 
matter of vital importance to the producer and may in the 
(md affect the return for his labours. Many markets are to 
this day shackled by ancient charters. In some cases there 
may be two markets in neighbouring towns, and even in tlie 
same town, taking place at the same time, and distributing 
between them business which is only sufficient for one. 

I am anxious not to overstress this problem of redundancy. 
The question is not one of dealing with the small market, 
necessarily, but with the market which is redundant, that is, 
a market the continued existence of which operates against 
the interests of producers. It is a regional problem ; it depends 

II 



T-ivest()('k Industk’V Bile 


on tlu' demands ol llic area wlu-lher a market is redundant 
or not, and the Bill ])rojx)ses that the commission shall make 
recommendations tor dealing with the country area by area. 
Ample safeguards are provided. ... I am anxious that the 
House should realize that the important part about the 
proposals is not the closing of markets, but an improvement 
in the efficiency and etiui})ment t)f thi' vast majority w'hich 
will remain. We propose that the ('ommission should be given 
power to deal comprehensively with equipment, and also to 
make by-laws six-cifying math'rs which make for efficiency 
and fairness in the markets. 

[Committee — March 4.] Powers of Commission. The 
Commission cannot close any market at all. They have no 
power to close a single market in this country, and they will not 
have any such power when the Bill becomes law. That is the 
first point that I would like hon. Members of the Committee 
thoroughly to grasp. All that the ('ommission can do is to 
survey the problem area by area, and make proposals for the 
better equipment and better regulation of markets within the* 
area. The proposals have no force at all until they are con- 
firmed in a livestock markets ordtT. The authority of thc‘ 
Minister, and, if it is opposed in any w'ay, the authority of 
Parliament, is necessary before a single market can be 
interfered with. That is an important and fundamental fact. 

When the enabling character of this legislation is thoroughly 
grasped, I venture to think that many of the quite legitimate 
apprehensions which are felt in many parts of the Committee 
as to the powers of the Commission will be dissipated. When 
you are framing enabling legislation, w'hcn you are setting 
out to tackle this great and urgent and long delayed problc'm 
of markets by an instrument which can act by way of making 
proposals for a reform, what do you do ? You draft your 
enabling legislation so that the Commission may take into 
consideration such-and-such questions, and you draft that 
part as widely as possible, remembering that by so doing you 
are not conferring wide powers of executive action upon the 
Commission, but are merely enlarging the sphere which they 
can survey in order to make their proposals. It is quite a 
different procedure when you are setting up an executive 
body which by its own authority has power to interfere with the 
normal life of citizens in this country. Then, quite rightly and 
properly. Parliament is jealous of delepting executive rights 
to interfere with people without putting in stringent safeguards. 
12 



Livestock Industry Biel 


The safeguards here arc complete to the last degree. 1 doubt 
whether any draftsmen could have devised words more apt 
to ensure that no legitimate interest can be affected without 
the fullest consultation, the fullest discussion, and the fullest 
resort to Parliamentary opposition up to the very last stage. 
If anyone can suggest improvements in that machineiyc wc 
shall be very glad indeed to consider them, but I would ask 
the Committee to remember that Parliament is the authority 
all the time, that in the matter of these livestock markets 
orders the Commission’s power is to survey and make 
proposals. 

For that reason, the Committee would not be advised by 
me to insert in the Claus(>s of the Bill any provisions which 
would tend to limit or restrict the area which the Commission 
can survey, or to knock out from their consideration certain 
factors which may become vital for a proper execution of their 
duties. Our object in adopting this procedure at this stage 
is to set up an instnunent which will relieve Parliament from 
having to legislatt' again on this subject in specific instances 
for a long time, while at the same time maintaining to the full 
the control of Parliament over the specific proposals made by 
the Commission. I think it would be very unwise, seeing that 
this legislation is to be of a permanent character, to put in 
too many restrictions upon what the Commission’s proposals 
may contain. A projwsal which in this year of grace may 
look a little drastic, may, at some time or other, not appear 
so. Realizing that full control is kept, I would ask the Com- 
mittee not to insist upon restrictive amendments limiting the 
power of the ('ominission to make proposals. Let them make 
their proposals, and let us di-al with the proposals on their 
merits when they come. 

Redundant Markets. 1 have tried to make it clear that it 
is not the size or the turnover of a market which is the dis- 
tinguishing feature of its usefulness to the community. If 
you are in a remote district, as in some parts of Wales, two 
small markets may exist at a very short distance from each 
other as the crow Hies. Men and cattle certainly are not crows 
and have not the power of flight, and the two markets may 
be separated by some mountain range, lake, or some other 
natural barrier, which makes the journey between them a 
very long one. In remote districts of that character, it is 
often necessary for a small market to continue to exist, if the 
opt'rations of agriculture are to be conducted with facility and 

13 



Livestock Inuustky Bill 


ease. The only thing that is aimed at is the market which is 
redundant on its merits, having regard to all the facilities 
existing in the neighbourhood and the circumstances of each 
locality. It is for that reason that the Commission propose 
to proceed area by area, to take in precisely those local factors 
which determine whether or not a market is of service to an 
agricultural community or merely a load on the backs of the 
producers in the district. 

1 hope that my hon. Friends will see that in this Part of the 
Bill th(!re is no object to be attained by limiting in any way 
th(* sphere of action of the Commission, remembering that 
the authority remains where it must remain, with the Minister, 
and with Parliament in the long run. 

v' Part V. Slaughtering of Livestock. [Secono Keapinc; 
— ^January 20.] I pass to the slaughtering provisions ot the Bill. 
In the discussions which have taken place, some people have 
said that centralized slaughtering is the key which would unlock 
the door to the whole problem of the live stock industry. Others 
have held that while centralized slaughtering has worked with 
remarkable proficicaicy in South America, such conditions did 
not obtain in our country, and they were disinclined to believa' 
that there was anything in the idea. The Ooveniment believe 
that there is certainl}'^ enough in the idea to warrant an 
experimental approach to the problem. 

[Committee. March 18.] The ordinary public slaughter- 
house run by a local authority really consists of a common roof 
provided by the authority under which butchers come to 
slaughter their own beasts in separate pens ;is they require 
the facility. This is something different. It will have all tin; 
advantages, from the point of view of public health, of the 
central slaughterhouse conducted by a local authority, b\it 
it will have the added advantage that we shall try to do 
something to meet the economic position of the producer, of 
the butcher, and of the consuna'r by using more modern 
methods, and by bringing to this highly skilled technical 
process the best assistance which modern inventions can 
bestow. Because we are all interested in public health, 
if we add these additional advantages to these three slaughter- 
houses it is no reason why they should be any worse ; it is an 
added virtue in them, and I would commend the experiment 
on that ground to the Committee. Of course, the slaughter- 
house run by the public authority at the present time for 

14 



Livestock Industry Bill 


reasons of public health is necessarily confined to its own civic 
boundaries for the area in which it can prohibit the competi- 
tion of private slaughterhouses. This is not the same thing. 
The area will depend upon the scheme, upon what it is intended 
to produce as a throughput, and can only be judged in the 
light of the circumstances. I would ask the Committee clcarl}' 
to distinguish, as I have previously asked them, between this 
Part of the Bill and the one which preceded it. The other is 
a pennanent regulation of markets in the country; this is 
merely a provision to let us try out these three experiments in 
the slaughtering of animals. 

There has been some talk about what can be dealt with by 
the slaughterhouse and what cannot. This Bill confers upon 
nobody any power to trade' in meat. ... 1 wish to make it clear 
that under the system which we imagine will come into opera- 
tion the butcher wlio brings his beast to the slaughterhouse 
will have control over it; that is to say, he can get his own 
beast back at the end of the process, plus any offals of an 
edible character which he wishes to take away for sale in 
his shop. But it is evident that you cannot treat things like 
blood, scraps, and bile on an individuaUstic basis; they must 
go into a common pool and be sold for the purposes for which 
they are best suited. . . . 

There has been so much criticism of the Bill made by those 
who fear that their interests in the butchering trade will be 
affected. I have dealt with the matter of the power to trade. 
If the body which comes forw'ard with a proposal for a 
slaughterhouse already i>osscsses the jwwer to trade, under 
the common law there is nothing in this Bill as it stands at 
present which takes away that power. If, on the other hand, 
it is not a body v\’hich possesses that power, there is nothing in 
the Bill which confers the power upon it. 

With regard to local autliorities, w'ho will be interested in 
the matter, although we have gh’en them certain powers, they 
have not been given tlie power to trade in meat, even if they 
have one of these schemes. The question whether or not the 
power to trade in meat is a thing which may be included in 
the scheme would arise in this way and at this point of time. 
The Commission would have before it, and the Ministry would 
have to approve, proposals of different characters. If a 
proposal were made in circunustances in which trading in 
meat would be against the public interest, I should imagine 
that that would be a case where the Commissioners and lht‘ 

t5 



Livestock Industry Bill 


Ministry would regard the scheme with a certain amount of 
examination to see that no legitimate interest was involved: 
but it is at that stage and not during the discussion of the Bill 
that the question would arise for solution. . . . 

The initiative for the commercial proposal must come from 
some local body. When the Commission have examined the 
proposal and made up their mind that it is a good one the 
Commission bring the scheme into operation to safeguard 
the proposal and to make it a commercial proposition. It is 
quite obvious that no one would come forward with a pro- 
posal of this character without knowing what powers he was 
going to get out of the scheme, and really it is true to say that 
nothing can happen without the initiative of some local body. 

One hears talk of confiscation of property and so on. I 
would say that there is nothing about that to be found in any 
part of the Bill. The process of slaughtering is a matter with 
which we are very familiar. In Scotland power is given to 
close down a private slaughterhouse in a town once the central 
slaughterhouse is provided, and that without compensation. 
That will not be the case here. One has heard a good deal 
about the effect of this process upon meat. I think that that 
discussion would be more apt from the point of view of a 
discussion of whether central slaughtering was a good thing 
or not. That is not exactly the question before us. The 
question is : Is central slaughtering sufficiently interesting 
from the point of view of the producer to allow experiments 
to be made to ascertain the facts ? That is the point with 
which we arc confronted in this Part of the Bill, and not with 
its effect upon meat. I would say in this connexion that, in 
my view, there is nothing to show that meat treated in this 
highly specialized manner suffers in the least degree. . . . 

Now with regard to the suggestion of transport difficulties, 
I venture to think that it is exaggerated. People have spoken 
as if the Bill is going to upset transport arrangements to a 
revolutionary degree. The municipal central slaughterhouses 
which exist to-day for reasons of public health take no account 
of that difficulty, and no one has suggested that we should 
abandon that method of preserving public health. Modern 
slaughterhouses to-day are never sited with primary regard 
to the convenience of the producer and the transport ease of 
the situation. It would be quite possible for slaughterhouses 
to be so situated in this country that that difficulty would not 
arise. These are matters which will have to be taken into 

i6 



Livestock Industry Bill 


consideration when the scheme is before the Commission. I 
would say also that we should not in any way be put off by 
threats that there will be a great increase in the consumption 
of foreign meat. I am myself convinced that if our own meat 
is given a good chance, with facilities which are available to 
our competitors overseas, it will prove to be of as fine a quality; 
and I would remind Members that the time when there was 
an unrestricted supply of that commodity has gone. 

I do not wish to make a speech justifying central slaughter- 
ing. I would ask the Committee to agree with me in this, 
that at least there is a case for an experiment. I do not think 
there arc many hon. Members of this Committee who really 
object to this. Do they say that nothing should be done about 
this problem at all when it has been reported upon by 
Committee after ('ommittee drawing attention to this matter ? 
Do they say that the slaughtering of animals in this country 
is conducted in such an ('fficient manner that it cannot be 
improved ? 1 am sure no one could say that. Would any- 

one say that the case against central slaughtering is so clear 
that no experiment should be conducted for this purpose ? 
I am sure there is no one who would assert that it will react 
against the interests of owners of livestock. Does anyone say 
that we are going too far by this particular proposal ? If not, 
then I would ask hon. Members of the Committee to devote 
their attention, which I shall greatly appreciate, to helping 
me, in the course of the discussions which follow, to make 
this scheme, which on its present lines is so abundantly 
justified, more workable for the purpose which we are all 
agreed should be followed. 


17 



COUNTY COUNCIL SMALL-HOLDINGS IN DORSET 
AND HAMPSHIRE: 

I. DESCRIPTIVE AND SOCIOLOGICAL 

Edgar Thomas, B.Litt., B.Sc., 

Agricultural Economics Department. Reading University. 

While there may be grounds for genuine differences of 
opinion about the wisdom of extending land-settlement in 
this country, there can be no doubt about the need for taking 
every step possible to improve the financial and economic 
well-being of the smallholders already established on the land. 
Finding out what type of smallholders and what kind of 
small-holdings are proving most successful under existing 
conditions appears to be an essential step in this direction. 
It was for this purpose that the group of investigators 
associated with Lord Astor requested and enabled the Agri- 
cultural Economics Department of Reading University to 
conduct a comprehensive survey of existing county council 
small-holdings in Dorset and Hampshire. The Department 
has to thank Lord Astor and his colleagues for their financial 
assistance, and for permission to publish this summary of the 
findings. It has also to thank the County Land Agents and 
their staffs in the two counties for their invaluable help 
throughout the course of the inquiry. The inquiry itself could 
not have proceeded without the willing co-operation of the 
many smallholders who placed the results of their financial 
experiences at the disposal of the investigators.* 

The Sample Studied. The first step in the inquiry was 
to make a preliminary statistical analysis of the statutoiy 
small-holdings in the two counties according to acreage and 
t5q)e of farming. This analysis covered a total of 853 hold- 
ings — 616 in Hampshire and 237 in Dorset. It revealed a 
striking difference in the type of small-holding that had been 
encouraged in the two counties. In Hampshire there is a 
preponderance of the very small holding devoted to fruit and 
market-garden production. In Dorset, on the other hand, the 


* The field work of the survey was carried out by Messrs. R. P. Askew, 
B.A., H. T. Williams, B.A., and J. Harrison, B.Sc., of tliis Department. 
Mr. Williams was also responsible for the statistical analysis of the 
evidence collected. 

18 



County Council Small-Holdings 


dairy holding of from 25 to 50 acres has been encouraged 
almost to the exclusion of all others. Thus, in Hampshire 
82 per cent, of the holdings are under 10 acres and 84 per 
cent, are concerned with fniit and market-garden production, 
while in Dorset 80 per cent, are over 10 acres and 76 per cent, 
are dairy-holdings. 

Between the middle of July and the end of September, 1935, 
information about their economic and financial results was 
collected from 215 smallholders in the two counties. These 
smallholders were distributed as follows : — 


Dair>' holdings . . 

Hauls. 

2 h 

Dorset 

59 

Tola 

85 

Market gardening and/ or fruit-lioldiiig.s 


5 


Poultry-holdings 

2 1 

— 

21 

Miscellaneous or mixed holding*> 

^4 

4 

28 


1 JO 

fyh 

^ 1.5 


It is obvious that dairying and fruit or market-gardening 
arc the two main tyjies, and that the bulk of the dairying 
holdings are in Dorset, while practically all the market- 
garden and fruit holdings are in Hampshire. 

Length of Tenure, Ages and Social Origins. With the 
exception of iQ, or 8 8 pt'r cent., all the smallholders had 
entered on their present holdings during or since the War. 
The exact position is shown by the following frequency 
distributions of lengths of occupations of present holdings and 
of approximate ages of occupiers. 

Length oj (hcnluUion A pproxiniate 


< »/" Presc ut if old i ugs 


0 

0 

Age-group 

A 0. 

0 

0 

Under 5 years 

47 

2 1-9 

Under 30 . . 

9 

4 - 

5 and under 10 N ears 

53 

25-6 

■ 30 and under 40 

39 

27-4 

10 and under 15 yt'ars 

94 

43 '7 

40 and under 50 

bi 

28-4 

l*re-\var 

19 

8*8 

30 and under Oo 

60 

279 




Oo and over . . 

2b 

12- r 

. , 

-i '3 

looo 


-213 

roo-o 


Of the 215 smallholders 182 wen; country-bred and 33 
were town-bred. It is interesting to note that ii of the town- 
bred persons were on poullty-holdings, a fact that may 
reflect the greater attraction of poultry-keeping to those with 
no previous agricultural experience. All but eight of the 
smallholders were married, and, in view of the great 
importance of the hou.scwifc on the small-holdings, it is 

19 



County Council Small-Holdings 


significant that 175 of the wives (84-5 per cent.) were 
country-bred. 

Not only were the majority of the smallholders country- 
bred, but most of them had always been engaged in 
agricultural or rural callings. The following statement gives 
the occupations of all 215 smallholders previous to taking on 
their small-holdings : — 


67 farmers’ sons. 

2C) smallholders’ sons. 
17 farm -workers. 

17 army or navy. 

9 gamekeepers. 

7 engineers. 

0 carpenters. 

5 i arm-managers. 

5 farming abroad. 

5 gardeners. 


5 dairymen. 

3 builders. 

3 clerical. 

3 t hatchers. 

2 butchers. 

2 labourers. 

2 bakers. 

2 motor-driv'crs. 

2 electricians. 

2 policemen. 

2 shopkec])ers. 

I each, shepherd, nui.seryman, gioom, blacksmith, i)ostman, 
publican, salesman, cheese-factory worker, grocer, 
motor-mechanic, painter, auctioneer, dock-labourer, 
warehouseman, sailmaker, bricklayer, timber-feller, 
tailor, as3dum-attendant, tanner. 


Degree of Dependence on Holding. With all the 85 

dairying smallholders the holding was the chief source of 
employment and of income, but 25 of the smallholders stated 
that they had somt; supplementary employment. Only 49 
(or 60 per cent.) of the horticultural smallholders were 
entirely occupied on their holdings; of the remainder, 18 
worked most of the lime on the holdings and 14 regarded 
their holdings as supplementary to some other main occupa- 
tion. With two exceptions all the 21 poultry smallholders 
were fully occupied on their holdings, although 10 were in 
receipt of pensions or had private sources of income. In the 
group of 28 miscellaneous holdings, three smallholders 
regarded their holdings as of secondary importance, and a 
further 13 had some supplementary occupation or source of 
income. The other occupations of the 85 smallholders not 
entirely dependent on their holdings, were as follows: — 


31 pensions or ])nvatc income. 3 fruit salesmen. 

13 farm-workers. 2 thatching. 

11 haulage 2 shopkeepers. 

4 gardeners and nursery workers. 2 builders’ labourers 

3 keeping visitors. 2 coal merchants. 

2 engineers. 

each, selliug feeding stuffs, wife working out, newsagent, bricklayer 
carpenter, huckster, water-bailiff, asylum attendant fish- 
monger, cattle-dealer. 


20 



('OUNTY ( OUNCIL SmALL-HoLDINGS 

It was found that 57 of the, dairy smallholders were 
members of the National Farmers’ Union, 15 were also 
members of a farmers' co-operative society, two members 
of a milk recording society and one a member of the Producer 
Retailers’ Association. Among the 81 horticultural small- 
holders there were 6 members of a smallholders’ association, 
14 members of a fruit-growers’ association, 2 members of a 
co-operative purchasing society, and i member of a glass- 
house growers’ association. Of the 21 poultry smallholders 
3 had received technical training in poultry keeping, 6 were 
members of the Scientific Poultry Breeders’ Association, i was 
a member of the National Farmers’ Union, and i a member 
of a co-operative purchase* society. 'I'he 28 miscellaneous 
smallholders included 8 members of the National Farmers’ 
Union, and i memlx'r of the Scientific Poultry' Breeders’ 
Association. 

Numbers Employed. All the smallholdings are, of course, 
predominantly family undertakings in the sense that the 
members of the family do the bulk of the manual labour. 
There was considerable variation in the concentration of 
employment on the various tvjx's of holdings, and in order to 
show this, the jxisition in each ty-’pe group will be given in 
turn. 

The total number of persons, family' and hired, employed 
on the 85 dairy-holdings was 250, w-hich is equivalent to 2 0 
persons per holding or 42 j>ersons per 1,000 aen s. On 30 
holdings there was no hired labour at all, while on a further 
21 holdings only' a very' small amount of hired casual labour 
was employed. On 51 holdings (60 per cent, of the total), 
therefore, practically all the labour was family labour. Of 
the other holdings 15 employed one hired man regularly, 
three employed one man and some casual labour, five 
employed one man and one boy, three employed two men, 
two employed three men, and one employed three men and 
one boy. 

For these dairying holdings information is also available 
concerning the size of the family and the numbers of children 
of working age who had remained to work on their parents’ 
holdings and the numbers who had sought work elsewhere. 
On 20 holdings there were no children, on 24 holdings there 
were children of school age only, and on 41 holdings there 
were children of working age. The total number of children 

21 



County Council Small-Holdings 


on these 65 holdings was 149, of whom 96 (52 sons and 44 
daughters) were of working age. Of the sons, 27 had 
remained on their parents’ holdings; 6 while doing other full- 
time work, assisted on the holdings in their spare time; the 
majority of the remaining 19 had taken up non-rural occupa- 
tions away from home. Of the 44 daughters, 17 had remained 
on the holdings, while 27 had either found other employment 
or were married. 

The total labour force on the 81 horticultural holdings was 
185, which equals 23 persons per holding or 260 persons per 
1,000 acres — a very much higher concentration of employ- 
ment than on the dairying-holdings. Nearly 73 per cent, of 
the holdings were practically dependent on the family for the 
supply of labour. On 32 holdings no labour outside the 
family was employed, while on a further 27 holdings a little 
seasonal labour was employed in addition to that performed 
by the family. Of the holdings, employing hired labour, 
eleven employed one man regularly, seven employed two 
hired men, one employed three hired men, one employed four 
hired men, one employed one man and one boy, and one 
holding employed one boy. Unfortunately, it was not possible 
to obtain much information about the size of families on these 
holdings. 

The 21 poultry holdings gave employment to 45 persons 
which equals 21 persons per holding or 30 per 1,000 acres. 
On 14 holdings family labour alone was employed. Of the 
other 7 holdings one employed one hired man, one employed 
one man and one boy, one employed one man and two boys, 
three employed one boy, and one employed thr^ boys. 
On 8 of the holdings there were no children. The total 
number of children on the other 13 holdings was 24, of whom 
5 were of school age and 19 (il sons and 8 daughters) were 
of working age. Of the ii sons, 2 had remained on their 
parents’ holdings, 2 had other full time work, but rendered 
some spare time assistance, i was a poultry-farm manager, 
and 6 were employed in non-rural occupations away from 
home. Of the 8 daughters 6 had remained on the 
holdings. 

The information on employment on the 28 miscellaneous 
holdings is not so complete as that already given. On all the 
holdings the family supplied the bulk of tiie labour, 18 hold- 
ings employing no hired labour, nine employing regular hired 
workers, and one employing casual labour only. 

22 



County Council Small-Holdinos 

General Layout and Equipment. The 85 dairy-holdings 
were isolated holdings in the sense that they were not grouped 
together, although in several instances two or more holdings 
were fairly close together, having been carved out from a 
previously-existing large farm. There was considerable 
variation in the general layout; on 46 holdings the land was 
practically within a ring fence and the fields reasonably 
arranged, but on the other 39 holdings the fields were 
scattered and their lay-out was inconvenient. There was also 
considerable variation in the buildings; on 14 holdings the 
buildings were ample and in very good condition, 38 holdings 
had good and adequate buildings, but on 33 holdings the 
buildings were poor and inadequate for the proper conduct 
of the holdings. The average distance of all holdings from 
a railway station was -i miles and from market 65 miles. The 
means of transport used were as follows: 42 holdings relied 
entirely on horses, ',0 hin'd mot{)r-vehicles when necessary 
and 13 j)Ossessed their own motor-vehicles. Only 5 holdings 
were on the tele]')hone, while 63 holdings had wireless sets. 
Only 9 holdings were equipped with electric-light, 2 used 
gas, and the remaining 74 holdings using oil lamps for 
lighting. 

Th(' horticultural holdings differ in many ways from the 
dairy holdings in their general lay-out and equipment. They 
are much more closely grouped together, being more or less 
in small colonies. Again, the houses do not form an essential 
part of the holdings in the same way as they do on the dairy 
holdings. In most instances the houses could be described as 
tow'n or suburban dwellings, and in only 50 per cent, of the 
holdings was the land attached to the house. The land itself 
was, also, in most instances divided into two or more separate 
plots. These holdings differ further from the dairy-holdings 
in that they need very little by wa3' of out-buildings for their 
conduct. In a way, they have the appearance of large allot- 
ments, with a roughly constructed shed for keeping the 
necessaiy impUments and a few machines. Most of the hold- 
ings had fairly ready access to a roadway. The average 
distance from a railway station was 1-8 miles and from 
market 5 miles. For the transport of produce 24 small- 
holders depended on hiring, 29 had their own horses and 
vehicles, and 28 had their own motor-vehicles. Only 6 
holdings were on the telephone, but the majority possessed 
wireless sets. Proximity to the towns accounts for the fact 

23 



County Councii. Smaix-Hoi.dings 

that 28 of the smallholders’ houses had clcctric-light and 12 
had a gas supply. 

All the 21 poultry-holdings were within a ring-fence, 
although two of the houses were some distance from the 
holdings. No holding was over 8 miles distant from either 
a railway station or a market. For purposes of transport 2 
holdings had their own horses and horse- vehicles, 8 had 
motor-vehicles and ii hired transport when required. Only 

3 holdings were on the telephone, while 15 had wireless .sets. 
Electric-light was installed on 4 holdings, i used gas, the 
remaining 16 holdings using oil lamps for lighting. 

The 28 miscellaneous holdings presented a variety of lay- 
out and equipment. Their average distance from a railway 
station was 3 miles and from market 5 miles. For transport, 

4 holdings used their own liorse- vehicles, 9 had motor- 
vehicles of their own, and 15 hired transport when needed. 
Only 2 were telephone subscribers, but 19 2:)ossessed wireless- 
sets. Electric-light was installed on i holding only, and 2 
used gas. 

{To be continued .) 


24 



BREAKING UP GRASS LAND 

A. W. Oldershaw, B.Sc., 

Agricultural Organizer for East Suffolk. 

The condition of our grass land cannot be regarded with 
any degree of satisfaction. Sir Thomas Middleton places the 
production of ordinary pasture at no more than 90-100 lb. of 
lean meat per acre per annum, and he considers, if both 
quality and quantity are taken into account, that the best 
pastures produce quite three times as much as the average 
and are ten or twelve times as productive as the poorest. He 
considers that the nation does not derive more than 72 lb. 
of meat or 1 gal. of milk per acre per annum Irorn her 
grass lands. 

Much further valuable information on this subject will be 
found in Professor K. G. Slapledon’s book, “ The Land, Now 
and To-morrow.” 

Sir Thomas Middleton })laces the relatiw productivity of 
arabk* and grass land as follows: 

Xuviher of Persons 
supplied u'lth a 


100 acros 

very poor grass coin ertt‘d into meat . . 

sitbsLsfevce diet (or 
one year 

100 

medium 


IOC) , , 

very good ,, 

^ 5-^0 

100 

mangolds (average crop) ,, ,, 

35 

100 

wheat (average) ,, breatl .. 

200 

100 ,, 

potatoes (average) as vegetable 

. . 400 


There is evidence from Saxmundham Experimental Station* 
that weedy grass land, broken up, put through a course of 
tillage and then re-seeded with a modern grass mixture, 
becomes very much more productive of grass, which is also 
of better quality. 

Grass land may be broken up with the object ; 

(1) Of re-seeding it with better mixtures in order to 
increase its productivity as grass; or 

(2) Of increasing the food supply of the country b)' 
increasing the tillage area ; or 

(3) Of increasing the profit to the individual farmer In- 
growing valuable arable or fruit crops; or 


* Oldershaw, a. W. : Thirty Years’ Grass I.ancl Exporiinents at 
Saxmundham, Jour. R.A.S.E., Vol. 95. 


25 



Breakinc; Up Grass Land 


(4) Of tapping the fertility of the soil accumulated 
during a period in grass; or 

(5) Of turning into arable, land which in the opinion of 
the occupier is better suited for that purpose: 

and for various other reasons. 

In view of the interest taken in the subject at the present 
time it seems desirable to examine briefly the question of 
breaking up grass land, in order to see how it may best be 
done in order as far as possible to avoid the many crop 
failures that arc apt to occur. 

Lord Ernie, in his book “ The Land and Its People,” gives 
the following figures regarding land broken up from grass 
during the War. It appears that out of 1,400,000 acres of 
broken pasture, throughout the country, 250,000 acres were 
cropped witli wheat, wliich, including total or partial failures, 
gave an average crop of 31-3 bus. per acre. Oats wen; sown 
on 850,000 acres of broken grass, and gave an average crop 
of 437 bus., some crops being veiy good and some very bad. 
Barley was grown on 75,000 acres, and gave the not ver\’ 
high average of 28-8 bus. Potatoes, on 32,0(X) acres, gave 
the very useful average of 71 tons; beans, on 14,000 acres, 
averaged 27 5 bus. ; and peas, on 15,000 acres, gave 26 0 bus. 
These figures are taken from returns furnished by the Agri- 
cultural Executive Committees and represent average figures 
from the whole country and from very varying conditions. 

The writer has made notes of the methods adopted, and 
the results obtained, in a considerable number of instances in 
which pasture was broken up during, and since the War, 
these observations extending over a period of about eighteen 
years. There seems to be very little doubt that the methods 
likely to be successful depend to a great extent upon the type 
of soil and the local climate. In spite of this, however, it is 
possible to arrive at certain general conclusions, according 
to the type of grass land involved. 

(1) Grass Land consisting largely of Weeds and 
Inferior Herbage. There is in this country a very large 
area of so-called " grass ” that has never been properly 
seeded down, and that, for various reasons, consists largely 
of weeds and inferior herbage. Where these weeds are such 
as are likely to persist in the arable land, as they frequently 
are even when they are thoroughly buried, there can be very 
little doubt that it is best, in most instances, to give the land 
a thorough fallow before cropping. If this is not done, the 
26 



Breaking Up (iRAss Land 


land will have to be fallowed in a year or two, so one might 
as well make a good start, with clean land. The land may 
be broken up by mechanical or horse power, as soon as it is 
fairly dry in spring, and a whole summer fallow given, or 
the first flush of the grass may be utilized, and it may be 
broken in late June or early July, and a late summer fallow 
given. 

(2) Land covered with a Mat of Undecayed Vegetable 
Matter. This is very likely to be poor in lime, and the 
opinion of a soil chemist should be obtained as to this. After 
breaking up, satisfactory’ crops of oats and potatoes may be 
obtained without lime, but many of the other farm crops arc 
likely to fail. As the action of lime is apt to be slow, any 
application necessary would be best given as soon as possible 
after ploughing. 

A convenient way of breaking up land that has a mat of 
vegetable matter on the surface is to use two ploughs, one 
following the other. The first plough goes to a depth of 
only 2 or 3 in., and throw’s the turf to the bottom of the 
furrow. This is follow’ed by a second plough, w’hich 
thoroughly buries the turf. In one instance, a tractor was 
used to draw the second plough, and the wheel of the tractor 
wedged the surface material deeply down, so ensuring the 
thorough consolidation that is so important in breaking up 
grass land. 

Even when there is no surface mat, the method of having 
two ploughs, one following the other, the first one throwing 
the turf to the bottom of the furrow’, has much to commend 
it. It ensures that practically all grass is buried, and in con- 
sequence this does not come up in the follow’ing crop. By 
the time the first crop is removed, the grass has thoroughly 
rotted. 

This method of double-ploughing can only be used where 
there is a good depth of soil, as a rule it is unwise to bring 
any considerable quantity of subsoil to the surface. 

(3) Ordinary Grass Land, practically free from such 
perennial weeds as are likely to come up in arable land, and 
also free from a surface mat, may be ploughed in the ordinary 
way in late autumn or winter. If a skim coulter is used so 
that all the pasture grass is thoroughly buried, there should 
be no trouble the following season from this grass appearing 
in the crop. 


27 



BRR^K1NG Up Grass Land 


The thorough consolidation that is so important may be 
obtained by a furrow press following the plough, or on small 
areas by the wheel of a cart following the plough down each 
furrow, or by repeated rolling with a heavy roller. 

It is probable that failure to obtain sufficient consolidation, 
and the insect attacks commonly associated with it, are 
responsible for more failures after breaking up grass land 
than any other single cause; hence for some crops it is quite 
worth while to spend as much labour on consolidating the 
land as on ploughing it. 

Subsequent Treatment of Ploughed-up Grass Land. 

Where grass land has been down for a long period, there is 
usually a large accumulation of vegetable matter that renders 
the land “ light ” and spongy in texture for a number of 
years. This condition, whilst good for certain crops, such 
as potatoes, is not at all suitable for others, such as cereals, 
hence special care must be taken for a number of years after 
breaking up, to secure sufficient consolidation. 

Condition of Fertility of the Broken-up Land. The 

success or failure of subsequent crops depends very largely 
upon careful consideration being given the question of 
fertility. Good, or even average grass land when broken 
up often contains a very considerable store of fertility, 
especially of nitrogen. Sometimes this may be so great that 
for a number of years all com crops are very apt to be laid 
flat, and, in consequence, to be to a great extent ruined. In 
such circumstances, it would be wise to grow crops such as 
cabbages, kale, mangolds, and sugar-beet, which can 
profitably utilize a large supply f)f nitrogen. Although there 
may be an excess of nitrogen present, there is very likely to 
be too small a store of available phosphates, lime, and potash, 
especially of the two former. 

On good land, the first few crops grown may very likely 
require very little nitrogenous manure or farmyard manure, 
but may be very responsive to mineral manures. Poor grass 
land, on the other hand, may contain very little available 
plant food, especially in the first year after breaking. In 
subsequent years, the vegetable matter tends to decay and 
become available. In the first year, a little readily-availablc 
nitrogen, phosphates and potash may make all the difference 
between a crop and no crop. Readily-available manure also 
28 



Breaking Up Grass Land 

often greatly helps the crop in surviving the attack of soil 
insects. 

Thus poor grass land in a high-lying or late district, 
ploughed up and put in with oats, would be very likely to give 
a greatly increased crop if, before the oats were sown, a 
dressing of, say, i cwt. of sulphate of ammonia, 3 cwt. super- 
phosphate, and 2 cwt. of kainit were applied. The crop 
would also be likely to ripen earlier. This earlier ripening 
of crops suitably manured has been observed in a very strik- 
ing manner in mountainous districts where the harvest is 
often very late. 

Crops after Broken-up Grass Land. Brief consideration 
of a few of the commoner farm crops, with reference to their 
suitability for growing on broken-up grass land, may be 
useful here. 

Oats. As previously mentioned, a large proportion of the 
grass land broken up during the War was planted with oats. 
On medium and light types of soils under most of the climatic 
conditions prevailing in the British Isles, oats are a ver>' 
suitable crop, especially if the land is inclined to be acid. 
In the drier parts of England, they are less likely to succeed 
than in the cooler and moistcr parts. On rather heavy soils, 
in a comparatively dry climate, such as prevails in eastern 
England, they are veiy risky and apt to fail. Where the land 
is inclined to be rich in nitrogen, a stiff-strawed variety 
should be chosen, or the crop may be badly laid. 

When spring oats follow grass, the land has usually been 
ploughed up during the winter. In this ploughing, a skim 
coulter should be used, and great care should be taken to 
bury all the grass, so that it will not come up again. 
Thorough consolidation in spring is desirable. As previously 
mentioned, on poor land, and very often in high-lying 
districts, the chance of the crop being a success will be greatly 
increased if a suitable mixture of chemical fertilizers is given. 

Wheat. As previously noted, during the War a quarter 
of a million acres of grass land were planted with wheat and 
the average yield was a very fair one. Still it must be 
recognized that wheat is rather risky as a first crop after 
grass. 

On land broken up during the summer it is subject 
to attack by wire-worms, the wheat bulb fly, and other pests. 
It is usually a difficult task to get such land solid enough for 

29 



Breaking Up (jRass Land 


wheat in the autumn, but the land press is a great help. 
Where land is ploughed in late autumn, and sown with wheat 
almost at once, the chief point again seems to be to get the 
land solid. This may be done by means of the land press, 
or by repeated rollings. Although land broken up from grass 
may contain an abundance of plant food, this may not be 
easily available. A small dressing, say 3 cwt., of super- 
phosphate per acre, applied before sowing the wheat, will 
almost always help rapid and abundant root-formation, and 
hence help the plant to withstand insect attack. In early 
spring, an opinion may be formed as to whether the wheat 
needs nitrogenous manure. On quite a proportion of land 
growth may be too rank, and the crop in danger of becoming 
laid. If so, it may be desirable to run the sheep rapidly over 
it, in order to eat off the rank growth and consolidate the soil 
around the roots. The crop should not be eaten down closely. 
With crops of this kind, nitrogenous manure would do 
harm. On the other hand, there are almost certain to be 
instances in which the wheat looks starved, yellow and 
poverty-stricken, and in which a small dressing of nitrogenous 
fertilizer may very likely greatly improve the crop. 

The choice of variety is rather important. A good tillering 
kind should be chosen. On poor land, Little Joss is suitable. 
It has a great power of filling up in spring if it has been 
thinned out by insect attack. On good land, Yeoman tillers 
well and stands up reasonably well. On really rich land. 
Holdfast is probably suitable. For medium conditions, 
Wilhelmina is a safe kind to grow, and probably also Juliana. 
Squarehead’s Master is suited for land that is not very rich. 
On good land, this variety is apt to get badly laid. 

Barley. On the whole, barley is probably the least 
suitable of the three commoner cereals to grow after broken-up 
grass. Still, there is no reason why it should not be tried 
(especially on the lighter loams containing plenty of lime) 
where circumstances have prevented the drilling of other 
crops. As is well known, barley can be drilled later in spring 
than other cereals, with a fair prospect of success. 

Rye. There are very few records of instances in which rye 
has been put in after broken-up grass. In times of food 
shortage, rye is of very great value, since it will grow good 
crops of both grain and straw on land that is so light and 
poor in lime that it will not grow the other cereals 
satisfactorily. 

30 



Breaking Up Grass Land 


Sandy heath-like land, if ploughed deeply, and in such a 
way that all the surface vegetation is buried, is very likely 
to give an excellent crop of rye as the first crop, especially if 
it receives a good dressing of nitrogenous manure. Rye, if 
adequately manured, gives quite good yields of grain. Thus, 
at Tunstall Experimental Station, Suffolk, on light sandy 
land, yields up to 48 bus. per acre have been obtained 
regularly over a period of years. 

Grass. A considerable measure of success in Wales and 
Derbyshire has been obtained on jjoor grass land by simply 
ploughing up and burying the old turf, applying lime and 
phosphates where necessary, and re-seeding almost at once 
with a modern grass mixture containing wild white clover. 
Sometimes a few pounds of rapt; p>er acre have been used 
as a cover crop. This is fed off with sheep and the treading 
helps to consolidate the land. The result of this treatment 
has been a vastly improved herbage. The difficulty that 
exists on so many inferior pastures, of a mat of undecayed 
material on the surface, is got over by burying it. The small 
seedling clovers and grasses find the lime and phosphates on 
the surface and can immediately utilize them. In certain 
circumstances, it is probable that it is worth while adopting 
this proceeding even if the new pasture is only left down a 
few years, and then broken up again. 

After a few years of temporary grass, with a sufficient 
supply of lime and phosphates present, the land will be in a 
much better condition to give satisfactory arable crops, when 
finally brought under the plough. Moreover, the original mat 
of undecayed vegetable matter will be largely decayed. 

This plan is likely to be most successful when one breaks up 
a pasture consisting largely of inferior plants that are likely 
to die when thoroughly buried. Certain grass-land weeds 
(e.g., buttercup and fleabane) do not seem to be injured by 
being buried. If they are present, they will reappear in the 
new pasture and be as troublesome as formerly. 

Professor R. G. Stapledon has stated* that by re-seeding 
and manuring, poor upland pastures now produced over five 
times as much edible dry matter as was obtained from pastures 
not so treated. Lowland fields, giving live-weight increases 
of no more than 120-200 lb. per acre, had, after proper 
manuring and rc-seeding, given live-weight increases up to 
and exceeding 700 lb. pt‘r acre. Re-seeding was more 

* Pap<‘r road boforc the Royal S<icioty of Arts, May 13. 1936. 

31 



Breaking Up Grass Land 


important than anything else. Heavy liming and heavy phos- 
phating were the first necessity in many districts. Both gave 
maximum value when pastures were broken and re-seeded. 

Again, Professor Stapledon states* that, “ By ploughing 
up and re-seeding (always with leafy perennial ryegrass and 
wild white clover) accompanied by generous phosphating, 
poor fescue pastures standing at elevations up to 700 ft. can 
be converted into really good rye-grass pastures.” 

On the upland pastures of Derbyshire, Mr. J. R. Bond 
and his colleagues have been working at the problem of 
ploughing up and re-seeding pastures for the past 18 years. 
During the summer of 1936, Mr. Wells, assistant Agricultural 
Organizer for North-West Derbyshire, showed the writer 
certain high-lying pastures on which, by ploughing up and 
re-seeding at once, after an application of lime and phosphates, 
very great improvements in both quality and quantity of the 
herbage had been effected. The improvement was so great 
that the resulting pasture was undoubtedly worth three or 
four times as much per acre as the original. 

Flax {Linseed). The flax plant, either for seed or fibre, 
is apparently a very safe one to grow as a first or second crop 
after breaking up grass land, as it suffers veiy little from 
attack by soil insects. The grass land would usually be 
ploughed (using a skim coulter to bury all grass) in winter, 
and the seed sown not too early in spring, a fine tilth being 
very desirable. When grown for seed, the crop may be cut 
with the binder. When grown for fibre, the crop is pulled 
in the usual way. 

Grass and clover seeds may quite well be sown in flax, 
so that, if desired, the land could be sown down again to 
grass, using linseed as a nurse crop. 

Peas. On most classes of land in a dry climate, field peas 
have been observed to succeed well on broken-up grass. The 
land is ploughed in autumn or winter, all grass being 
thoroughly buried. The variety of peas chosen should be 
a vigorous one with a fair amount of straw. A short-strawed 
variety is apt to encourage the growth of weeds. For 
moderate and poor land. Black-eyed Susan, Norfolk Dun, 
Maple, or Prussian Blue will be found suitable. On good 
land, Harrison's Glory blue peas will be likely to succeed. 
In some instances the more delicate table varieties of peas 
have given quite good results. 

* " The Land, Now and To-morrow,” p. 165. 


32 



Breaking Up Grass Land 


Peas will not succeed unless the land contains sufficient 
lime and is efficiently drained, A small dressing of fertilizer 
— say, 2 to 3 cwt. of superphosphate with ^ cwt. muriate of 
potash per acre — will usually reduce the chance of crop 
failure. 

Beans. On average or somewhat poor heavy land, and 
in a dry climate, few crops have been observed to thrive 
better than field beans, after broken-up grass. Winter beans 
may be put in after a summer fallow, to kill the weeds in the 
grass; or the grass land may be ploughed in September and 
drilled with beans in October, or ploughed in winter and 
drilled with spring beans. A skim coulter should be used to 
bury all the grass thoroughly. 

As a rule, a dressing of phosphates with a little potash will 
greatly help the beans. Farmyard manure will also be 
suitable for use on the poorer classes of land, but on better 
land, it might cause the beans to become too “ rank " and 
to have too large a proportion of straw to corn. If beans are 
grown on really good grass land broken up, they are very 
apt to grow too much straw and very little corn. 

A mixture of 2 bus. spring beans and f bus. maple peas 
has been found successful on rather poor heavy land, the 
mixed crop being cut with the binder. 

Vetches, and Silage Mixtures containing Vetches, are very 
suitable for broken-up grass land on second-class soils, pro- 
vided sufficient lime is present. Probably few crops are less 
likely to fail, even on rather poor land. If tire crop is folded 
with sheep or made into silage or hay, the land can be broken 
up in July and a half-fallow given to it. 

Potatoes. On the lighter types of soil and where the land 
is fairly good, potatoes are an excellent crop to take on 
broken-up grass land. Perhaps the most serious danger is 
that they may be attacked and penetrated by wireworms, in 
this way being rendered less saleable. 

Potatoes may very well follow grass land broken up and 
fallowed the previous summer, and this is a very good 
preparation for them. Alternatively, the land may be double- 
ploughed in winter, the first plough turning in the grass and 
weeds, and the second covering them up. 

Potatoes on broken-up grass require adequate manuring — 
farmyard manure may very well be applied where possible. 
The quantity of artificial manure would depend upon whether 
farmyard manure had been used and upon the " rankness ” 

B 33 



Breaking Up Grass Land 

of the land. On rank land, rich in nitrogen, the amount of 
nitrogenous manure must be strictly limited. On the otiier 
hand, on such land the amount of readily available phosphates 
and potash may be small, and a good dressing of manures 
containing those plant foods may be very desirable. On 
average or rather poor land, all three plant foods will usually 
be required in average proportions. 

Potatoes are likely to succeed even if the land broken up 
is slightly acid and lacking in lime. They usually thrive 
extremely well on newly broken-up grass for some years 
after breaking. They appreciate the sponge-like texture of 
the soil, due to the partially-decayed roots of the grass. Sandy 
“ grass ” land adjoining or resembling a heath, planted with 
potatoes (adequately manured) as a second crop after breaking 
up, has often yielded well. 

Mangolds and Sugar-heel. Both these crops have given 
good results when comparatively rich land has been broken 
up from grass. They are well able to utilize the excess of 
nitrogen present in all but the very richest of land. In pre- 
paring the land, probably the best proceeding is to double- 
plough in late autumn, throwing the turf to the bottom of the 
furrow. In the spring, the land is worked on the surfact; 
(without bringing the grass to the top) and very throughly 
consolidated before drilling. The importance of consolidation 
cannot be over-estimated. 

As a general rule, it will be desirable to apply phosphates 
and potash to the crop, also a dressing of nitrogenous manure 
depending upon the known fertility of the land. On the 
poorer types of land, 2 cwt. of nitrogenous manure might 
be applied at the time of sowing. On really rich land, | to 
I cwt. per acre — to give the small plants a start- -may be all 
that is necessary. The readily-available plant food in the 
manure undoubtedly helps the plants to grow away from 
soil pests. 

There are several records that show that naturally rich 
land, though producing very poor quality grass, most un- 
palatable to stock, produced most excellent crops of sugar- 
beet, both as a first crop after ploughing up, and subsequently. 

Cabbages, Kale, and their allies — members of the Brassica 
family. Probably few crops are better suited for planting on 
redly rich broken-up grass land than are cabbages and their 
allies. These can utilize, perhaps better than any other farm 
crops, the excessive amount of nitrogen present under such 

34 



Breaking Up (^kass Land 

conditions. Moreover, their tough stems enable them to 
resist the attacks of wireworms, leather jackets, and similar 
pests that are so frequently troublesome on broken-up grass 
land. 

These plants, however, are sensitive to soil acidity, and 
will not thrive unless there is a sulficient supply of lime in the 
soil. 

Swedes and Turnips. These have not been very frequently 
grown as a first eroj) on broken-up grass. On land broken 
up in late spring, there is no reason why they should not be 
grown. As a rule, a dressing of superphosphate would help 
the plant very much in the early stages of growth. 

Rape has been found vt;ry suitable as a nnr.se crop where 
the land has been immediately sown down again to grass. 
Rape is undoubtedly a very suitable crop to grow, after grass, 
where sufficient lime is present, especially where the land is 
likel}’ to be too rank for corn. It is also suitable for high 
elevations where the climatic conditions are not suited for 
corn. 

Maize. Although very little intormation on the subject is 
available, it seems probable that small areas of rather rich 
soil, under grass — possibly over-manured, owing to pro.ximity 
to the homestead — might be ver\' suitable for cropping with 
maize in the southern parts of England where the crop 
succeeds. Double ploughing would probably be desirable. 

Mustard. Black mustard, grown for seed, may be a very 
suitable crop for growing on the richer types of grass land, 
when broken up. White mustard, either for seed, for sheep 
folding, or for green manuring, may be quite suitable for 
most land except the very' lightest. 

Lupins. For sandy heathland, poor in lime, broken-up late 
in spring, lupins are a very suitable crop. Blue lupins may 
be saved for seed, or folded with sheep (with certain precau- 
tions, owing to the poisonous nature of the crop), or ploughed 
in as green manure. On land of this type, they are an 
excellent preparation for rye. 

Black Currants require a considerable amount of nitrogen 
in the soil. They have been found to succeed very wt'll on 
broken-up grass land of good average qualiW. 



EIGHTEENTH-CENTUBY CROP HUSBANDRY IN 
EAST ANGLIA (NORFOLK, SUFFOLK, AND ESSEX) 


G. E. Fussell, 

Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries 

The famous Norfolk four-course rotation is the outstanding 
achievement of the eighteenth century arable farming. This 
course of turnips, barley, clover, and wheat^* became the 
standard of good husbandry in Norfolk and East Anglia 
generally, although there were many variations from it 
in all the cultivated parts of the district. It is doubtful, 
however, if the invention of this rotation can be attributed to 
the eighteenth century. It was certainly worked out in the 
seventeenth, and its first introduction followed the close of 
the Civil War.*^ This four-course system is, indeed, still the 
basis of arable farming throughout most parts of the country. •' 
There is no doubt that its extension to a very widely distributed 
area of the country was in a large measure due to the 
propagandists of the eighteenth century. 

Turnips were cultivated as cattle food in Suffolk before they 
were in Norfolk.^ In Suffolk also in the early part of the 
century the less fertile arable was manured with chalk, 
rubbish, clay, and a then lately discovered “ Cragg ” or 
shell marl, and in 1735 it was said to be due to this that many 
hundreds of acres had been made to yield larger crops.® 
ITiis improvement took place in the first thirty years of the 
eighteenth century, because the county was not favourably 
regarded by a traveller in 1707, except for grazing, while hc‘ 
reports that much of Norfolk was fruitful in wheat and sheep, 
the latter being folded on the arable.® Carrots, afterwards 
so much written about by Young and others, were also 
cultivated for feeding cattle in these two counties, as early 
as 1739.^ 

These counties arc freely commented upon by William 
Ellis, particularly with regard to the crops grown on the light 
soils. The main crop, he says in one place, is barley for 
malt or feeding poultry or hogs, and turnips are grown in the 
common fields, while white oats may be sown on the light 
lands of both these counties and in Kent during April, if the 
land has been well dunged. Marling was also done on the 
gravels and sands of newly-broken grass. He had seen 

* For these references see p. 40. 

36 




I Ih'sc |>u tines oI the Nortnlk .iiid SuttulK plnuj^lis weie puMisheii in W illi.nn I’e.iRe 
(ininul \ I, n <>l Hit li^ihnllnn e/ i yn } to unouia.^e tin lu'ikshin' 

htniuR to usi. tli(-^e jiloii!L;iis m ot tlu miu h iK.uiei .in»l l('s^ ellu h nt }>lt)Ui;h 

lonimon in tli.it o)uiU\ 

lojmi 3 <) 



18th-Century Crop Husbandry in East Anglia 


French wheat (buckwheat) ploughed in for green manure in 
Norfolk and thetches, after the head was eaten off, were 
also ploughed in, but rye is said to be the saviour of the 
Norfolk and Suffolk farmers on their sandy soils. Adapta- 
tions of the four-course system to suit varieties of soil are 
mentioned. There is, moreover, no doubt in his mind that 
more turnips are grown in these counties than elsewhere, and 
that hoeing is very important.'' A method of holding the 
sand down after sowing hay seed, which sounds curious, was 
to lay furze bushes on the land and enclose it by a white thorn 
hedge. After a sward was obtained the land was ploughed 
for turnips and carrots.® From this date onwards we hear 
more and more about the use of carrots as fodder; they were 
thought by Young to be a good fallow for barley, while 
parsnips and parsley are also reckoned good forage.^® 

It is interesting to note that in 1759 the Norfolk farmers 
were producing so much grain in excess of their own require- 
ments that they jietitioned to be allowed to export the surplus 
on the grounds that their farms were mostly arable.” 
Young’s Tours afford us a great deal of detailed information 
about the cultivation of the districts through which he 
travelled, but the detail is so complete that it is not possible 
to cite it in extensn here, nor indeed is that necessary. By 
the very constitution of his mind he was more inclined to 
supply information regarding experiments and innovation 
and only to condemn those who carried on in the way of their 
fathers; we must, therefore, assess his remarks carefully and 
be warned against taking the comparatively isolated marvels 
he relates as being indicative of a general state of agriculture. 
Even Lord Ernie admits that, in spite of the astonishing rate 
of progress made by farming in the eighteenth century, 
population before 1760 grew so slowly that the soil, without 
any very' great increase in farming skill, or in cultivated area, 
produced a surplus, and, again, that it would probably be 
tnie to sa}^ that the country as a whole had made no general 
advance on the agriculture of the thirteenth century, a 
somewhat strong statement.’® 

Much emphasis has deservedly been laid upon the work 
done by Coke in this district, and this work was the more 
creditable because he did not, as is so often stated, settle down 
in the midst of a waste, but in a highly cultivated county, 
where it was difficult to introduce new crops because the 
husbandry was famous.’® Young, moreover, holds the 

37 



iSth-Century Crop Husbandry in East Anglia 


opinion that Townshend introduced the turnip to Norfolk 
( ? from Suffolk) , but tliat the idea that he was the first who 
marled there is probably erroneous. Marling was, of course, 
one of the measures adopted in reclaiming the light lands, and 
was often done very heavily, one farmer in Suffolk putting 
on as much as eighty loads an acre, each load containing 
about thirty-six or forty bushels.*® Oil cake was also impiorted 
from Holland, broken up and used for manure, as well as for 
feeding purposes, but it is doubtful if this practice was really 
widespread.’® Marshall estimates the arable area of Norfolk 
at 600,000 acres, divided into 100,000 acres of wheat, 
200,000 acres of barley, 100,000 acres of clover, and from 
50/100,000 acres of clover seeded annually,’^ and Kent 
reports two-thirds of the county under arable cultivation in 
1704.'^ Young, who reports on Suffolk, is naturally more 
definite about the area of waste than anything else, and 
estimates it as 100,000 acres.’” 

As Young says, in making a comparison between the farm- 
ing of these two counties and Kent, the soil of Suffolk was 
good and the farming was more elaborate and productive, 
but in Norfolk it was more a work of art. One of the 
necessities of fanning, which is a work of art, is to possess 
good and efficient implements. Consequently we find constant 
praise of the Norfolk and Suffolk ploughs, the former a w'heel- 
plough and the latter a swing j^lough of light build (see 
illustrations). Even in the early part of the century the 
Suffolk plough was used with a single horse, with good 
results,”" but the more usual practice was to use two horses 
and have one man to drive and guide, thus ensuring economy 
of working. Similar light ploughs were used to advantage in 
some parts of Essex.”’ The Suffolk swing was improved by 
a “ very ingenious " blacksmith named Brand, and it was 
built of iron, some time before Young reported on the 
county.”” With such light implements it was, of course, 
common to plough shallow.”” 

Young states that the drill roller invented in Norfolk was 
gaining ground in Suffolk, but there was some disagreement 
about this implement, because Marshall states that drilling 
was not done in Norfolk, although there was some drilling of 
wheat and peas with a dibbling roller,”* while Young sa}^ 
that Cooke’s drill was generally- used in Norfolk.”® Trench 
ploughing was also practised in these counties, as it also was 
on similar soil in some of the northern counties.** It may be 

38 



18th-Century Crop Husbandry in East Anglia 


that, apart from their geographical position, accessible by 
sea to Holland and to the great mart of London, the security 
of tenure in Norfolk, where leases of 21 years were common, 
and the large number of yeomen in Suffolk, have some bearing 
upon the development of improved agriculture in these 
counties; there was, moreover, the tendency for wheat 
cultivation to betake itself to lighter soils, as well as the fine 
examples of a few improving landlords. 

Essex in the eighteenth century was a county with a great 
proportion of small estates like Norfolk and Suffolk it had 
a large woollen manufacture. While the marshes of the 
Thames Valley and near London were largely employed in 
grazing for the supply of London, there was much arable 
land in the county, and the characteristic improvements were 
hollow draining, and manuring with chalk brought from the 
pits on the Kentish coast.^“ Other manures were a mixture 
of horse dung and lime for barley, which was also used in 
Hertfordshire for the same crop,®® while oil cake w'as used 
not only here, but in the reputably badly cultivated county 
of Cambridge, at the rate of 6,000 per acre.®* In spite of the 
inclosed character of the county, however, Bradley states that 
in his day (1727) the three-field system, i.e., wheat, barley, 
or oats, fallow was prevalent both here and in the neighbour- 
ing county of Hertford, the wheat alone being looked to for 
profit, the summer grain, or etch crop, being disregarded in 
this respect,®* and there was no very great change by 1768, 
although by then some of the large farms were cultivated in 
a manner comparable to Norfolk.®® 

There were, in addition to the ordinary crops of the arable 
land, special crops characteristic of Essex. Amongst these 
may be noticed teasels, grown for use in the cloth manufacture, 
hops and saffron,®* after the last of which most contemporary 
topographers copying Camden (1610), state that barley could 
be grown for eighteen years without manure. Lucerne was 
also a crop that was early tried in this county as in Cambridge 
and a few other districts.®® In Essex potatoes flourished at 
the end of the century, near Ilford, probably to a greater 
extent than in any southern county,®® and when Young made 
his report the drill husbandry had become occasional.®'* 
Various different wheats were cultivated in the eighteenth 
century, but the writers tell us little of the distribution of the 
different sorts. In Essex it appears that “ Eggshell ” was 
grown on the lighter soil, and a double-eared or the Red 

39 



18th-Century Crop Husbandry in East Anglia 

Kentish or Poland wheat on the heavier, the latter also being 
used in Hertford. The statements made arc not, however, 
uniform.*® In Essex they dunged for oats, in order to make 
the land fit for wheat after, but in Hertford this was not done.®® 
Buckwheat was also sometimes ploughed in for green manure 
as it was in Norfolk and Suffolk; apparently this was also 
done in Surrey and some other counties.^" Apart from the 
ploughs that were similar to those of Norfolk and Suffolk, 
there were heavy draining ploughs and a type of mole plough 
in use by the end of the century, and some threshing machines 
had been established. The waggons were still as massive as 
they were in 1750, and when they called forth maledictions 
from Young in 1770, although one enterprising farmer had 
imported light carts from Edinburgh. By 1761 some attempt 
had been made to modify the mouldboard of the plough, for 
Mordant tells us it “ is commonly made with an iron shield 
board bulging which turns the turf or earth better than any 
other sort of plough.” 

^ Charles Varlo : New System of Husbandry, 1770, p. 123 II. 

H. Home : The Gentleman Farmer, 1776, p. 132. 

T. Stone : An Essay on Agriculture , 1785. P- 25 ff. 

^ G. C. Broderick: English Land and English Landlords, t88i, pp. ^6 
and 47. 

See also Museum Rusticum, TV {1764), p. 40 ff. 

® J. G. Stewart : Pasture Making in the South East, Jn\ir. B.A.S.R., X(' 
(1929), p. 81. 

* Defoe : Tour, 1724, I, p. 87. 

Gentleman of the Inner Temple : A Description of the Diocese of 
Norwich, 1735, p. 9. 

E. Bowen: A Complete System of Geography, 1747. 

® John Kirby : The Suffolk Traveller (who surveyed the county, 17^2- 34), 

p. I. 

See also Gentleman of the Inner Temple : op, cit. 

Museum Rusticum, ijGC), II, p. 132. 

* James Beeverell : Les Delices de la Grande Bretagne, 1 707, T, pp. 86, 98. 
’ Samuel Trowell : New Treatise of Husbandry, p. 21. 

Sec also Robert Billing of Weasenham, Norfolk: An Account of the 
Culture of Carrots, 1765. 

John Mills : A Treatise on Cattle, 1776, p. 304 ff. 

® The Modern Husbandman, 1750, I, p. 25 ; IT, pp. 9, 29 ; TIT, p]). (>6, 
67 ; V, p. 93 ; Sept., pp. 33, 63 ; IV, pp. 30-31. 

* T. Hale : Compleat Body of Husbandry, 1756, p. 98. 

John Mills : A New System of Practical Husbandry, 1767, III, pp. 165, 
173, 18 1. (This book is, however, largely copied.) 

Young : The Farmer* s Letters to the People of England, 1767, p. 119 ff. 

T. Camborne : An Enquiry into the Prices of Wheat, Malt . . . , 
1768, p. 94. 

English Farming, Past and Present, 1927, pp. 148, 195, 

Annals of Agriculture, II (1784), pp. 353, 364. 
iUd., V (1786), p. 121. 

40 



18th-Century Crop Husbandry in East Anglia 


“ aLVSiw sLys concernws Present State of (lie British 

Empire, 1772, p. 118. ^ o .r 

(A. Young) : Considerations on Agrtcitliure , 1780, !>. 

T. Stone : An Essay on Agriculture, 5 > P- ^ 

Marshall : Rural Economy of Norfolk, 1787, 1, p. 2. 

Matthew Peters : Winter Riches, 1771, p. 97- 
Marshall : ibid., 1, pp. 
ibid., I, p. 197- 
County Report, p. 5. 

County Report, p. i9* 

2® Gentleman of the Inner Temple : op. cit., p 3- 

21 Matthew Peters : Rational Farmer, 2nd edition, 1771, p 93- 
Nathaniel Kent : Hints to Gentlemen of Landed Property, 1775, p. 92. 

A Clergyman: Useful and Practical Observations on Agncidtnre, 1783, 

O, ^2. 

Mt^shall : Rural Economy of Norfolk, 1787. I, p. 139. 

22 A. Young: Suffolk, 1797. P- . r rr v 7 

22 Cuthbert Clarke : 'Frue Theory and Practice of Husbandry, 1777, p. 50. 

2* Young : ibid. 

Marshall: ibid., p. 1^7. 

Sec also T. Hale : op. at , p. 399- 

Sec ab!()'^TCs!’stoi^e ■ op. cit . p. 142. for a modern (gimoj^ J . IL 
iMarshall : Jethro Tull and the Act.' Husbandry, Pxon. Hist. Re\ , II 

(1929). P- 5‘>- . „ 

2® Chas. Varlo : op. at,, p. ^7 

On)hFsfze Hunter's Geographical F.s,says, IV (1803), p. 570. 

H. of Agricultural Economics, 

H Hecline of Landowning Farmers in England, 1904, p. 37. 

Sec also Chas. Vancouver : County Report, 1795. P- *'>7- 
A. Young : ibid.. 1807, pp. 5». 

2* Ernie : 4th edition, p. 192- 

Sec also Defoe : Tour. 1724. C P- ”• 

Celia Fiennes ; Dinrv (1888), p. 116. 
lohn Mortimer : Whole Art of Husbandly. 1 707. P- 
Fdward Lisle : Observations in Husbandry, and edition, 1757, p. <>4 ff- 
R. Bradley ; Complete Body of Husbandry, 1727, p. 57 «. 

T. Hale : op. cit., p. 62. 

\V. Ellis: Modern Husbandry, 1750, .Ma>, p. «,• 

A. Young: Political Essays, 1772, p. 128. 

Nathaniel Kent : op. cii., p. 78- 
»" Stephen Switzer : Inconographui Rustica, T;1», p. i/i. 

»> R. Bradley : op. cit., p. 89. 

” S^‘ A^ GentknS: A New and Complete History of Esse r. 1770, I, 

’• A.^oung : Six Weeks Tour, 1768, pp. 59 ~ 70 . 200 ft. 

Eastern Tour, 1771. PP- 202-224. 

See also Griggs : County Report, 1794. PP- 

1807, I, p. 201. 

6th edition, March, p. 51- 


10, 16, and Young : ibid.. 


41 



18th-Century Crop Husbandry in East Anglia 

Griggs : County Repovt, 179^, p. 14. 

Young : ibid,, 1807, T, pp. 382, 300, and Political E$$avs, 1772, p. 148. 
ihid,, JT, p. 73. 

John Laurcncf^ : A New System of Aericultufe, ]726. p. 92. 

John Mills : op. cit., p. 71 if. 

W. Ellis : Modern Husbandry , 1750, Feb., p. 80 fl. 

John Mordant : The Complete Steward, 1761, p. 25. 
ibid., pp. 275, 276. 

Kahilis Account of his Visit to England, 1748, Tr. losepli Lucas, 1892, 

p. T 2 . 

A. Young : T's^ex, 1807, \, j^p. 128, 154, u>i. 


42 



CUTWORMS AS SUGAR-BEET PESTS, AND THEIR 

CONTROL 

F. R. Petherbridge, M.A., 
and 

J. H. Stapley, B.Sc., A.R.C.S., 

School of Agriculture, Cambridge. 

Cutworms* or Surface Caterpillars are the caterpillars of 
several different species of Noctuid moths. They often cause 
serious injury to a number of crops, e.g., sugar-beet, 
mangolds, turnips, swedes, potatoes, carrots, and Brassicas. 

The caterpillars of the Turnip Moth [Euxoa segetum, 
Schiff.) and the Heart-and-Dart Moth (E. exclamationis, L.) 
are in this country the species that commonly cause damage 
to sugar-beet. Occasionally, in some districts, the most 
serious damage is caused by the caterpillars of another species, 
the Garden Dart Moth {E. nigricans, L.). The caterpillars 
of these three species are very similar. In colour they are a 
dirty grey, tinged with various shades of brown and sometimes 
green. 

Observations on “ Euxoa segetum.” In several sugar- 
beet fields in 1935 this species was found to comprise prac- 
tically the whole of the cutworm population. Damage and 
newly-hatched larvae were first found on June 20, and as 
daily examinations had previously been made, this date is 
very near that on which the first egg hatched. Within a 
week very small larvae, not exceeding | in. in length, were 
found in several different localities. Subsequently they 
proved to be exceptionally widespread and were often present 
in very large numbers. Examination of lifted beet at various 
factories showed that cutworm injuiy was extremely common 
on beet grown in various types of soil. The caterpillars were 
much more numerous in July when they were young than 
later in the year. In some fields the later stages were 

* These are often wrongly called Leather Jackets by the fanner. A 
Leather Jacket is the grub kage of a Crane Fly or Paddy-longlegs, and, 
unlike the cutworm, has no legs. 


43 



Cutworms as Sugar-Beet Pests 


common everywhere, whereas in others they occurred in 
definite patches. 

The newly-hatched cutworms ate small round holes in the 
beet just below soil level. Larger holes and, later on, large 
cavities were made as the cutworms increased in size. The 
damage caused to larger beet was seldom of a serious nature, 
amounting only to a slight loss in weight. Late sown beet, 
not so far advanced at the time of attack, suffered more than 
beet sown early. Two fields in particular were badly attacked ; 
the worst field had been drilled on May 13, and at the end of 
July the beet were still quite small. Cutworms were eating 
the roots at ground level, and killed many of the plants 
(Fig. 4). Often as many as six cutworms could be found at 
one beet. In September large and small bare patches could 
be seen in the field (Fig. 5) and the crop as a whole was very 
poor. The adjoining field, which probably contained as 
many cutworms, was drilled on April 15 ; here the beet were 
much bigger and although badly attacked were not killed. 

Crops that were badly attacked soon after the first 
appearance of the cutworms, often grew rapidly and suffered 
little loss of plant. Fresh damage could still be found on 
attacked fields at lifting time. Fields of carrots and young 
brassicas were completely ruined by attacks of this cutworm. 

In 1936 no damage to sugar-beet by newly-hatched cutworms 
of E. segetum was found in the field, nor later in the season, 
although moths were abundant in some districts. Large 
numbers of moths were collected at night in a field near 
Ramsey (Hunts.) on June 30 and July 3, when the following 
species were found : — 


Elixoa exclamationis . . 

,, segetum., 
Agrotis pronuha 
Other moths . . 


. . 50 per cent. 

..30 

•• 5 

..15 »» .. 


It is of interest that we had not previously found cutworms 
of these species in sugar-beet fields in this neighbourhood. 
Only slight cutworm damage was found by examining large 
quantities of beet at the factories. 


Observations on " Euxoa nigricans.” Cutworms of this 
species, which has not previously been regarded as a serious 
beet pest, caused severe damage to beet seedlings in the Fens, 
especially in the Ramsey (Hunts) district, in 1936. Similar 

44 



Cutworms as Sugar-Beet Pests 


damage had been recorded from this district in 1930 and 1935, 
and it is probable that the same species was responsible. 

On May 14, 1936, Mr. O. S. Rose, of the Peterborough 
Beet-Sugar Factory, called our attention to the severe damage 
that cutworms were causing to sugar-beet near Ramsey. The 
infestation was then at its height, but the cutworms had 
probably been active for at least ten days. Sugar-beet seedlings 
were eaten off at ground level and by scraping away the soil 
the stumps were easily found. Larger plants were also 
attacked at ground level and cavities eaten into the side of 
the crown, several leaves often being cut through. Leaves 
cut off in this way and lying on the soil near the plants usually 
indicate the presence of cutworms. 

A survey of 63 fields of sugar-beet in the Ramsey, Warboys, 
Chatteris area showed that 32 of these were badly attacked 
and for the most part would require re-drilling in order to 
obtain a satisfactory stand. A large percentage of the attacks 
occurred in fields that had grown potatoes in 1935. This crop 
commonly precedes sugar-beet in this district. Bad attacks 
were also seen where sugar-beet followed carrots or celery. 
Although cutworms were found in every beet field inspected 
in the Ramsey district, very little damage occurred where the 
beet followed corn, but in one field at Willingham, Cambs, 
where beet followed wheat, considerable damage was seen. 
By the middle of June the cutworms had disappeared. In 
the laboratory pupation commenced on June 13. Great 
difficulty was experienced in finding pupae in the field, but 
a few were eventually found. 

About TOO caterpillars were brought back from this district 
and put into pots. From these pots 67 moths emerged from 
July 16 to the end of August. These all proved to be E. 
nigricans. Cutworms damaging young beet in other parts 
of the Eastern Counties proved to be E. nigricans, with one 
exception — two specimens of Euxoa tritici, L., being bred 
from cutworms obtained near Thetford. E. nigricans is said 
to occur most commonly in the Eastern Counties. 

The above observations show that the damage to sugar-beet 
occurs in two distinct periods in the growing season; (i) to 
seedlings and young beet in May and June, by E. nigricans; 
(2) to older beet from the end of July up to lifting time, by 
E. segetum. 

Damage during the early period has been found almost 
exclusively in the Ramsey district of the Fens and here it is 

45 



Cutworms as Sugar-Beet Pests 


caused by caterpillars of the species E. nigricans. We have 
no record of damage caused by these caterpillars later in the 
season. 

Damage during the later period is caused by the caterpillars 
of E. segetum and possibly of E. exclamationis (although the 
writers have never bred E. exclamationis from caterpillars 
collected in sugar-beet fields) hatching from eggs during the 
growing season. We have no evidence of injury to seedlings 
by overwintered caterpillars of these species. 

Control Measures Against Euxoa segetum.” Experi- 
ments were carried out at Snailwell, near Newmarket, to test 
the value of a poisoned bait in the control of E. segetum. 

In this field cutworm damage was first noticed on June 29, 
and the small cutworms were found on June 30. On July 2, 
in addition to a large number of newly-hatched larvae, a few 
eggs were found in the soil, close to the young beet plants. 
On July 4, two plots each ^ acre in area were baited with a 
mixture consisting of Paris Green ^d of a lb. and bran 10 lb. 
The Paris Green and bran were thoroughly mixed and then 
evenly moistened just sufficiently to enable the Paris Green 
to adhere to the particles of bran, but not to cause the mixture 
to become lumpy. On one plot the bait was broadcast by 
hand, rather more than 10 lb. being used on the J acre. On 
the other J-acre plot 10 lb. was more carefully distributed 
along the rows. On examining the plants on July 15 the 
following figures were obtained : — 

Cutworms, 
per 40 plants 

Not baited . . . . . . . . 08 

Bait broadcast . . . . . . . . 24 

Bait carefully applied . . . . 14 

At a later examination (on July 22) the results were as 
follows : — 

Cutworms, 
per 40 plants 

Not baited . . . . . . . . 21 

Bait broadca.st. . . . . . . . 5 

Bait carefully applied . . . . o 

At a still later examination (on September 23) the cutworms 
were full-grown and on the unbaited part of the field there was 
now about one cutworm to every three beet plants and fresh 
damage to the beets was observed. After a careful search 
no cutworms could be found in either of the baited plots, and 
there was no sign of fresh damage. 

46 








.j ( lo])) Injwr\ by tatcrpillars ol IC sc^ctuui 

Pliotcigraph takon July 30 

l ie 5 (llotlumj Bare patches in a held of late-sown beet, 
due to loss of plants by K. segetum injury. 




Cutworms as Sugar-Beet Pests 

From this experiment it would appear that the caterpillars 
of E. segetum arc readily controlled by means of a Paris 
Green bait at the rate of 40 lb. per acre early in July. 

Control Measures Against “ Euxoa nigricans.” Experi- 
ments were carried out near Ramsey to test the effect of 
poison baits on the caterpillars of E. nigricans. These 
cutworms had eaten off nearly all the young beet plants in 
a field of 14 acres before the middle of May. On May 16 the 
grower prepared a Paris Green bait as described above. 
Immediately after the land had been prepared for a second 
drilling and the beet seed drilled, this bait was broadcast. 
Three days after baiting dead cutworms were found and a 
count of dead and living specimens at intervals yielded the 
following results on that part of the field w'hich was baited at 
the rate of 40-50 lb. per acre. 

So, of days Caterpillars. Caterpillars 

after hatting alive dead 

3 33 

11 21 2.} 

18 h 22 

The final result shows that approximately 80 per cent, of 
the caterpillars had been killed. 

On this part of the field the second drilling of beet at the 
rate of 17 lb. per acre produced a satisfactory plant. Owing 
to the limited supply of bait, part of the field received only 
20-25 lb. of bait per acre. On this, the beet were subjected 
to a moderate attack of cutworms and large gaps were made 
in the rows. An adjoining field, in which the cutworms had 
ruined the first sowing, was re-drilled about the same time as 
the above field. This was not baited and here the plant from 
the second drilling was completely ruined by cutwonns. 
Further evidence of the usefulness of the Paris Green and 
Bran bait was provided by another field which was baited 
on May 18 after re-drilling. Here the following counts were 
made on May 27 ; — 

S^o. of days Caterpillars Caterpillar'^ l^ercentage 
after bailing alive dead killed 

g 6 ig 76 

The living cutworms from these baited fields were brought 
back and after ten days in the laboratory (i.e. , about three 
weeks after baiting) 16 out of 35, or about 45 per cent. died. 

47 



Cutworms as Sugar-Beet Pests 


On June 4, when many of the caterpillars were almost 
full-grown, the following bait mixtures were tried on small 
plots: — 



A. Paris Green . . 


I lb. 


JMolassed pulp (dry) 


20 lb. 


B. Sodium Fluoride 


I lb. 


Molassed pulp (dr^^) 


20 lb. 


C. Sodium Fluoride 


2 lb. 


Bran . . 


20 lb. 


Treacle 


1 lb. 

The baits were all wetted before 

use. 


The following results were obtained : — 



No, of days Caierptllays 

Caierpillays 

Percentage 

Bait 

after baiting ahve 

dead 

hilled 

A 

5 5 

21 

8j 

B 

5 

1 1 

48 

C 

5 

9 

82 

Fate of living caterpillars (kqH in laboratory) from the above counts 

A 

1.4 2 

3 

60 

B 

14 4 

8 

66-6 

C 

14 T 

I 

50*0 


From these experiments it appears that Paris Green makes 
a satisfactory bait whether used with bran or molassed pulp, 
but that sodium fluoride needs to be used at a higher con- 
centration than Paris Green to give comparable results. Bran 
is probably a better medium for carrying a poison than 
molassed pulp, owing to its much greater bulk. 

Handpicking. Some of the small-holders saved their beet 
by means of handpicking. This is not difficult as the cutworms 
are present just below the surface of the ground and easily 
found. On large areas this would be rather a slow method, 
but could be used to supplement baiting. 

Conclusions. The trials indicate that the cutworms of E. 
nigricans can be reduced by means of poison baits and 
even when there is a severe infestation the second sowing of 
beet can be saved by timely baiting. No experiments were 
carried out on the first drillings as our attention was not 
called to this trouble until the crop was severely damaged. 
It is probable that the first drillings could be saved by baiting 
early enough. 

It would appear that beet in the fen district between Ramsey, 
Peterborough and Chatteris is particularly subject to attacks 
from this caterpillar. Action should be taken by growers to 
prevent serious damage to the first drillings with its con- 

48 



Cutworms as Sugar-Beet Pests 


sequent loss of crop. In cutworm-infested areas it is important 
that growers should look for the caterpillars in the very early 
stages of growth of the beet, in order that baiting can be 
carried out before serious damage occurs. 

Summary. The above observations show that the cut- 
worms of fte Turnip Moth {E. segetum) feed on sugar-beet 
plants from the end of June until lifting time, and are 
capable of causing severe injury to late-sown crops. No 
damage has been seen from overwintered cutworms of this 
species in April and May. 

The caterpillars of the Garden Dart Moth (£. nigricans ) — 
hitherto unrecorded as a beet pest — caused severe damage to 
young beet seedlings in the fens in 1935 and 1936. This 
damage was caused in May and June. Carrots, celery, and 
brassicas also suffered severely from the ravages of this pest. 
Experiments show that both species of cutworm are readily 
controlled by poison baits. 

The authors are very much indebted for the facilities 
afforded by those growers on whose farms the above experi- 
ments were carried out, and to Dr. I. Thomas and Mr. 0 . S. 
Rose for their interest and help. 


49 



THE BLOWFLY IN AUSTRALIA: SOME METMODS 
OF PREVENTION 

George Berrie 

In Australia, the blowfly pest runs the rabbit closely for 
first place, if indeed it cannot claim precedence, for the rabbit 
can be exterminated — at a price. In spite of careful scientific 
investigation extending over many years, no method of striking 
at the root of the trouble has yet been discovered. There 
are blowfly " experimental farms *’ in several leading sheep 
districts, and considerable data have t)een accumulated as 
to the fly’s habits. An insect known as the “ Chalcid wasp,” 
which preyed on the pupae of the fly, was imported, but it was 
ineffectual. 

The sheepowner is, therefore, compelled to rely mainly on 
certain methods of prevention. Unfortunately, conditions in 
Australia make it impossible to destroy the fly’s breeding- 
ground in the shape of rotting carcasses in the conscientious 
way that obtains in Britain. The size of sheep stations, and 
the large losses of stock that occur during every drought, 
make it a very difficult problem. It may often happen that 
a carcass will be discovered miles from the timber necessary 
to burn it, or that if timber is available it would be madness 
to run the risk of starting a bush-fire. To bury carcasses in 
the brick-hard ground in summer time would be impossible. 
The radius of the fly has been established as being anything 
up to ten miles, so that even in the more closely settled 
districts, carcass destruction would need to be universal and 
compulsory to be effective. 

The writer first remembers seeing instances of fly-blown sheep 
thirty odd years ago. Before 1902 — the concluding year of 
one of the country’s most calamitous droughts — no sheep, no 
matter how dirty or daggy, became maggot-infested, and 
lambs were tailed by the million and let go without being 
dressed. No satisfactory theory as to why the fly suddenly 
decided to attack sheep has yet been propounded. One 
favourite argument is that wholesale rabbit poisoning provided 
the fly with a more extensive breeding ground and at the same 
time took a heavy toll of bird life that might have kept it in 
check. The theory is untenable for two reasons. One is that 

SO 



Blowfly in Australia 


every periodic drought provided more than sufficient in the 
way of breeding ground, and that the fly was just as countless 
long before it selected wool as a depository for its eggs. 
Another is that at the present day there are places in 
Queensland, hundreds of miles from where a rabbit has ever 
been seen, let alone poisoned, and the ravages of the fly are 
as serious there as anywhere. It is much more likely that 
the development of the merino sheep and a certain constitu- 
tional alteration is at the bottom of the trouble. 

Crutching. Of the two main methods of prevention. 
Clutching and jetting, the former is the more popular. There 
are, of course, seasons when the fly will strike anywhere and 
everywhere and nothing short of complete shearing will really 
relieve matters, and then only for a time. Ordinarily, 
however, crutching, if properly done before the fly begins its 
attack, and twice with hoggets and maiden ewes, will carry 
a flock from shearing to shearing with a minimum of trouble. 
Machine shears are, of course, an essential; the closest work 
with blades is of little use. The wool is closely shorn from 
below the udder and the inside of the legs round the thighs to 
just above the butt of the tail. If shearing has taken place in 
the spring — it varies widely according to climatic conditions — 
several months’ immunity may be looked for in ordinary 
seasons. By midsummer the wool has grown sufficiently to 
have become dirt-stained and to provide the fly with a strik- 
ing ground. The experienced manager docs not wait until 
the fly begins to work; he puts his whole flock through the 
shearing shed and insists on the w'ork being thoroughly done. 
The cost is about ys. Od. })er loo, and a competent crutcher 
will do from 300 to 400 in an eight-hour day. As w'ith the 
ordinary shearing, much of the work is done by contractors, 
particularly on larger sheep stations. They bring complete 
teams of men, and the crutched wool, if of sufficient length, is 
sorted and pressed as shorn. On smaller farms, the owner 
often does his own crutching, either with his permanent 
employees or the help of his immediate neighbours. 

If lambing does not take place until some months after 
crutching, the ewes may be done again — as close to lambing 
as may be considered safe. If seasonal conditions are 
favourable they are left severely alone during the lambing 
period, and the necessity for making them fly-proot will be at 
once apparent. In addition, the absence of wool for several 

51 



THE GREY BULB ROT OF TULIPS AND ITS CONTROL 

Walter Buddin, M.A., 

University of Reading. 

Even though they may not be aware of the cause, most 
growers of tulips are probably familiar with the effects of the 
Grey Bulb Rot disease, which takes its toll of the plants 
whether they are grown in outdoor beds or forced in boxes 
under glass. The total failure of badly-attacked bulbs to 
produce shoots leads to gaps in the beds or boxes, whilst in 
milder cases the growths that do appear are either quite 
crippled at an early stage or consist merely of badly torn, 
ragged foliage with no flowers (Fig. i). It is significant that, 
although the greater part of the bulb itself becomes badly 
rotted, its root system is usually well developed and sound. 

If the abortive bulbs or the diseased growths are examined 
carefully, there will already be found on many of them the 
resting bodies, or scleroiia, of a fungus {Sclerotium Tuliparum 
Klebahn), and this is the cause of the disease. These sclerotia 
consist of compacted masses of mycelium or spawn, and are 
white at first, but turn brown later. When dry they are 
almost black. They are rounded or roughly spherical in 
shape, and range from i to J in. in diameter. Fig. i shows 
these sclerotia developing on an attacked tulip bulb. The 
food-absorbing mycelium of the fungus is, of course, within 
the bulb and causing its rapid decay. The sclerotia, built 
up from this food, enable the fungus to persist through adverse 
periods and they also secure its dispersal. They reach and 
accumulate in the soil in which the bulbs are planted, and 
may, of course, be transported with such soil. 

So far as is known at present the fungus does not produce 
spores, and no epidemic spread of the disease by means of 
spores occurs. Indeed, numbers of perfectly good flowers are 
frequently cut for market from the unattacked individuals in 
boxes in which a proportion of the bulbs have failed completely 
owing to Grey Bulb Rot. In this respect, Grey Bulb Rot 
differs markedly from tulip “ Fire ” (due to Botrytis Tulipae 
(Lib.) Lind), a disease that often leads to almost complete 
loss through disfigurement of the flowers consequent on 
rapidly developing infection from air-borne spores in a warm 
humid atmosphere. 

54 



Grey Bulb Rot of Tulips 


Darwin tulips are particularly susceptible to attack by Grey 
Bulb Rot and the disease is not confined to tulips, for it also 
occurs in Irises (particularly Imperator and Wedgwood), 
Scillas, Crocuses, Ixias, Fritillaries, Hyacinths, Colchicums, 
and Narcissi, though usually in less severe form. 

It was shown many years ago that the sclerotia can retain 
their vitality for several years, so that soil containing them 
remains “ infective ” for a long period. After a period of 
rest, and when tulips or certain other susceptible hosts are 
planted in soil containing them, fresh, vigorous spawn or 
mycelium develops from the sclerotia, and this, on reaching 
the bulbs, enters them at or near the nose or attacks any 
young growth that may already be proceeding from them 
just at soil level, I'hus, the disease usually starts early and 
the tulip is so vigorously and rapidly attacked that no new 
bulb can be formed. Rarely, however, attack may start 
later, on a plant much further developed or even nearly ripe, 
and then its effects may be comparatively slight; a new bulb 
may have been produced already, and it may be harvested. 
Some of the mycelium or even one or two small sclerotia may 
be attached to the nose of such a bulb ; and if it is not discarded 
during cleaning and sorting operations, the bulb will cany 
the parasite with it to garden or forcing-box in the following 
season. On planting, attack will start again and the bulb will 
be destroyed. This kind of thing, if it ever occurs, must do 
so with extreme rarity, and, speaking broadly. Grey Bulb 
Rot is not a disease that is transmitted with the bulb. Where 
a substantial attack occurs it can be concluded at once that 
it arose from contaminated soil and was not introduced with 
the bulbs. 

It has been known for at least a decade that total elimination 
of the disease can be achieved by steam sterilization of the 
soil, experimental results having been published by Whetzel 
and Arthur* in the United States. These workers used the 
*' pan ” method, outdoor beds being treated for one hour. 
In Holland, too, this method has been employed by Van 
Slogteren. f Experiments made by the present writer have also 
shown the excellent effect of routine soil " steaming.” Some 
of the results will be found in the figures given in Table i, and 
they are also illustrated in Fig. 2. 

* Whetzel, H. H., and J. M. Arthur : Cornell Agric. Exp. Sta„ Memoir 
No. 89, 1925, 

t Van Slogteren, E. : Floralia, XLVI, 547, 1925, 


55 



Grey Bulb Rot of Tulips 


Disinfection of contaminated soil with various chemicals has 
also been tried by previous experimenters, and the most 
successful results have been obtained with formalin. Whetzel 
and Arthur describe plot trials with various strengths of 
solution, and state that the “ results indicate clearly that the 
bulb rot pathogene may be largely eradicated and a good 
stand obtained by soil disinfection with formalin.” The 
quantity recommended is i to lb. of the commercial liquid 
added to an amount of water sufficient to penetrate the loosely 
dug soil to a depth of 6 to 8 in., per 5 to 6 square feet. 

The writer has had considerable experience with the experi- 
mental forcing of tulips, and has repeatedly obtained almost 
perfect control of another tulip disease. Shanking, J by 
copiously treating the contaminated soil when in a compara- 
tively dry condition, several weeks before planting, with a 
2 per cent, solution of commercial (38 per cent.) formalin, the 
soil being kept covered for a few days after treatment. With 
Grey Bulb Rot, however, similar treatment has proved quite 
ineffective. Results of some of the trials are included in 
Table 1 while the point is also brought out in Fig. 3, right- 
hand box. 

Clearly, the sclerotia of the Grey Bulb Rot fungus are much 
more resistant to the action of formalin than the two fungi 
responsible for Shanking. Quite probably the soil used in the 
boxes illustrated was more heavily contaminated with 
sclerotia than the soil of the outdoor beds treated by Whetzel 
and Arthur, but even these workers claimed only a better 
" stand ” of plants in the treated soil, and that the fungus 
was " largely eradicated ” — not completely eliminated. 

More satisfactory results were obtained by thoroughly 
incorporating a fungicidal powder, not containing mercury 
but in which the effective constituent is believed to be a 
chloronitrobenzol preparation, with contaminated soil at the 
rate of 12 oz. per cubic yard, several weeks before planting. 
A second dose of the powder, at the same rate, was applied 
to the top soil in the boxes when the bulbs were " boxed.” 
The results of the experiment are included in Table i. 

Before describing a simple way of escape from the worst 
effects of this disease, it should be stated emphatically that 
the ideal is undoubtedly a vigorous attack on the causative 

t See Gard. Chron., 87, March, 1930, 171. Experiments at Reading 
have shown that Shanking is caused by Phytophthora cryptogea and by 
P. erythroseptica, both of which are soil-infesting fungi, 

56 







Grey Bulb Rot of Tulips 


agent as soon as it is first noticed, with the object of effecting 
its complete elimination from the garden or nursery. Good 
general sanitation, or plant hygiene, is inseparable from good 
gardening. In outdoor plantings particularly, as soon as a 
plant is seen to be attacked by Grey Bulb Rot, it should be 
carefully dug up, together with any visible fungus growth, 
including sclerotia, that may be present. A reasonable amount 
of the surrounding soil should also be removed, and the whole 
should be burned, or buried deeply. At the same time, or 
even earlier, " misses " should be investigated, and the 
rotting bulbs dealt with similarly. Apart from any soil treat- 
ment an adequate rotation of cropping must be followed on 
any soil in which the disease has occurred, each and every one 
of the susceptible hosts being kept off for a period of four or 
five years, and special attention being given to “ rogues " or 
“ ground keepers.” For forced bulbs, fresh clean soil, clean 
boxes, and uncontaminated ashes must be used. 

While infested soil continues to remain in the garden or 
nursery, serious and unexpected losses arc apt to occur, but 
growers who find soil sterilization impossible, or who cannot 
obtain clean soil, may find it worth while to resort to a 
modified system of planting, devised by the writer, and now 
to be described, that will almost certainly enable them to 
obtain a fair crop of forced tulips, even in contaminated soil. 

It has already been pointed out that tulips attacked by 
Grey Bulb Rot show good root development. It has also 
been noticed during experimental work extending over some 
years, and in the coui'se of examination of numerous out- 
breaks of this disease in commercial nurseries and private 
gardens, that it is chiefly tlie very young shoots pushing 
through the soil that first become badly attacked by the 
fungus. Plants that escape attack during this stage and look 
reasonably healthy a week or so after the boxes have been 
taken indoors, usually produce flowers of good quality, even 
when their immediate neighbours may fail entirely. These 
observations suggested that heavy losses might be avoided 
even in badly-contaminated soil, by planting in such a way 
that one-half to two-thirds of each bulb is exposed above the 
soil level. Experiments carried out along these lines have 
fully justified this supposition. 

Other conditions being ideal, it seems that the very best 
results in forcing tulips are obtained by plunging the boxes 
into a bed of well-washed ashes, as soon as the bulbs have 

.57" 



Grey Bulb Rot of Tulips 


been planted. In this way the soil, bulbs and roots are kept 
cool and moist during the autumn months while the root 
system is developing. In commercial nurseries this method 
is often impracticable, and it is usual for the forcer of large 
numbers of bulbs to cover his planted boxes outdoors. with a 
layer of straw. In the best practice the bulbs for forcing are 
inserted so that their “ noses ” are either only barely visible 
or are just covered with soil. A good depth of soil for the 
roots is, of course, necessary, and with the shallow boxes 
commonly used, equally good results are obtained (even in 
the absence of disease) by shallow planting, provided water- 
ing is well done. It was therefore but a small step forward 
to proceed with the idea of inserting the tuUp bulbs with their 
noses projecting clear above soil level, and covering the boxes 
during the preliminary rooting period with good, long straw. 
The experimental results (obtained in a wet autumn) showed 
that not only could a good crop of flowers be obtained by 
this method, but also that it has considerable advantages 
when the soil employed is badly infested with the sclerotia 
of the fungus responsible for Grey Bulb Rot. 

'J'ABLJi I 


Shomtig the Number of Healthy Plants arising from William Coplaml 
Tulip Bulbs planted in Infected Soil in each Box after the Treatments 
indicated 


Treatment 

Soil A 

Soil B Soil A ~\-B 

Soil untreated 

0 

0 

Duplicate ; soil untreated 

1 

— 

Soil steamed 

25 

25 

Soil treated with formalin 

0 

I 

Soil treated with powder 

Soil untreated ; bulbs shallow-planted, 
covered with lonpf straw during 


21 ' - 

rooting . . 

'll 

24 22 

It will be seen from Table i 

that nearly 90 per cent, of 

the plants were thus enabled to “ 

escape 

” the fungus in each 


of three badly contaminated samples of soil. Comparable 
plants growing in the same infested soil untreated were almost 
a total failure and are shown on the right in Fig. 2. Fig. 3 
shows clearly the difference in development in the same con- 
taminated soil of Copland tulips planted witii projecting noses 
and covered with straw and those planted and “ plunged ” 
in the ordinary manner, even in soil that had been treated 
with formalin. 

Unfortunately, considerable fluctuations of temperature 
were unavoidable in the only glass house available for the 

58 



Grey Bulb Rot of Tulips 


experiments, and thus many of the flowers failed to develop 
normally. However, the numbers of normal healthy plants 
obtained afford an adequate basis for comparison of the 
various treatments. 

Since the above account was written the results of a further 
series of experiments, made during the past forcing season, 
have become available. The soil was obtained from a 
commercial nursery. In the spring of 1936 a crop of Iris 
grew in it and was slightly infected with Grey Bulb Rot. The 
soil was well mixed, placed in boxes and subjected to the 
treatments shown in Table 2, twenty-five William Copland 
tulips being planted in <'ach box and flowering taking place 
early in January, 1937. 

1 AHJ.K 1 

Showing the Nmnher oj Marketable Floa'crs ptoduced from 25 William 
Copland Tulip Bulbs planted in Infected Soil in each Box after the 


Treafwent<; indicated 

Marketable 

1 u atment 

I'loit 'CIS 

Soil untreated 

1 

Soil steamed 

24 

Soil treated with lormalin 

0 

'i'op soil treated with powder 

23 

Soil untreated, bulbs shallow -planted, 

co\'ert‘d 

with long straw during rooting, . 

2 2 


The best growth was in the contaminated soil that had been 
steam sterilized, but the bulbs planted with projecting necks 
“ escaped ” from attack and flowered very well. Soil treat- 
ment with formalin was again unsatisfactory. The non- 
mercurial fungicidal powder, when mixed with the top soil 
only at the time of boxing at the rate of 14 oz. per cubic 
yard of soil, gave a good stand of plants, of which 90 per 
cent, flowered successfully. The results of this second series 
of experiments therefore confirm those of the previous 
season. 


59 



MARKETING NOTES 


Milk Marketing Scheme. Pool prices and rates oi 
producer-retailers’ contributions for February, I 937 » ^.re 
given below, with comparative figures for January, 1937 ' 
and February, 1936. The monthly wholesale liquid milk 
l)rice was is. per gal. in each period. 

Pool Prices Producer-Retailers' 

Contributions 


Region 

Feb. 

Jan, 

Feb, 

Feb, 

Jan. 

Feb. 


X 937 

1037 

1936 

1937 

1937 

1936 


d. 

d. 

d. 

d. 

d. 

d. 

Northern 

14 

14 

i 3 i 

2i 


3 * 

North-Western . . 

14 

M 

Mi 


H 

3 ft 

Eastern . . 

Mi 

Mi 

i 3 i 

2* 

2* 

3 i 

East Midland . . 

Mi 

Mi 

mJ 

21^ 

2* 

3 i 

West Midland . . 

Mi 

Ml 

Mi 

2il 

2li 

3 * 

North Wales ; 

Mi 

Mi 

Mi 

2 il 

2« 

3 ift 

South Wales 

M 

M 

Mi 

2f 

2f 

3 i'if 

Southern . . 

Mi 

Mi 

Mi 

2i 

2* 

2 tt 

Mid-Western 

Ml 

M 

i 3 i 

2«' 

2* 

3 * 

Far- Western 

mI 

Mi 

M 

2ii 

2« 

3 *i 

South-Eastern . . 

Mi 

Mi 

M 

2 A 

2i 

2| 

Unweighted Average . . 

14*07 

M *05 

M *30 

2-57 

2-59 

3*21 


These prices are exclusive of any premiums for special 
services and level deliveries, and also of the Accredited 
Producers’ premium of id. per gal. 

The number of producers who qualified for the accredited 
premium was 19,170 and the sum required for the payment 
of the premium was equivalent to a levy of -352^. per gal. 
on pool sales. 

The inter-regional compensation levy was fixed at i\d. 
per gal., compared with 2d. per gal. in February, 1936. A 
levy of \d. per gal. was made for general expenses. 

Sales on wholesale contracts were as follows : — 



Feb., 1037 
(estimated) 

Feb., 1936 


Gal. 

Gal. 

Liquid 

. 45,024,857 

44.547.968 

Manufacturing 

14,976,520 

20,511,219 


60,001,377 

65,059, T87 

Percentage liquid sales 

•75-04 

68-47 

Percentage manufacturing sales 

24-96 

31 -.53 


The average realization price of manufacturing milk during 
February was 6-26d. per gal., compared with 5-88^. per gal. 
for February, 1936. The quantity of milk manufactured into 
60 



Marketing Notes 


cheese on fanns was 342,674 gal. compared with 351,617 gal. 
in the previous month and 369,803 gal. in February, 1936. 

Increase in Sales of Milk for Liquid Milk Consumption. In 
each month since June, 1936, the consumption of liquid milk 
has been at a higher level than in the corresponding month of 
the previous year. According to the Board’s provisional 
estimates, contract sales of liquid milk have increased over 
the corresponding months in the prevous year as follows : — 


1936 

Per cent. 

•• 1-5 

jcj 3 (>— October 

l*er c 
. . 0-8 

July.. .. 

1*0 

,, November 

. . 2*0 

„ August 

. . 1*7 

,, December 

•• 3*5 

,, September 

. . 1-7 

^ 937 — 

. . 4*4 



,, February 

•• 4*3 


Since there was i day less in February, 1937, than in 
February, 1936, the increase has been calculated on the 
average daily sales for those months. 

Potatoes from Northern Ireland. The North of Ireland 
Potato Marketing Association and the Potato Marketing Board 
have made a covenant regarding the shipment of potatoes from 
Northern Ireland into Great Britain. The Association agree 
to limit shipment to 200,000 tons in a year when United 
Kingdom supplies appear to be in excess of the demand, and 
also agree to conform to certain specified marketing practices. 

Hops Marketing Scheme. Sales of 1936 hops to date are 
slightly below the estimated market demand, and there is 
likely to be a call on the levy fund provided by the brewers. 
Meanwhile, the Hops Marketing Board will make a further 
payment on account to growers. 

Pigs and Bacon Marketing Schemes : Elections of Board 
Members. Elections of district members of the Pigs Market- 
ing Board held on February 27, 1937, resulted in the return 
of the sitting member for Scotland, Mr. J. Blackley, and the 
election of Mr. N. S. Perkins in the place of Mr. M. T. Davies 
for Wales. The retiring members for the West Midland and 
Northern districts, Mr. J. H. Wain and Mr. J. A. Fox, were 
returned unopposed. Captain E. T. Morris has been returned 
unopposed as a special member. 

The annual elections of representative members of the 
Bacon Marketing Board, held in Scotland on February 17, 
and in England on February 24, resulted in the return of all 
the retiring members. 


61 



Marketing Notes 


Milk Acts, 1934 and 1936 : Manufacturing Milk. Advances 
made by the Ministry up to March 15, 1937 in respect of 
manufacturing milk were as follows; — 


Section 
of Act 


Period of 
Manufacture 


Quantity Advances 



1 ' , ' 

j (a) JMilk Marketing Board for England and Wales 

1 In respect of milk : ’ Gallons 

' £ 

1 

1 M cl 11 Iliac til red at April, 1934, 

' lactories 0 t h c r Jan., 1937 

50^,550.(^31 

•i.i55.4(>5 


1 than the Board’s 
i Manufactured by April, 193^1, to 
the Board . . Sept., 1935 

■i.573.(>(>-: 

12,850 

3 

: Made into cheese April, 1934, to 
on farms . . Dec . 193b 

13.'>58,147 

i<>3-07*^ 


* Total tor Kngland and Wales 

548,782,440 

1 

^.3<Ji.393 

6 

(6) Government of Xorthern Ireland . 
In respect ot milk : , 

Manufactun‘d into , April, 1934, to 
cream and butter ' Dec., 193b 

<'5.o79..5<>y 

385,200 


at registered! 
creameries 

Total 

61 3,862,000 

’2,74<’.593 


♦Owing to the Cheese-Milk Prices for August and September, 1936, 
being iij excess of the Standard Price, no subsidy was payable in respect 
of milk produced and manufactured in these monthsS. 

Cheese-Milk Price. For the purpose of payments under 
the Milk Acts, 1934 and 1936 (whether by the Exchequer to 
Milk Marketing Boards or by Boards to the Exchequer) in 
respect of milk used for manufacture, the Cheese-Milk Price 
has been certified by the Minister and the Secretary of State 
for Scotland to be 4 90 pence jier lb. for the month of March, 
1937 - 


Wheat Act, 1932 : Sales of Home-Grown Wheat, Cereal 
Year, 1936-37. Certificates lodged with thd Wheat Com- 
mission by registered growers during the period August i, 
1936, to March 5, 1937, cover sales of 15,488,859 cwt. of 
millable wheat as compared with 24,544,811 cwt. in the 
corresponding period (to March 6) in the last cereal year. 

Advance Payment to Registered Growers on account of 
Deficiency Payments for 1936-37. In accordance with their 
By-law No. 31 the Wheat Commission have decided to make 
62 





Marketing Notes 


a payment in advance to registered growers on account of 
deficiency payments that will become due under the Wheat 
Act for the cereal year ending July 31, 1937. This advance 
will be made in respect of all proper applications received from 
registered growers on valid wheat certificates delivered to the 
Commission on or before Thursday, March 18, 1937. 

The payment that will be made on or about April 17, 1937, 
will be at the rate of 8d. per cwt. equal to 3s. per quarter of 
504 lb. 

Wheat Fund Accounts. The account of the Wheat Fund 
showing the revenue and exiM?nditure attributable to the cereal 
year ended July 31, 1936, together with the Report of the 
Comptroller and Auditor General thereon is now available. 
Copies can be obtained from H.M. Stationery Office or through 
any bookseller— price 2d. net. 

Sugar Industry (Reorganization) Act, 1936 : Production 
of Home-Grown Beet Sugar, during the 1936-37 Campaign. 

According to information furnished to the Ministry by the 
British Sugar Corporation, Limited, the total quantities (cwt.) 
of beet sugar manufactured in Great Britain during February, 
1937, were:— • 

IVhilc . . Raw Total 

56,107 .. 5,897 .. 62,004 

The 1936-37 campaign has now closed and the total 
quantities (cwt.) of sugar produced during the campaign, with 
corresponding figures for the 1935-36 campaign, were; — 

White Raw Total 

Campaign i93<^37 • ■ 5.375.7‘<> 5,37i.t»3 10,7.47.329 

.. 1035-36 • • 4.330,975 5-406,525 0,746,500 

Supplementary Payments to Growers for Poor Crop. 

In pursuance of the provisions of the Sugar Industry 
(Reorganization) Act, 1936, the Minister, after consultation 
with the Sugar Commission, has considered the outcome of 
the 1936 sugar-beet campaign, and has decided that no 
supplementary payments fall to be made to growers in respect 
of the 1936 crop. 

Cattle Fund. The table on p. 64 gives particulars of 
pa5rments made under the Cattle Industry (Emergency 



Marketing Notes 


Provisions) Acts, 1934 to 1936, and shows the numbers of 
animals marked on importation into Great Britain: — 



April 1, 1936, 
to 

Feb. 28, 1937 

April I. 1935, 
to 

Feb. 28, 1936 

♦Sept. I, i 934» 
to 

Feb. 28, 1937 

I’ayinents 

Animals in respect 
of which payments 

0.63^.79-! 

/.3.5 19,323 

;^9,530.I48 

^\'erc made . . . . | 

Average payment per ' 


I,^«3.789 

4,0 JJ, 400 

animal 

Imported animals , 
marked at I’orts ’ 

7 ol \ 

\ 

j 

i- 7 5 

7 5 

(Ch*eat Britain only) 

520,667 1 

j 

42^,587 

1 

1,263.819! 


* Coninieiiccincni ol subsidy payments, 
t As from August 6, 1934. 


Trade Agreement with Canada. The Trade Agreement 
made with Canada at Ottawa in 1932 has been superseded 
by a new Agreement signed on February 23, 1937. The new 
Agreement is terminable at any time on or after August 20, 
1940, subject to six months’ notice having been given by 
either side. The earliest date of termination is thus exactly 
three years after the earliest date of termination of the 1932 
Agreement. The principal agricultural products affected are 
dairy produce, bacon and hams, beef and cattle. 

Canadian produce at present free of duty, will continue to 
enjoy free entry into the United Kingdom, subject to the 
reservation by the United Kingdom Government of the right 
to impose duties on Canadian eggs, poultry, butter and cheese, 
and other milk products, or to subject these products to 
quantitative regulation. This reservation is subject to the 
provisos that existing margins of preference on these products 
will be maintained, and that quantitative regulation, if 
introduced, will apply to imports from all sources. Existing 
margins of preference are also guaranteed on a number of 
Canadian products not covered by this reservation that at 
present enjoy free entry. 

The Canadian Government recognize that the promotion of 
orderly marketing is the United Kingdom Government's 
policy in respect of bacon and hams, and cattle and beef, 
and they agree to assist in the execution of this policy as far 
as possible. In accordance with the United Kingdom Govem- 

64 




Marketing Notes 


ment's declared policy, free entry of imports of these 
products from Canada is guaranteed. The new Agreement 
modifies the undertaking in the earlier Agreement in respect 
of supplies of bacon and hams from Canada by giving the 
United Kingdom Government the right to regulate imports 
from Canada if they expand towards the 2| million cwt. 
maximum at an abnormal rate such as to endanger the 
effective working of the system of supply regulation. Any 
regulation of imports from Canada will only be initiated after 
consultation with the Canadian Government. 

Canada falls in the group of the smaller supplying countries 
concerned in the International Beef Conference arrangements, 
and the United Kingdom Government therefore promises, if 
requested, to represent Canadian interests at the Conference 
and to endeavour to secure for Canada an equitable share 
of the market. The Agreement embodies certain other 
provisions in conformity with the Beef Conference Scheme, 
and, as with bacon and hams, it gives the United Kingdom 
Government the power to regulate imports of beef and cattle 
from Canada if, after consultation with Canada, this appears 
essential for the effective working of a general scheme for 
orderly marketing in this country. 

Trade Arrangement with Irish Free State. On 

Februaiy' 25, IQ37, the Secretary of State for the Dominions 
gave the following reply to a question asked in the House of 
Commons : - - 


Mr, M. MacDonald : In reply to the hon. Member for Colchester 
^Mr. O. Le^vis) on January 19, I stated that it had been agreed to 
continue, for a further period of one year, the trade arrangement with 
the Irish Free State concluded at the beginning of 1936, subject to 
possible modifications of detail. As a result of subsequent discussions 
it has now been agreed to make minor adjustments in the arrangements 
for the regulation of United Kingdom imports of cattle and bacon from 
the Irish Free State during 1937. Further, the United Kingdom 
Government have agreed to remove the present special duty of 20 per 
cent, ad valorem on live horses imported from the Irish Free State. The 
Irish Free State Government, for their part, have agreed to remove 
the existing emergency duties on sugar and subsidiary products 
imported from the United Kingdom. Treasury Order removing the 
United Kingdom special duty on horses will be made at once and come 
into force on Monday. I understand that the Irish Free State Order 
removing the emergency duties on sugar will also take effect on Monday. 

The minor adjustments referred to provide for a limited 
switch from fat to store cattle on the basis of the 1936 alloca- 
tions, and for a 5 per cent, increase in the bacon allocation, 
c 65 



Marketing Notes 


Regulation of Imports of Meat, July to December, 1936. 

The following statement shows imports of meat from Empire 
and foreign countries in the second half of 1936 (the whole 
year as regards mutton and lamb from Empin' countries) 
compared with the agreed maxima and allocations;-- 



Empire Countries 

h'oreign Countries 


Agreed 


Alloea- 



Maxima 

Imports 

tions 

Imports 


oou ( u t. 

000 CV’t 

ooo cv t. 

(KK) cwt. 

riiillc'd and Frozen B(‘cf 
and Vc'«il 

h'rozen Mutton ami 

1 • j 

1 ,S(»o- 3 

1 

|. ^0.) 3* 

Lamb 

Frozen Pork (cxiliidiiig 

5, <>30 -of 

3,030 - of 

3 ' 7 ■ 7 

507-2 

pork for curing) 

280-3 

*31 '> 

iSS 0 

I2<r3 


* FLxchiding tongues f Figures for the whole year. 

t Includes 107,080 cut. chilled beet carried ftirward from 1935, and 
70.400 cvvt. of frozen beef allowed in lieu of frozen beef rcjilaced by chilled 
beef in the first half of 1936. 


Regulation of Imports of Bacon and Hams. In the light 
of a recommendation ot the Market Supply Committee, It 
has been decided that the foreign bacon quota for the second 
quarter shall be fixed provisionally at the rate operative in 
the first three months of the year. The allocations to the 
individual foreign exporting countries for the period April i 
to June 30, are as follows: — 


CoioUiv 

I )('nmark 

Netherlands 

Poland 

Sweden 

Lithuania 

Estonia 

Finland 

Latvia 

U.S.S.R ’ 

Argentina 

U.S.A 

Allowance for imports from foreign countries 
not scheduled to the Bacon (Import Regula- 
tion) Order . , , . . . . . * 


Mlocalious 
Cut (d) 

1-^5.513 

b2,ogO 

.^«.975 

9,90c» 

.=>.-285 

11,230 

9,248 

105.695 


3L904 


'I OTAL 


L353.L50 


(a) Subject to amendment, as regards certain individual countries, in 
respect of overshipment .s or undershipments in previous periods. 

66 





Marketing Notes 


National Mark Dressed Poultry. The aggregate output 
of the authorized packing stations during 1936 was 1,547,561 
birds, of which 337,905 were packed under National Mark 
labels, including 15,764 turkeys and 713 geese that were 
graded and marked under the special National Mark Christmas 
Scheme for Turkeys and Geese. 

The National Mark Scheme for dressed poultry now provides 
for the packing of the various specified classes of poultry under 
two grades, namely. Select and Prime. The number of birds 
j)acked during 1936 under these grades was 228,755, and 
109,150 resi)ectively. 

Inspections of National Mark dressed poultry during the 
\’ear indicate that authorized packers in the scheme are 
complying satisfactorily with the prescribed standards both 
in regard to the quality' of their produce and the method ot 
|)acking. The introduction of the Prime grade has met 
generally with the approval of both the packers and the whole- 
sal(Ts. It is anticipated that the inclusion ot this grade will lead 
to a steady increase in the quantity ot graded poultry available 
on the market. 

National Mark Creamery Butter Scheme. During the 12 
months ended December 31, 1936, the output ot all authorized 
packers of National Mark creaiTKTv butter amounted to 
24,^28 cut. pre-packed in retail packages, and 5,798 cut. 
packed in bulk containers, a total of 30,226 cu t. The corres- 
ponding figures for the first ii months of the scheme 
(January 2S-December 31, 1935) were 12,156 cut. pre-packed 
butter and 2,192 cwt. butter in bulk, totalling 14,348 cwt. 

Union of South Africa : Agricultural Marketing Bill. 

A note in the August, 1936, issue of this Journ.vi. (p. 474), 
outlining the proposals contained in the Union Government’s 
Marketing Bill, concluded with an intimation that the Bill 
was not likely to be proceeded with until time had been 
allowed for fuller consideration of its proposals. Eventually, 
it was decided not to proceed with the 1936 Bill, but to 
introduce a new one. 

The new Bill differs from that of 1936 principally in the 
proposals for central organization ; the provisions as to 
marketing schemes and boards remain substantially un- 
changed. The somewhat cumbrous machinery contemplated 
in the previous Bill for the investigation of marketing schemes 
has been simplified, and in place of the Agricultural Advisory 

67 



Marketing Notes 


Council and the Agricultural Investigation Board previously 
envisaged, it is now proposed to establish a National Market- 
ing Council, consisting of two officers of the Department of 
Agriculture and Forestry, as chairman and deputy chairman, 
and three other members appointed by the Governor- 
General. 

The National Marketing Council is to carry out investiga- 
tions and to advise the Minister on marketing matters 
generally. It is to examine and report on schemes submitted 
and may itself draft schemes or submit amendments to exist- 
ing schemes. It is also to exercise a measure of control over 
schemes in operation. Each board is to render to the Council 
an annual report on its activities, and the Council is to report 
to the Minister at least once in every year as to schemes in 
operation. The Minister may recover from boards certain 
of the expenses of the Council relating to schemes. The 
Council is given power to carry out inspections and to require 
the audit of accounts, and it is to report to the Minister on any 
decision of a board to fix prices or restrict the channels of sale 
or the grade or quantity of the regulated product that a 
producer may sell. Before reporting to the Minister on any 
investigation concerning the fixing of prices, it must consult 
the Board of Trade and Industries. It may recommend to 
the Minister the prohibition or regulation of imports or 
exports. 

Regulatory boards may be assisted out of an agricultural 
marketing fund provided by Parliament, but all advances so 
made must be repaid within five years. Regulatory boards 
may also borrow from the Land and Agricultural Bank against 
suitable security. 

Provision is also made for the establishment of a Producers’ 
Advisory Committee and a Consumers' Advisory Committee, 
to be appointed and convened by the Minister. These 
Conunittees are to act in an advisory and consultative capacity, 
and may make representations to the Minister and the Council 
on matters affecting the interests they serve. 

One of the purposes of the Bill is to provide a statutory 
basis for the voluntary National Mark Scheme, which, as 
stated in the December, 1936, issue of this Journal (p. 887), 
was recently introduced in respect of certain products. The 
Governor-General may prescribe a National Mark for applica- 
tion, under certain conditions, to any product in connexion 
with its sale in any area or at any place. 

68 



APRIL ON THE FARM 

R. W. Wheldon, D.Sc., 

Armstrong College, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

The present month is one of great activity on farms of 
every type. " Nature ” makes a definite step forward and 
the farmer makes haste to keep pace with her. 

As regards live stock, the welcome prospect of relief from 
expensive winter keep is keenly anticipated, and the progress 
of pastures is a matter of close observation. Winter com 
gives definite indications as to the possible crop at harvest, 
while spring corn, potatoes and root crops all receive the 
attention of the arable farmer. 

The weather conditions of the previous winter months have 
a very definite effect on April prospects both as regards 
availability of pasturage and the condition of the land to 
receive the seed of spring-sown crops. 

In most districts little spring work has been possible owing 
to the sodden condition of the soil following frequent heavy 
rain. The rainfall since the beginning of the year in the 
north of England, as in most parts of the country, has been 
much more than the average, with the result that a larger 
amount of work than usual remains to be tackled by the 
arable farmer. 

The present spring promises to be one in which the 
advantages of mechanization in helping work forward will 
be fully appreciated. 

In a late season when work cannot be hurried forward the 
tendency is to plant or sow without obtaining really good 
cultural conditions, or if suitable conditions are to be obtained 
sowing may have to be delayed. Either of these contingencies 
will add to the risk of failure or reduced yield. 

Sheep. On lowland farms lambing is practically finished 
and ewes and lambs are away from the lambing pens on to 
the paistures. Risks associated with the early days of the 
lamb’s life are over and the object now is to promote growth 
and well doing. On the early fanns many lambs will already 
have been sold fat and others will be nearly ready for market, 
but most of the lambs are but a few weeks old and at the stage 
when a check may result in considerable financial loss. 

On many farms succulent foods are running short and can 

fc* 69 



April on tHe Farm 


only be replaced by young grass. Nothing can equal young 
grass for nursing ewes in April, but on short pastures it is 
most important to keep the concentrates going until enough 
grass is available. Lambs to be sold fat at an early age need 
to be encouraged to eat concentrates, but it is important that 
the milk supply of the ewes should be maintained. The lambs 
should as far as possible be fed through the ewes. 

The application of a nitrogenous fertilizer as a top-dressing 
to pasture may do much to speed up growth in a late season 
and prove a profitable investment. Two or three shillings 
less price per head at weaning time may mean a greater loss 
than the expenditure of a few pounds on a top-dressing. 

On hill farms ewe hoggs return from lowland winter 
grazings at the beginning of the month and ewes commence 
lambing from about April 8. The hill farmer is more 
completely dependent on the weather for food than his low- 
land neighbour. On most hill farms no supplementary food 
apart from hay is supplied. Losses are usually higher on 
these farms. Quite frequently a crop of lambs may be 
practically loo per cent, at birth and 70 per cent, or less at 
weaning time. Diseases take a heavy toll of ewes and lambs 
on many hill farms during April. Investigations have shown 
that these losses are due to a number of different diseases, 
several of which are preventable. Lamb dysentery, pulpy 
kidney disease, braxy, and pining are all preventable 
diseases, and flockmasters should endeavour to obtain an 
accurate diagnosis of the trouble. In all instances it is best 
to submit one or two dead lambs to an expert and invite his 
opinion. Diseases carried by the sheep tick are also very 
important, especially in the north of England, and control 
by modem methods of dipping is giving encouraging results 
in trials now being carried out in Northumberland. 

Cattle. Outlying cattle will now respond to improved 
weather conditions, and in the earlier districts will find an 
increasing amount of food from the pastures. 

Many sales of store cattle take place at this time of the 
year, and it is interesting to note the value placed on “ hair ” 
at the different sales. Outwintered cattle usually command 
quite a few shillings a cwt. more than cattle wintered indoors. 
It is right that they should, as cattle wintered indoors 
experience a much greater change when they go out to grass. 
If this change can be made gradually it is an advantage, 

70 



Aprii, on the Farm 


although it is not always practicable. At Cockle Park for a 
number of years blue-grey stirks seven months old were 
wintered in two lots, one of which was out of doors and the 
other indoors under good conditions in light airy yards. At 
the end of March the valuers invariably placed a much 
higher value on the outwintered cattle, usually from 30s. to 
£2 per head, in spite of the fact that they were nearly ^ cwt. 
lighter than those wintered indoors. After both lots had been 
at grass for a period of six weeks, practical farmers could not 
distinguish the two lots. It should be noted that the manage- 
ment of both lots was as good as could be desired. The cattle 
wintered out of doors cost as much for food as those wintered 
indoors. 

Most stockmen recognize the value of the type of feeding 
animals have had before purchase, but there is no doubt that 
in the spring it is as important to know the conditions under 
which the animals have been housed. Animals badly housed 
in dark, ill-ventilated buildings make very slow progress for 
some considerable time after going to grass. 

Dairy cattle in the south will be turned out during the 
greater part of the month, but in the north, April as a rule 
provides little out-door keep, and with roots finished on many 
farms it is often an expensive month for milk production. 
Ventilation needs to be carefully watched when dairy cattle 
are indoors, otherwise cowsheds may be much too warm with 
warmer atmospheric conditions. A thermometer should be 
part of the normal equipment of a cowshed, and it is desirable 
that the temperature should not exceed 52” F. 

During damp weather, pasture may be unduly laxative, 
and with high-yielding cows it is often advisable to restrict 
the grazing and feed a little roughage. When concentrates 
are being fed less protein can be used and a starchy or 
carbohydrate food, e.g., a cereal, provides a better balanced 
diet along with young spring grass. 

Many owners of dairy herds are considering the question of 
the establishment of tubercle-free herds. At this time, when 
cows are changing their winter quarters, a start can con- 
veniently be made. It is wise to consult a veterinary surgeon. 
Good advice if faithfully carried out may avoid many pitfalls 
and disappointments. Farmers who are considering the 
establishment of a tubercle-free herd will be well advised to 
consider at the same time the advantages to be derived from 
a herd which is also free from contagious abortion, 
c** 


71 



April on the Farm 


Meadow Hay. Very often permanent moadow-hay ground 
is required during the month for grazing ewes and lambs. 
On hni farms enclosed meadows are particularly valuable and 
are often eaten well into May. 

The maximum amount of hay is required from these meadows 
for winter sheep feed in bad weather. Purchased hay can 
only be secured at a relatively high price and transport is 
often a very difficult matter also. Hill flockmasters usually 
prefer hay grown on the farm. 

Experiments carried out on several hill farms in Northum- 
berland by Pawson and Wannop, have shown that very 
considerable increases in the quantity of hay produced can 
be secured, in most instances, by judicious complete manur- 
ing. A report on trials carried out in 1935 at three centres 
shows increases of from 33 per cent, to over 200 per cent, 
yield in addition to improved feeding value. 

Grass and Clover Seeds are sown on most farms in April. 
Much difference of opinion exists as to the best method of 
sowing. It is essential, however, to have a fine seed-bed. 
Tilth and firmness greatly help in plant establishment. What 
counts most is not the number of seeds per acre that may be 
sown or even the number that germinate, but those that become 
established and produce a plant. How often the seedsman 
is blamed for failure of seeds, when the real reason is cultural 
and weather conditions ! Purity and germination are a useful 
guide in the purchase of seeds, but strain and origin of stock 
are also of importance. Low-priced grass and clover seeds 
are not necessarily the least costly. Good, vigorous, reliable 
strains should be asked for, and reliable seedsmen will usually 
be able to supply them. In the seed trade, as in most others, 
we usually get what we pay for. It is not enough to make 
purity and germination the only considerations in the purchase 
of seeds. 

Cereals. A much larger acreage of cereals will be sown 
in April than is usual. Correct seeding is an important matter. 
Varieties with large grain and poor tillering properties need 
a much heavier seeding than small-grained varieties or 
varieties tiiat tiller well. Sandy oats sown at the rate of 
2 i bus. per acre have given a thicker crop at Cockle Park 
than Yielder sown at 6 bus. per acre. Where cultural and 
climatic conditions are favourable a lighter seeding is needed 
72 



April on the Farm 

than on soils in cxjxised situations where jxwr tilth has been 
obtained. 

After the wet winter of 1935-36 nitrogenous fertilizers gave 
profitable returns when applied as a top-dressing to both 
autumn- and spring-sown com. Much available nitrogen 
will have been lost from the soil during the wet periods of 
the last few months, and 1937 promises to be another year 
when nitrogenous top-dressings will leave a profitable return. 
When sulphate of ammonia is being used, care should be 
taken not to apply it when white frosts are occurring followed 
by bright sunshine. 

Potatoes and Root Crops. It is often said : “ Plant 
potatoes when you will, they won't grow till April." The 
vagaries of our climate and the volume of spring work on 
arable farms, makes it desirable to get on with the work 
whenever favourable opportunities occur after the begin ning 
of March. In a late season, such as the present, the advantage 
of sprouting will be found by those who adopt this practice. 

Experiments have shown that sprouting in boxes, even in 
an early season, gives the advantage of an increase in crop. 
Where planting has to be delayed, even greater advantages 
are obtained. Boxed sets have made some growth and are 
ready to make rapid progress, while unboxed seed tubers 
left in the clamp until late spring have produced long white 
sprouts that are invariably broken; off in handling before 
planting, and secondary shoots have to be developed, so 
delaying the start of the crop. 

Marrow Stem Kale has increased in p)opularity as a root 
crop, and larger acreages are being sown. It is in many ways 
a more certain crop than swedes. The period during which 
it can be sown with reasonable prospects of a crop is longer. 
Sowing may commence from early April and extend to June. 
.It suffers rather less from the turnip fly, and once a crop is 
established it can be pushed on by liberal top-dressings to 
produce a heavier weight of crop per acre than swedes on 
most soils. While it is undoubtedly a good food for dairy 
cows, it cannot be stored, and during periods of severe frost 
it is not always available. The absence of a succulent food 
after being included in the ration upsets the cows, and it is 
wise to have a small supply of swedes or other succulent, 
which can be stored available for such periods. This should 
be allowed for in planning the root break. 


73 



April on the Farm 


Too much stress cannot be laid on the importance of a fine 
seed-bed for root crops. The first essential for a crop is to get 
the plant established. The quicker this can be done after 
sowing the better, and a suitable seed-bed greatly helps to 
this end. 

While tractors will work long hours without fatigue, horses 
during the month will have a heavy time. It is important to 
do ail possible in the way of feeding and careful management 
to keep horses in condition for the long and hard days ahead. 
In practice, we frequently do not recognize the need for extra 
care and attention until the horses have lost flesh and are not 
so able to stand the strain of long, heavy days. 



NOTES ON MANURING 

F. Hanley, M.A. 

School of Agriculture, Cambridge. 

Manuring: for Swedes. Recent experiments on die 
manuring of this crop have been chiefly concerned with testing 
the value of some particular fertilizer, e.g., the experiments 
carried out under the aegis of the Permanent Committee on 
Basic Slag set up by the Ministry of Agriculture, and with 
investigating the effects of minor element deficiencies, e.g., 
the incidence and control of Brown Heart. The results of 
these experiments confirm the conclusions drawn from the 
older trials regarding the importance of phosphate for the 
swede crop. 

This is well illustrated by the results of experiments 
recorded in the 13th and 14th Interim Reports of the 
Permanent Committee on Basic Slag. These reports give 
the results of 15 exjieriments on swedes carried out in the 
two years 1934 and 1935. All the experimental centres were 
situated in Scotland, but the results serve to show both 
the general importance of phosphates for swedes and the 
superiority of a high-soluble over a low-soluble slag for this 
crop, even in the North. Phosphate failed to increase the 
yield of swedes at only one of these 15 centres, and, omitting 
two centres where the results were irregular, the average yields 
at the remaining 12 centres were as follows : — 


Yield of Roots, in Tons per Acre 



No 

Basic 

Slag 

Low-soluble Slag (a) | High-soluble Slag (b) 

' 1 , ' 

:3i cwt. p.a.j 7 cwt. p.a. ,3^ cwt. p.a. 7 cwt. p.a. 

6 Centres in 


: ; j 

1934 

60 

— (c) ! 13-6 j — (r) ' 18-2 

6 Centres in 


1 1 

1935 • . 

II-4 

' 17-7 ; ■23-3 

; 1 1 < 


Notes. — (a) Total P,0$ = 13-68 per cent. , citric .solubility of the 

PjO, =23-6 per cent. 

(i>) Total P,0, = 13-81 per cent.; citric solubility of the 

P, 0 , =89-3 pCT cent. 

(r) Only the heavier dressing was used in 1934- 

The single and double dressings supplied 0-5 cwt. and 
I • o cwt. of P,Oj per acre respectively, i.e., they were appro.\i ■ 
mately 3J cwt. and 7 cwt. of slag per acre. 


75 




Notes on Manuring 


The need for a considerable amount of phosphate is shown 
by the fact that, in 1935, the double dressing of high-soluble 
slag was better than the single dressing, i.e., 3J cwt. of high- 
soluble slag per acre is not always sufficient. 

This response to phosphatic manures, combined with the 
fact that many farmers prefer to apply most of the phosphate 
for the whole rotation to the root shift, makes it very desirable 
to give at least 4 cwt. per acre of superphosphate or basic 
slag to the swede crop, and on many farms this dressing might 
well be raised to 6 cwt. per acre, especially in districts where 
heavy crops of roots can be grown and on farms where 
phosphate is not applied to any other crop in the rotation. 

There seems no doubt that basic slag is a suitable source 
of phosphate in many parts of the country, but it seems wise 
to use a high-soluble slag for this purpose, preferably one of 
at least 80 per cent, citric solubility. In the eastern part of 
England, basic slag can be used provided it is applied early, 
and, again, only a high-soluble grade should be chosen. For 
late spring applications of phosphate in this part of the 
country, superphosphate is generally regarded as safer than 
basic slag, though the latter is sometimes quite satisfactory, 
especially on the heavier soils. In all districts, on soils hover- 
ing on the verge of acidity, basic slag is often preferable to 
superphosphate, not because the latter makes the soil acid, for 
in the light of evidence published during recent years such a 
statement is not true, but rather because of the lime content 
of the basic slag. It cannot be too strongly urged, however, 
that where a soil has gone past the borderline of acidity, i.e., 
has become sufficiently acid to cause serious trouble with 
crops such as barley, clover, swedes, etc., the most economical 
course in the long run is to lime the soil and not to try to carry 
on with slag or any other fertilizer supplying only small 
amounts of lime. Basic slag, nitro-chalk, niteate of lime and 
cyanamide may be satisfactory on soil just bordering on 
acidity, but their lime content is too small for a normal 
application of any of these fertilizers to have much effect on 
the acidity of a definitely acid: soil. 

One further point in connexion with the choice of a 
phosphatic fertilizer for swedes, is that this crop has a greater 
power of using phosphate supplied in the form of ground 
mineral phosphate than most other agricultural crops 
commonly grown in this country. Under conditions in which 
ground mineral phosphate is likely to act fairly quickly, 
76 



Notes on Manuring 


therefore, e.g., the heavier soils in wet districts, it is worth 
while considering this relatively cheap form of phosphate when 
selecting manures for the swede crop. 

Swedes show little response to heavy dressings of nitrogen 
or potash. Where a good dressing of farmyard manure is 
used it is not often necessary to include potash in the artificials 
except where other conditions are favourable to the produc- 
tion of a really heavy crop. In the latter circumstances i to 
li cwt. per acre of sulphate of anunonia or its equivalent 
can also be used, but in the south and east of England it rarely 
pays to use any potash, and no more than about J cwt. per 
acre of quick-acting nitrogenous fertilizer should be applied, 
when farmyard manure has been given. From i to cwt. 
of nitrogenous fertilizer and \ cwt. per acre of muriate of 
potash is usually ample even when no farmyard manure is 
given. Phosphatic dressings on the lines suggested in the earlier 
paragraphs should always be applied, however, irrespective 
of whether the crop has received farmyard manure. 

It is perhaps also worth mentioning that here the trouble 
known as Brown Heart or Raan in swedes has recently been 
prevented by applying small quantities of borax to the soil . The 
trouble seems to be most prevalent in parts of Wales and 
Scotland. The presence of Brown Heart has not, so far, 
been found to cause any serious reduction in yield, but the 
feeding value of the roots is said to be reduced, for affected 
roots become fibrous and their sugar content is reduced. 
Affected roots show no external sign of the trouble, but when 
they are cut a brownish discoloration may be seen in the 
flesh of the root. Such roots are not saleable for human 
consumption. A good deal has been written on the use of 
borax for controlling this trouble. A dressing of 20 lb. of 
borax per acre is usually adequate, but, before adopting this 
treatment growers are advised to seek the guidance of their 
County Agricultural Organizer. 

Marrow Stem Kale. Many farmers have replaced the 
swede crop by marrow stem kale, and when its relatively 
high feeding value is taken into account there is little doubt 
that it is often a better proposition than swedes, at any rate, 
during the early part of the winter. The manurial require- 
ments of the two crops are not the same, however, and the 
farmer who attempts to substitute kale for swedes without 
adjusting the manurial treatment of his land, is almost certain 

77 



Notes on Manuring 


to be disappointed. Like all brassicas, marrow stem kale 
should receive a dressing of phosphate, usually about 4 cwt. 
per acre of superphosphate or high-soluble basic slag, accord- 
ing to circumstances. Farmyard manure is also very 
desirable for the kale crop especially so since kale differs 
from swedes in being exceptionally responsive to applica- 
tions of nitrogenous fertilizer. In some instances dressings 
of 6 to 9 cwt. per acre of nitro-chalk have been reported as 
giving a profitable increase in yield, and on the general farm 
it is quite reasonable to expect a good return from as much 
as 4 cwt. per acre of a fertilizer such as nitro-chalk or sulphate 
of ammonia in addition to a dressing of dung. From ^ to 
I cwt. of muriate of potash is also desirable, especially if only 
a small dressing of farmyard manure is available. Liberal 
manuring, especially with nitrogen, is essential for heavy 
yields, and, provided the crop is sown fairly early, the yield 
increase brought about by fertilizers will more than pay for 
their cost. Early sowing is important, however, where a 
heavy yield is required in the early autumn. 

Vegetable Growing on the General Farm. The extension 
of the cultivation of the commoner vegetables to the general 
farm has seriously affected the growers in the older market- 
garden areas. The newcomer, adopting the labour-saving 
devices associated with large holdings, large fields, and 
mechanized cultivation, has brought about an enormous 
increase in the supply of these vegetables. Some of the 
ordinary farm land in East Anglia, growing vegetables for 
the first time, will yield heavy crops of good quality Brussels 
sprouts, savo)^, cabbage, etc., and there is little evidence to 
suggest that, for this type of vegetable production, the soil 
needs to be kept at the high level of fertility usually found 
in old market-garden land — a level only maintained by lavish 
expenditure on dung and fertilizers. 

At present there seems no reason to anticipate any marked 
deterioration in the cropping powers of much of this new 
“ cheap ” land, and one cannot see any immediate prospect 
of decreasing competition with market gardeners. As long 
as such crops are only grown in place of part of the root 
shift, there can be little danger of their too frequent appearance 
on the same field; only tiie farmer who has gone over to 
vegetable production on a larger proportion of his land is 
likely to encounter trouble from this source. 

78 



Notes on Manuring 


Many market gardeners have taken steps to meet the new 
situation by increasing the size of their holdings, and the 
increase in some instances has been effected by the absorption 
of adjacent market-garden land, and in others by taking over 
new land formerly devoted to agricultural crops either because 
of its heavier soil or its relative inaccessibility. 

Though the production of these commoner vegetables still 
persists in the older intensive market-garden areas it seems 
probable that the bulk of this production in the future will 
be on less intensive lines, on the larger type of holding. The 
manuring of these crops in an intensive market-garden area 
is bound up with the problem of maintaining the land in a 
high state of fertility, suitable for the production of subsequent 
crops. The farmer who has introduced brassicas such as 
brussels sprouts, cabbage and cauliflower into his farm 
rotation, simply as part of the root shift, will be well-advised 
not to adopt too expensive manurial treatment. His main 
object will have been achieved if he secures for his land the 
benefits of a fallow crop without losing money in the process. 
The term “ expensive ” manurial treatment is intended to 
include not merely the quantity of plant nutrients supphed. 
but also their source. Market gardeners often have a definite 
preference for heavy dressings of organic fertilizers. To what 
extent these are of direct benefit to the crop for which they 
are applied is not certain, though they do maintain the soil 
in a physical condition specially suitable for the growth of the 
less easily grown intensive market-garden crops. This latter 
factor, however, rarely concerns the farmer-grower, and if 
he uses dung regularly there is no evidence to suggest that 
he need go outside his usual range of fertilizers in order to 
grow a vegetable crop. 

The market gardener growing brassicas on “ new ” land 
not previously market-gardened, will very often be more 
lavish with his fertilizer applications, especially those supply- 
ing nitrogen. 

Brussels sprouts, summer and autumn cauliflower, and 
summer cabbage all respond well to nitrogenous fertilizers, 
and will usually pay for 3 to 4 cwt. per acre of quick-acting 
nitrogenous fertilizer, in addition to farmyard manure. The 
intensive grower frequently uses double this amount of 
nitrogen, either in the foim of artificial fertilizers, soot or 
organic manures such as shoddy, but the quantity suggested 
above is a reasonable dressing for the farmer-grower. 


79 



Notes on Manuring 


On some occasions potash and phosphate will also give 
profitable increases in crop. Phosphate has proved most 
successful on heavy soils and on fields that have formerly 
been devoted to agricultural crops. The equivalent of 4 to 
6 cwt. per acre of superphosphate is always desirable in such 
circumstances. Potash, on the other hand, though less 
generally effective in increasing yield, is said to improve the 
quality, appearance and flavour of the produce. 

Whilst too lavish dressings of fertilizers may fail to give 
a corresponding improvement in yield or quality of produce, 
it is certain that good quality produce caimot be grown under 
conditions of semi-starvation. At the same 'time it is also 
worth remembering that no amount of fertilizer or lime will 
make waterlogged land produce good vegetables. Brussels 
sprouts are particularly sensitive to wetness and show it both 
by their stunted growth and poor colour, symptoms that were 
obvious on parts of many fields in 1936. 

Earliness is always an important feature in market-garden 
crops. All fertilizers tend to produce their greatest effects on 
5deld during the early part of the marketing season, but they 
do not always actually increase earliness. There is some 
experimental evidence, however, that, where phosphate and 
potash give a response in yield, they also give earlier crops. 


80 



MANURING OF BRUSSELS SPROUTS 


Most iiiark('t-garck‘ii land (ontairis a t^ood rt‘srrv(' ol 
j)lK)sj)hatc‘ Iroin prcx’ious l(‘rtiliz(T dr(‘ssin/:^s, but th(‘ followiiif^ 
])h()t(){^raj)hs ol a ]2-])lol (“Xi)(‘rini('ul tarried out by Mr. 
|. W. Dallas, in BcfllordshiK*, show that j^hosphatt* may bt* an 
important n'ciiiinantait in tlu* maniirinf^ ol Bnisst'ls S])routs 
on land not jm'XTously market {gardened, especially on heavy 
soils. 

The soil was lu'avy loam and m a low state ot t(*rtihty, 
haviiifi^ grown rather })oor, extensive, agricultural crf>})s 
it‘C(‘iving littU' iertilizer lor some years prt'viously. 



1 st tind jnd sinks 1 (U, nu)s])lKili* onh 
Rii^ht, No ni.inurr 

Ik'twriMi Jiul ciiul jul sticks /eg. Nitrogen diul pliosjili.ilc 

IMiosjihciti' and pot.ish 


lo fn(t' i>o 





- 




f" ^ 


■ ■ ■" s* 

.; ¥ 7 . vr: 

*-irl 


'¥■ 


if'i 




Px twiH'U 1 si and 

and siK ks 

Ia It, Ndiot^i n and potasli. 
I\'ii;hl, Potash onl\ 

I i( Iwcrii and and 

pd stu.ks 

Lt fl , Nn in.mui t* 

/ik*,’///, Phosplaiti and pnUiNh 


r'.;", .}'i : ' •;■ '.' 




\ ■ ■•‘iv 


HctwiMii jst and ind sIkUs 
Ik-tAvccii and and jid sinks 


t eft. No inanuri' 

Kif^ht, Nitrognn and potash 
lA-fl, Pliospliat(‘ and pot.isli 
Potash only 





PRICES OF ARTIFICIAL MANURES 


Description 

Average prices per ton (2,240 lb.) 
during week ended March 10. 

Bristol 

HuU 

L'pool 

London 

Cost 

per 

Unit If 



i 

s. 

£ 

5. 

£ 

5. 

£ 

s. 

5. 

d. 

Nitrate of Soda (N.i5j%) . . ^ 


7 

1^C 

7 

12c 

7 

I2C 

7 

12c 

9 

xo 

,, ,, Granulated (N. 16%) 


7 

12c 

7 

12 C 

7 

I 2 C 

7 

12c 

9 

6 

Nitrate of Lime (N.13%) 


7 

oc 

7 

OC 

7 

OC 

7 

oc 

xo 

9 

Nitro-chalk (N. i5i%) 

J* 

7 

5c 

7 


7 

5C 

7 

5C 

9 

4 

Sulphate of Ammonia : — 












Neutral (N. 20*6%) . , 


7 

50 

7 

50 

7 

5C 

7 

5 ^ 

7 

0 

Calcium Cyanamide (N. 20*6%) j 




7 

4 d 

7 

4^/ 

7 

/{d 

7 

0 

Kainite (Pot. 14%) 


2 

18 

2 

15 

2 

15 

2 

15 

3 

II 

Potash Salts (Pot. 30%) 


5 

0 

4 

17 

4 

15 

4 

17 

3 

3 

,, ,, (Pot. 20%) 


3 

15 

3 

12 

3 

12 

3 

12 

3 

7 

Muriate of Potash (Pot. 50%) 


8 

3 

8 

I 

7 

17 

8 

I 

3 

3 

Sulphate ,, (Pot. 48%) 


9 

15 

9 

13 

9 

9 

9 

13 

4 

0 

Basic Slag (P.A. i5f%) 


2 

12b 

2 

5^ 



2 

10b 

3 

2 

„ .. (P.A. 14%).. 

s 

2 

Sb 

2 

ob 

2 

ob 

2 

bb 

3 

3 

Grd Rock Phosphate (P.A. 26 — 












27i%) 


2 

12a 

2 

loa 

2 

loa 

2 


I 

8 

Superphosphate (S.P.A. i6%) . . 


3 

4 


I 

* • 1 

3 


3 

of 

3 

9 

(SP.A.i3i%).. 


3 

1 

2 

17 

2 

igc 

2 

ibf 

4 

X 

Bone Meal (N.3f%, P.A.2oi%) 



, , 

6 

10 

7 

5 i 

6 

15 


. . 

Steamed Bone Flour (N. |%, 








[ 




P.A. 27i-29i%) . . . . 


5 

5 h 

5 

ij 

5 

og 

5 

0 


* • 


Abbreviations : N. — Nitrogen ; P.A. = Phosphoric Acid ; 

S.P.A. Soluble Phosphoric Acid ; Pot. = Potash. 


• Prices are for not less than 6-ton lots, at purchaser's nearest railway station 
unless otherwise stated. Unit values are calculated on carriage-paid prices. 

S Prices are for not less than 2-ton lots, nett cash for prompt delivery f.o.r. in 
town named, unless otherwise stated. Unit values are c^culated on f.o.r. prices. 
a Prices for 4-ton lots f.o r. Fineness 85% through standard sieve. 
b Prices for 6-ton lots. Prices at Bristol are f.o.r. Bridgwater ; at Hull and 
Liverpool f.o.r. neighbouring works, and at London f.o.r. at depots in London 
district. Fineness 80% through standard sieve. 

c For lots of 4 tons and under 6 tons the price is is. per ton extra, for lots 
of 2 tons and under 4 tons, 55. per ton extra, and for lots of i ton and under 2 tons, 
los. extra. 

d Delivered in 4-ton lots at purchaser's nearest railway station. For lots of 
2 tons and under 4 tons the price is 5s. per ton extra, for lots of 1 ton and under 
2 tons, los. per ton extra, for lots of 10 cwt. and under i ton, 155. extra, and for 
lots of less than 10 cwt., but not less than 2 cwt., 205. extra. 
e Prices shown are f.o.r. Widnes. 

/ Prices shown are f.o.r. northern rails ; southern rails 15. extra. 
g Prices shown are f.o.r. Appley Bridge. 
h Price shown is f.o.r. Newport. Mon. 

t These ate calculated by regarding a ton as comprising xoo “ units " (equal 
parts 0/22*4 afertihzer, for example, with 16 per cent, nitrogen, contains 

16 such ” units in a ton. Then, if the price per ton of such a fertilizer be divided 
by the percentage figure, the deduced cost is that of a unit " of that agent. Those 
in the table cSove are based on London prices. (For further explanation, see 
Advisoiy Leaflet No. 146, *' The Valuation of Artificial Manures,** obtainable from 
the Mimstry, free of charge) 


81 






NOTES ON FEEDING 

Charles Crowther, M.A., Ph.D., 

Harper Adams Agricultural College. 

Fibre. The precise manner in which the “ fibre ” of food 
contributes to its total nutritive effect has long been a subject 
of controversy, and is still only very imperfectly understood. 
This is due in part to the fact that the entity denoted as 
" fibre ” is itself ill-defined and apt to vary considerably in 
chemical nature in different classes of feeding stuffs. To the 
layman " fibre ” is the hard and tough part of food, difficult 
to masticate and presumed to be more difficult to digest than 
the rest of the food. When the scheme of analysis that is 
commonly used for feeding stuffs was first drawn up it was 
thought desirable, therefore, to include in it an estimation of 
the proportion of this class of material in the food, and for 
this purpose the organic matter that remains undissolved after 
treatment in a prescribed manner with dilute acid and alkali 
was assumed to represent the “ fibre ” of the food. For some 
time this item in the analysis was described as “ indigestible 
fibre,” but digestion trials soon demonstrated that ” fibre ” 
is to some extent digestible, its digestibility varying greatly, 
however, with the class of food and its physical condition. 
There can be no question, therefore, of the fibre figure of a 
food representing even an approximate measure of the 
general digestibilfy of the food, and to-day one prefers to 
describe this item simply as ” fibre ” or ” crude fibre,” 
without any implications as to indigestibility. 

Digestion and Utilization of Fibre. In studying the 
nutritive significance of ” fibre ” it must be clearly under- 
stood that we are not dealing with a definite chemical 
compound, nor even a definite group of compounds (as with 
proteins and oils), but with a variable mixture (mainly of 
carbohydrates) that is definable only in terms of the particular 
method of chemical analysis by which its amount is 
detennined. We regard this item, crude though it be, as 
serving to give us a rough idea of the proportion of hard, 
tough, difficultly soluble material present in the foodstuff. 

Whatever its digestibility, the mastication and passage 

83 



Notes on Feeding 


through the body of material of this character must involve 
a considerable expenditure of energy that can only come from 
the digested part of the food. In many instances this 
expenditure may exceed the amount of energy provided by 
the digested part of the fibre, which means that the presence 
of fibre then tends to reduce rather than to increase the amount 
of energy available to the animal. 

The principal ingredients of “ fibre ” are cellulose, lignins, 
and pentosans, but other ingredients are usually present, 
such as cutins, tannins, pectins, and a small proportion of 
nitrogenous substance. Of these various ingredients probably 
cellulose alone has any direct nutrient value, except as a 
source of heat to the body. That the make-up of the “ fibre ” 
with regard to the above ingredients may vary greatly as 
between different foodstuffs is shown by the examples quoted 
below : — 

PliRCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF CRUDE FiBRE 


Barley . . 

Crude 

Protein 

% 

0*6 

Lignins Pentosans 

0/ 0/ 

/O /O 

10*4 15-5 

Celluloses, 

etc. 

% 

73-5 

Oats 

0-4 

10-7 11-2 

ll'l 

Lucerne 

1-8 

45-8 13-3 

39*1 

Soya Beans 

0-8 

5-8 11-4 

82*0 

These wide 

differences in 

the make-up of the 

“ fibre ’ 


complex have a considerable influence upon the extent to which 
it can be digested and utilized by animals and man. 

In contrast to the digestion of proteins, fats, starches, and 
sugars, which is effected mainly by unorganized ferments 
(enzymes) present in the digestive juices, the digestion 
of fibre, in almost all instances where animals eat much 
vegetable food, is effected mainly through the agency of 
bacteria. In farm animals the bacterial digestion of fibre 
in the food plays an important part, both directly through 
the contribution made by the digested fibre, and indirectl}' 
because the attack of the bacteria on the cell walls of the food 
makes these walls more permeable to the digestive juices, and 
thus makes more certain that the valuable nutritive contents 
of the cells will be digested and fully utilized. 

On the other hand, the bacterial digestion of fibre involves 
a certain amount of waste in the form of gases that the animal 
cannot utilize, but this is probably little more than the similar 
loss that starch is subject to in the presence of bacteria. This 
is confirmed by the classical experiments of Kellner in which 

83 



Notes on Feeding 


digestible straw fibre fed in the form of soft pulp proved ^ 
effective as starch for the production of fattening increase in 
cattle. 

Since the digestion of fibre is mainly dependent upon 
bacterial activity it is to be expected that Ae power of digest- 
ing and utilizing fibre will be most highly developed in the 
class of animal, namely the ruminant, in whose digestive 
tract there is the greatest opportunity for bacterial action. 
The ruminant is, in fact, the only class of animal that can deal 
at all effectively with the whole range of fibrous foods, from 
soft greenstuffs to hard straws. In this respect the ruminant 
is followed at a considerable distance by the horse, but pigs 
and poultry have little or no p)ower of digesting fibre; even 
with soft green food their fibre-digesting powers are much 
below those of the sheep. 

The advantage possessed by the ruminant for the digestion 
of fibre lies in the active bacterial fermentation that takes 
place in the rumen (paunch). In other animals no appreciable 
digestion of fibre takes place until the food reaches the caecum 
and colon, almost at the end of its passage through the body. 
The amount of fibre digestion effected at this stage is probably 
small in comparison with that attainable in the rumen. 

As regards the pig, the data available for the digestibility 
of the fibre of individual feeding stuffs show great variation. 
Thus, results vaiying from 2^ to 36 per cent, for the 
digestibility of the fibre in rye meal have been found in 
different experiments. In the best of these, however, the 
result has usually been much nearer the lower than the higher 
of these limits. 

With the fowl, the experimental data available are fewer 
and variable, but the more recent work, such as that of Hainan 
reviewed in last month’s Notes, leaves little doubt that any 
power possessed by the fowl for digesting the fibre of cereal 
foods is so small as to be negligible in practice. 

The observation has been frequently made in digestion trials 
that the nature and total amount of the ration in which the 
fibre is consumed appears to affect the amount of fibre 
digested. This finds its explanation in the changes in the 
intestinal flora and in the conditions for the activity of the 
fibre-digesting bacteria that may accompany changes in the 
diet. Thus the addition of carbohydrates to the diet of a 
nuninant will so alter the fermentative balance as to reduce 
somewhat the digestibility of the fibre. 

84 



Notes on Feeding 


It might be expected that, especiaJly with the harder food- 
stuffs, some improvement in digestion of the fibre might be 
effected by a preliminary grinding of the food, despite the 
existence of the natural provision for achieving this end by 
chewing, rumination, etc. The experimental evidence on this 
point is conflicting, and even where an improvement has been 
recorded it has usually been small, and attributable in part 
to imperfect mastication. The same probably applies to the 
various other methods of preparation (cooking, etc.) designed 
to soften the fibre. 

When improved nutritive results are obtained by special 
methods of preparation of food the explanation is likely, 
therefore, to lie only partly in enhanced digestibility, and 
partly in increased efficiency of utilization of the digested 
ingredients. That the latter is considerably affected by grind- 
ing where coarse fodders are involved was clearly demonstrated 
by Kellner, and has been repeatedly confirmed elsewhere. 

From the foregoing discussion it is obvious that average 
figures for the digestibility of fibre can have little significance ; 
and in rationing practice, unless digestion trials have been 
made with the actual material used, one must be guided by 
its physical nature as to whether one assumes its digestibility 
to be high, or low, or medium. For this purpose the follow- 
ing data may serve to indicate the range within which the 
digestibility of the fibre usually falls : — 


Greenstuffs 
Hays 

Straws, chaffs, etc. 

Cereal, grains and legumes 
Cakes and meals . . 

, Indirect Effects of Fibre. Practical experience supplies 
abundant evidence that the nutritive effects of a ration often 
cannot be expressed entirely in terms of the amounts of 
digestible proteins, oils, carbohydrates, fibre, minerals, and 
vitamins supplied (see this Journal, Vol. XLIII, No. 7 
pp. 682-684), but that certain other factors that are less easily 
defined also come into play and determine whether the ration 
will, or will not " suit ” the animal. The characteristics that 
determine palatabUity furnish one example of such factors, 
yhilst another to which the practical feeder attaches 
importance is the density or " bulkiness ” of the feed. With 

85 


Ruminants 

0/ 

/o 

40-80 

35-65 

30-50 

30-80 

30-80 


Horses 

% 

30-70 

30-45 

15-30 

30-60 

30-60 


Pigs 

or 

/o 

15-30 


20-50 

20-50 



Notes on Feeding 


the root crops the quality of bulkiness arises mainly from their 
high water-content, but in all other foods it is closely 
associated with the amount and nature of the fibre present 
in the food. A high fibre-content usually connotes bifikiness 
and a low fibre-content compactness. 

We have seen that at best fibre does not rank high as a 
source of digested nutriment, and yet an increase in the pro- 
portion of fibrous food in a ration at the expense of more 
digestible ingredients will frequently effect a substantial 
improvement in nutritive results. In such instances it is clear 
that the fibre has not acted through its direct contribution to 
the total supply of digested nutrients, which is in fact reduced 
by the change in the ration, but that in some way the increase 
of the fibrous ingredient has made it possible for the animal 
to use the digested nutrients with greater efficiency. It may 
possibly be a matter of securing optimum conditions as to the 
volume-loading of the digestive organs, or alternatively the 
explanation may lie in a more powerful mechanical stimulus 
to the muscles of the organs through the greater quantity of 
indigestible “ ballast ” with which they have to deal in the 
more fibrous ration. It seems possible also that with some 
foods the effect is not entirely associated with the fibre, but 
is in part specific to the food; this is strongly suspected to 
be true of bran, but has not been clearly proved. 

In so far as the effects are due to fibre they must obviously 
depend upon the nature of the ration to which the fibrous 
food is added. If it is too " compact ” the addition may be 
expected to be beneficial, whereas if it is already sufficiently 
bulky, or if anything too bulky, any further addition of fibrous 
food must inevitably cause a falling-off in nutritive effect. It 
is not surprising, therefore, that practical experience with 
such foods should vary more than with the less fibrous feeding 
stuffs. 


86 



PRICES OF FEEDING STUFFS 





Manu- 

Cost of 

Starch 

Price 

Price 



Price 

rial 

food 

per 

per 

Pro- 

Description 

per 

value 

value 

per 
100 lb. 

unit 

lb. 

tein 


ton 

per 

per 

starch 

starch 

equiv. 




ton 

ton 

equiv. 

equiv. 



i 

s. 

£ 

s. 

£ 

s. 


s. 

d. 

d. 

% 

Wheat, British . . 

9 

0 

0 

8 

8 

12 

7 ^ 

2 

5 

1-29 

9*6 

Barley, British feeding • 

8 

10 

0 

8 

8 

2 

71 

2 

3 

1-20 

6-2 

„ Argentine 

9 

0 

0 

8 

8 

12 

71 

2 

5 

1*29 

6'2 

,, Persian 

7 

13* 

0 

8 

7 

5 

71 

2 

I 

1*12 

6*2 

,, Polish . . 

8 

10!) 

0 

8 

8 

2 

71 

2 

3 

1*20 

6*2 

Oats, English, white . . 

8 

13 

0 

9 

8 

4 

60 

2 

9 

1-47 

7'6 

,, „ black and 











grey .. 

8 

13 

0 

0 

8 

4 

60 

2 

9 

1-47 

7-6 

,, Scotch, white 

9 

13 

0 

9 

9 

4 

60 

3 

I 

I -65 

7-6 

,, Canadian, mixed 












feed . . 

7 

15 

0 

9 

7 

6 

60 

2 

5 

I '29 

7‘6 

Maize, Argentine 

6 

0 

0 

7 

.5 

13 

78 

I 

5 

0*76 

7*6 

,, Danubian Gal.Fox 
,, South African, 

6 

8t 

0 

7 

6 

I 

78 

I 

7 

0-85 

7-6 

No. 3 White Flat 

(, 

i8t 

0 

7 

() 

1 1 

78 

I 

8 

0*89 

7*6 

Beans, English, Winter 

b 


0 

17 

5 

18 

66 

I 

9 

0-94 

19-7 

lV.as, English Blue 

II 

5 § 

0 

14 

10 

11 

69 

3 

I 

1*65 

i8' I 

,, Japanese.. 

-25 

L 3 t 

0 

14 

^4 

19 

6q 

7 

3 

3-88 

18' I 

Dan 

Milling Offals 

8 

5 t 

0 

8 

7 

^7 

74 

2 

1 

I • 12 

7'2 

Bran, British 

7 

7 

0 

15 

6 

12 

43 

3 

I 

1*65 

9*9 

,, broad . . 

7 

12 

0 

1.5 

6 

17 

; 43 

3 

2 

1*70 

10 

WeatingsJ . , 

7 

10 

0 

14 

6 

16 

i 

2 

.5 

'1-29 

10*7 

,, SuperfineJ • 

8 

0 

0 

13 

7 

7 

' 69 

2 

2 

I * 16 

12*1 

Pollards, imported . . 

7 

2 

0 

14 

6 

8 

i 50 

2 

7 

I -38 

II 

Meal, barley , . . . 

9 

12 

0 

8 

9 

4 

' 71 

2 

7 

1-38 

6' 2 

„ „ grade 11 . . j 

8 

17 

0 

8 

8 

9 

! 71 

2 

.5 

1-29 

6'2 

,, maize . . , . 

6 

12 

0 

7 

6 

5 

' 78 

I 

7 

0-85 

7-6 

„ ,, germ 

b 

15 

0 

11 


4 

1 84 

' I 

6 

O ' 80 

I0'3 

,, locust bean 

7 

15 

0 

5 

7 

10 

! 71 

2 

I 

1 -12 

36 

,, bean 

8 

10 

0 

17 

7 

13 

: 66 

2 

4 

1-25 

19*7 

„ fish (white) 

i 14 

15 

2 

2 

12 

^3 

! 59 

4 

3 

2*28 

53 

Maize, cooked, flaked. . 

! 7 

4 

0 

7 

6 

17 

1 84 

I 

8 

0-89 

9*2 

,, gluten feed 
Linseed cake — 

7 

0 

0 

13 

6 

7 

76 

1 

I 

8 

0*89 

I9‘2 

English, 12% oil 

10 

2 

' I 

0 

9 

2 

74 

' 2 

6 

I '34 

24*6 

9 % .. .. 

9 

10 

i I 

0 

8 

10 

74 

2 

4 

1*25 

24*6 

8% „ .. 

9 

5 

1 I 

0 

8 

.5 

74 

2 

3 

I -20 

24*6 

Cottonseed cake. 

1 


i 









English, Egyptian 
seed, 4j% oil 

' 5 

17 

j 

i ^ 

18 

4 

19 

4^ 

1 

1 

1 

4 

1-25 

17*3 

Cottonseed cake. 



1 








Egyptian 4i% oil . . 
Cottonseed cake. 

! 5 

2 

i ^ 

18 

4 

4 

i 4 -i 

1 2 

0 

1 -07 

17*3 

decorticated, 7% oil * 
Cottonseed meal. 

8 

i 7 t 

I 

8 

7 

9 

' 68 

! 

; 2 

2 

I' 16 

34-7 

decorticated, 7% oil • 

8 

I 7 t 

I 

8 

7 

9 

1 70 

2 

2 

I • 16 

36-8 

Coconut cake, 6% oil . . 
Ground-nut cake. 

7 

5 

0 

18 

6 

7 

i 77 

i 

I 

8 

0*89 

t6'4 

decorticated. 6-7^/; oil 

'i 7 

i 7 t' I 

8 

6 

9 

i 73 „ 

I 

9 

0*94 

_ 4^.*.3 


87 



PRICES OF FEEDING STUFFS (mtinueil 




Manu- 

Costol 

Starch 

Price 

Price 



Price 

rial 

food 

per 

per 

Pro- 

Description 

per 

value 

value 

equiv, 

unit 

lb. 

tein 

ton 

per 

per 

per 
100 lb. 

starch 

starch 

equiv. 



ton 

ton 

equiv. 

equiv. 



£ 

£ 

£ s. 


5. d. 

d. 

% 

Ground-nut cake, im- 








ported decorticated, 
6-7% oil .. 

8 5 

I 8 

6 17 

73 

I 11 

1-03 

4 i ’3 

Palm kernel meal. 








1-2% oil . . 

7 0 

0 12 

6 8 

71 

1 10 

0-98 

i6-5 

Feeding treacle 

Brewers’ grains, dried 

5 0 

0 8 

4 12 

51 

I 10 

0-98 

2-7 

ale 

Brewers’ grains, dried 

6 7 

0 II 

5 16 

48 

2 5 

1*29 

I2'5 

porter 

6 0 

0 11 

5 9 

48 

2 3 

1*20 

12-5 


Dried sugar-beet pulp. . 


From £$ js. 6 d. to £$ ijs. 6 d. i)er ton ex-factory 
(according to factory.) 


♦ At Bristol. § At Hull. t At Liverpool. 

} In these instances manurial value, starch equivalent and protein 
equivalent are provisional. 


Note : The prices quoted above represent the average prices at which 
actual wholesale transactions have taken place in Ix)ndon, unless other- 
wise stated, and refer to the price cx-mill or store. The prices were cunent 
at the beginning of March, 1937, and are, as a rule, considerably lower than 
the prices at local country markets, the difference being due to carriage 
and dealers’ commission. Buyers can, however, easily compare the 
relative values of the feeding stufis on offer at their local market by the 
method of calculation used in these notes. Thus, if linseed cake is offered 
locally at £11 per ton, then since its manurial value is /i per ton as shown 
above, the cost of food value per ton is £10. Dividing this figure by 74, the 
starch equivalent of linseed cake as given in the table, the cost per unit of 
starch equivalent is 2i. Sd. Dividing this agam by 22-4, the number of 
pounds of starch equivalent in one unit, the cost per lb. of starch equivalent 
is I ’43^. Similar calculations will show the relative cost per lb. of starch 
equivalent of other feeding stufis on the same local market. From the 
results of such calculations a buyer can determine which feeding stuff 
gives him the best value at the prices quoted on his own markets. The 
figures given in the table under the heading manurial value per ton are 
calculated on the basis of the following unit prices N., 7s. 2d , ; P,Oj, 
25. 3d. : KjO, 3s. 6d. 





FARM VALUES OP FEEDING STUFFS 


The prices in respect of the feeding stuffs used as bases of comparison 
for the purposes of this month's calculations are as follow : — 


Barley (imported) . . 

Maize 

Decorticated ground-nut cake 
,, cotton-seed cake 

(Add 105 . per ton, in 


Starch 

Protein 

Per 

equivalent 

equivalent 

ton 

Per cent. 

Per cent. 

i 

71 

6*2 

8 8 

78 

7-6 

6 0 

73 

41*3 

8 I 

68 

34*7 

8 17 


instance, for carriage.) 


The cost per unit starch equivalent works out at 1*97 shillings, and 
per unit protein equivalent i • 06 shillings. An explanation of the method 
of calculation employed is given in the Report of the Departmental 
Committee on Rationing of Dairy Cows.* 

The Table is issued as a guide to farmers respecting the feeding value of 
their crops in relation to current market prices. (The “ food values,” 
which it is recommended should be applied by Agricultural Organizers 
and other advisers in connexion with advisory schemes on the rationing 
of dairy cows, are given in the November, 1936, issue of the Ministry's 
Journal, p. 816). 


Farm Values. 


Crop 

t 

1 

! Starch 

1 equivalent 

: 

Protein 

equivalent 

Food Value 
per ton, on 
farm 

Wheat 

1 Per cent. 

.. i 72 

Per cent. 
9-6 

i 

7 12 

Oats. . 

. . ! 60 

7-6 

6 6 

Barley 

. ! 71 

6-2 

7 b 

Potatoes 

.. i i8 

0*8 

I 16 

Swedes 

' • 1 7 

0-7 

0 15 

Mangolds 

1 { 

•• i 7 ; 

0-4 

! 0 14 

Beans 

.. j 66 1 

19*7 

•' 7 11 

Good meadow hay 

37 ' 

4.6 

1 3 18 

Good oat straw 

.. 1 20 j 

0-9 

1 2 0 

Good clover hay 

: 38 

70 

1 4 2 

Vetch and oat silage 

13 1 

1*6 

I 7 

Barley straw 

23 ! 

0*7 

2 6 

Wheat straw 

13 

0*1 

I 6 

Bean straw . . 

"i " i 

1-7 

1 

2 7 


* Obtainable from H.M. Stationery Office, Adastral House, Kingsway, 
W.C.2, price 6<f., post free 7^, 


89 






MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 
The Agricultural Index Number 

The general index number of prices of agricultural produce 
for February is 129 (base 1911-13 = 100), i point lower than 
in the preceding month, but ii points above that of a year 
ago. (If allowance be made for payments under the Wheat 
Act, 1932, and the Cattle Industry (Emergency Provisions) 
Act, 1934, the revised index is 133.) Compared with 
January, higher prices were realized for oats, fat cattle and 
sheep, eggs, poultry, cheese and wool, while wheat, porkers, 
and potatoes made less money. Barley, baconers, butter, 
and milk were unchanged in price. 


Monthly index numbers of prices of Agrtcultural Prodiue. {Corresponding 
months of 1911-13 = 100.) 


Month 

193^ 

1933 

1934 1 

1935 

1939 

1937 

January 

122 

107 

I 

117 

119 

130 

February . . 

117 

106 

112 

115 

1 18 

129 

March 

113 

102 

108 1 

112 

1 16 

— 

April 

117 

105 

III I 

119 

123 



May 

115 

102 

112 1 

III 

113 

- 

June . . . . 

111 

100 

110 ' 

III 

' 116 

. 

July 

106 j 

1 lOl 


114 

! ii; 

— 

August 

105 

J105 

119 1 

113 

119 

! — 

September . . 

104 j 

1 107 

119 i 

120 

127 

, 

October 

100 

107 

II4 1 

Ti 3 

125 

1 — 

November , . . . j 

101 

109 

1 1 

113 

i 25 

i — 

December . . . . j 

! 1^3 ! 

110 

113 i 

114 

126 

1 


Revised monthly index numbers of prices of Agricultural Produce, allowing 
for payments under the Wheat Act (a) and the Cattle Industry (Emergency 
Provisions) Act (h). 


Month 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

January 

— 

III 

X19 

124 

125 

133 

February . . 

— 

no 

117 

122 

123 

^33 

March 

— 

106 

1 12 

118 

122 


April 

~ 

109 

116 

126 

128 


May 


105 

116 

117 

120 

— 

June 

' ' 

104 

114 

117 

I 2 I 

1 

July 


104 

117 

120 

121 

1 

August 

108 

108 

122 

120 

124 


September . . 

108 

III 

125 

128 

133 

— 

October 

X04 

112 

121 

119 

129 


November . . 

105 

113 

120 

H 9 

129 

— 

December , . 

107 

. IM 

120 

120 

130 

— 


(a) Commenced August, 1932. 

90 


(h) Commenced September, 1934. 



Miscellaneous Notes 


Grain. At an average of gs. id. per cwt., wheat was 8d. 
lower than in January, and as a consequence the index 
declines from 133 to 122. (If the " deficiency pa5mient ” 
under the Wheat Act, 1932, is taken into account the figure 
becomes 133.) Barley at los. per cwt. showed no alteration 
in price, but, owing to a slight rise in the base years, the index 
falls by I point to 124. Oats averaged 8s. ^d. per cwt. against 
8s. 2d. in January, but, as a more pronounced rise occurred 
in the base period, the index is reduced from 120 to 116. A 
year ago wheat averaged 6s. ^d., barley ys. iid.. and oats 
6s. per cwt., the indices being 85, 98, and 85 respectively. 

Live Stock. Fat cattle, at an average of 34s. '^d. per live 
cwt. for second quality, again showed an advance, the average 
for January being 33s. id., and the index rises by 2 points 
to 99. (With the addition of the subsidy under the Cattle 
Industry (Emergency Provisions) Act, 1934, the index 
becomes 114.) At an average of iid. per lb. for second 
quality the price of fat sheep appreciated by ^d . ; on account, 
however, of a proportionately greater increase having 
occurred during the corresponding months of 1911-13, the 
index falls from 140 to 137. Baconers at 12s. 4^. per score 
(20 lb.) maintained last month’s quotations, but porkers at 
13s. ^d. were lower in price by 3<f. As a result of a rise during 
the base period, the relative indices at 126 and 125 are lower 
by 4 and 6 points. 

Dairy cows were unaltered both in price and index. Store 
cattle and sheep were dearer; the index for the former 
appreciates by 2 points to loi, but that for sheep at 115 moves 
downwards by 3 points. Store pigs were slightly cheaper 
and the index is reduced from 152 to 139. 

Dairy and Poultry Produce. During the month under 
review the regional contract price of liquid milk was 
unchanged, the index again standing at 171. Butter at 
IS. 2d. per lb. showed no alteration in price, but the index 
rose by 2 points to 97, owing to a slight fall in the base prices. 
At an average of 13s. id. per 120, eggs showed a rise on the 
month of lod., and the index moves upwards from 95 to 115. 
Quotations for cheese also were higher, the average for 
February at 80s. per cwt. being 2s. more than in January; 
with a similar increase in the base period, the index remains 
at 107. Higher prices were realized for all classes of poultry, 
and tire combined index rises by 1 point to 121. 


91 



Miscellaneous Notes 


Other Commodities. At £7 15s. per ton, potatoes were 
lower by is. 6d., the index declining from 205 to 201. Both 
descriptions of hay were a little firmer in price, but not 
enough to alter the combined index of 98. Wool at is. 4f(i. 
per lb. sold at ^d. above the January price, but the index 
at 131 is the same owing to the influence of the base prices. 


Monthly index numbers of prices of Individual Commodities. (Correspond- 
ing months of 1911-13 = 100.) 


Commodity 

' 1935 


1936 


1937 1 

Feb. 

Feb. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Wheat 

b 3 

85 

n j 

118 

T 33 

122 

Barley 

101 

<iS 

115 

115 

1-^5 

124 

Oats. . 

00 

85 

98 

lOT 

120 

116 

Fat cattle . . 

91 

96 

03 

01 

97 

99 

„ sheep . 

' 134 

no 

^30 

128 

140 

137 

Bacon pigs . 

. 120 

111 

1 18 

124 

130 

126 

Pork ,, 

: ^^5 

114 

126 

i 3 i 

131 

125 

Eggs 

96 

118 

III 

106 

95 

115 

Poultry 

124 

j 122 

1 16 

^ 19 

120 

121 

Milk 

171 

i 

171 

171 

171 

171 

Butter 

86 

! 93 

. 97 

98 

95 

97 

Cheese 

94 

’ 95 

. 107 

103 

1 T07 

107 

Potatoes 

116 

' 200 

209 

220 

1 205 

201 

Hay 

102 

83 

102 

08 

1 98 

98 

Wool 

«7 ; 

9 fi I 

J07 

118 

T31 

131 

Dairy cows 

102 1 

J03 

109 

III 

III 

III 

Store cattle 

84 ; 

92 

95 

98 

99 

lOI 

,, sheep. 

109 1 

104 

117 

n 3 i 

118 


pigs .. 

, j 142 i 

129 1 

155 

156 i 

152 

139 


Revised index numbers due to payments under the Wheat Act and the 
Cattle Industry [Emergency Provisions) Act. 


Wheat 

• ! 117 

MSk 

WM 

134 

134 

.33 

Fat cattle . . 

• ! 105 



105 

112 

I 14 

General Index 

■ 1 1 

■a 

m 

i 130 

1 1 

1 133 


* Superseding figure previously published. 


Potato Synonyms 

The following note has been communicated by the National 
Institute of Agricultural Botany: — 

The report on the work of the Potato Synonym Conunittee 
of the National Institute of Agricultural Botany during 1936 
forms a striking contrast with those issued in the early years of 
the Committee’s activities. Whereas in former years a 
considerable proportion of varieties examined proved to be 

92 






Miscellaneous Notes 


no more than established varieties under new names, in 1936 
all but two were found to be distinct. 

A great reduction is also recorded in the number of 
synonyms which continue to be offered in seedsmen’s 
catalogues. The improvement in this respect has been 
continuous, and as a result of direct correspondence, with few 
exceptions, seedsmen throughout the country now intend to 
list varieties only under their established names. No satis- 
factory replies, however, have been received in respect of 
Cherub, Early Favourite, and Cleadon Park, and it should 
be pointed out that these are identical with Duke of York, 
Sharpe’s Express, and King Edward VIJ (red tyf>e) 
respectively. Apart from these, Midlothian Early and Sir 
John Llewellyn are still to be found in some catalogues. It 
is to be hoped that seedsmen will make it clear that these are 
identical with Duke of York and Eclipse, for the duplication 
of names can only lead to confusion. 

At one time the work of the Committee was not generally 
appreciated, but we can say to-day that seed growers and 
buyers alike recognize the value of the efforts made to protect 
their interests by reducing the many names under which 
potatoes have, in the past, been sold. 

Copies of the report for 1936 may be obtained on application 
to the Secretary, National Institute of Agricultural Botany, 
Huntingdon Road, Cambridge. 

Importation of Chrysanthemums 

With the object of preventing the introduction, through the 
medium of imported plants, of the Chrysanthemum Midge 
{Diarthronomyia hypogcea F. Low), which has proved a 
serious pest of greenhouse Chrysanthemums in North 
America, the Minister has made an Order* under the 
Destructive Insects and Pests Acts, 1877 to 1927, prohibiting, 
as from April 12, 1937. the landing in England or Wales from 
any country other than Scotland, Northern Ireland, the Irish 
Free State, the Isle of Man, or the Channel Islands of any 
living Chrysanthemum plant and parts thereof (except seeds) 
for planting, except under licence. The Order, which is 
entitled The Importation of Plants (Amendment) Order of 

• Copies of the Order (S.R. and O., 1937 No. 197) may be obtained 
either directly, or through any bookseller, from H.M. Stationery Office. 
Adastral House, Kingsway, W.C.2, price id, net, postage extra. 


93 



Miscellaneous Notes 


1937, also prescribes that the Health Certificates required under 
the Importation of Plants Order of 1933 to accompany 
imported plants must include a statement that the consign- 
ment does not contain any Chrysanthemum plant. 

The Ministry will be prepared to entertain applications for 
licences under the Order submitted by importers who are in 
a position to comply with the conditions which will be 
incorporated in the licences. These conditions will, inter alia, 
require the imported plants to be kept isolated from other 
Chrysanthemums in a separate greenhouse and to be 
examined from time to time by one of the Ministry’s Inspectors 
until all danger of the appearance of Chrysanthemum Midge 
is past. Occasional spraying with a nicotine wash may also 
be required. 

An illustrated article on the Chrysanthemum Midge 
appeared in the March, 1937, issue of this Journal (pp. 1158- 
1161). 

Sheep Scab Prosecution 

On February 12, at the Sheriff Court, Duns, Berwickshire, 
proceedings were taken against a farmer for offences against 
the Sheep Scab Order of 1928 and the Movement of Animals 
(Records) Order of 1925. An Inspector of the Ministry who 
visited the farm on January 29, in connexion with the tracing 
of animals moved from other infected premises, found eight 
sheep out of a total stock of 40 sheep to be affected with sheep 
scab, while the carcass of a sheep that was exhumed was 
found to be almost denuded of wool and very badly affected 
with scab. Sheep from these premises had been in contact 
with neighbouring animals, one of which was found to be 
affected. The farmer pleaded guilty and a fine of £100 was 
imposed by the Sheriff who referred to the case as one of 
gross carelessness. The steps taken by the Ministry in co- 
operation with Local Authorities during recent years to 
eradicate sheep scab have been attended with considerable 
success, but further progress may be seriously hindered if 
farmers in certain localities fail to co-operate by reporting 
suspected cases promptly. It is hop>ed that the penalty 
imposed in this instance may have a salutary effect and that 
sheep owners will realize the necessity of observing the 
requirements of the Sheep Scab Order so that the efforts now 
being made to free the flocks in Great Britain from disease 
may be effective. 

94 



Miscellaneous Notes 

Advisory Leaflets 

Since the date of the list published in the January, 1937, 
issue of this Journal (p. 1005), the undermentioned Advisory 
Leaflets have been issued by the Ministry : — 

No. 84. — The Pear and Cherry Sawfly (Revised). 

No. 90. -Essential Points in Poultry Feeding (Rewritten). 

No. 15 1. — The Cultivation of Parsnips (Revised). 

No. 187. — Woolly Aphis (Revised). 

No. 277. — Reversion '' in Black Currants. 

No. 279. — Skin Spot and Silver Scurf of Potatoes. 

No. 280. — Ragwort. 

Copies of any of the above-mentioned leaflets may be 
purchased from H.M. Stationery Office, Adastral House, 
Kingsway, London, W.C.2, or at the Sale Offices of that 
Department at Edinburgh, Manchester, Cardiff, and Belfast, 
price Td. each net (iW. post free), or gd. net per doz. (lod. 
post free). 

Single copies of not more than 20 leaflets may, however, 
be obtained, free of charge, on application to the Ministry. 
Further copies beyond this limit must be purchased from 
H.M. Stationery Office, as above. 

A list of the Ministry’s publications, including leaflets, 
on agriculture and horticulture may be obtained free and 
post free on application to the Ministry. 

Post Graduate Agricultural Scholarships and Refresher 

Course Grants 

The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries and the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture for Scotland invite applications for (i) 
agricultural scholarships from students who propose to follow 
the career of agricultural organizer or instructor or lecturer 
in agriculture (including horticulture, dairying, and poultry- 
husbandry), and (2) for grants for refresher courses from 
agricultural organizers, instructors, and lecturers already 
employed on the staffs of county agricultural educational 
authorities in England and Wales and from county organizers 
and instructresses on the staffs of the Agricultural Colleges in 
Scotland. The selection from candidates will be by interview, 
and the allocation of the scholarships and grants between the 
applicants from England, Wales and Scotland will be made 
entirely on the basis of merit. 

Agricultural Scholarships. The object of the scholar- 
ships, of which not more than 4 will be awarded annually, 

95 



Miscellaneous Notes 


is to broaden the agricultural knowledge and experience of 
students and so to qualify them for the position of agricultural 
organizer, instructor, or lecturer. 

Candidates must be British born, and should be graduates 
of a University, but exceptional candidates, otherwise 
qualified, who have not had an opportunity of graduating, 
will be regarded as eligible. Application may also be made 
in respect of candidates who have sat for a Degree or Diploma 
examination of which the result has not been announced. 
In addition, candidates should have had some experience of 
practical farming. 

The value of the scholarships will not exceed £200 together 
with an allowance for approved fees and travelling expenses. 
The amount may be varied in accordance with the scholar’s 
means and may cover the whole of the cost of training, 
including maintenance, or a proportion only of such cost. 

The period of the scholarships is normally one year and 
commences on October i. It will be spent at such agricultural 
educational or research institutions, advisory centres or farms 
as the Ministry or the Department may direct. 

Candidates must be nominated by a Professor, Principal 
or Lecturer of a University or College on the prescribed form 
and the nomination must be received not later than June 15. 
Students in England and Wales should submit their nomina- 
tions to the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries and students 
in Scotland to the Department of Agriculture for Scotland. 

Refresher Course Grants. The purpose of the refresher 
course grants is to provide means and opportunity for those 
already engaged in agricultural educational work to widen 
their knowledge of particular branches of agriculture and to 
become acquainted with recent advances on the scientific side 
of the subject. Special courses will be arranged to suit the 
particular circumstances of successful applicants. Applica- 
tions for grants for this purpose must be made on the pre- 
scribed form to the Ministry or the Department, and must be 
approved by the Authority or the governing body of the 
College by whom the applicant is employed and by whom 
the salary, of the applicant would be payable during (the 
period of the course. 

The period of a course will normally be about 4 weeks, 
and in any instance will not exceed 8 weeks, and will be spent 
at such agricultural educational or research institutions, 
advisory centres or farms as the Ministry or the Department 

96 



Miscellaneous Notes 


may direct. Reasonable travelling and subsistence expenses 
and any fees incurred by a successful applicant in taking a 
course will be defrayed. 

Forms of application for both the agricultural scholarships 
and the refresher course grants and all other particulars may 
be obtained, by English and Welsh students, from the 
Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, lo, 
Whitehall Place, London, S.W.i, and, by Scottish students, 
from the Secretary, Department of Agriculture for Scotland, 
29, St. Andrew Square, Edinburgh, 2. The latest date for 
receiving applications is June 15, 1937. 

Stud Goat Scheme, 1937-38 

This scheme for the improvement of milch goats kept by 
cottagers, smallholders and others is being continued during 
the forthcoming breeding season, which extends from 
September 1 to February 28 next. Under this scheme persons 
in the above-named categories are enabled to procure the 
services of first-class stud goats for breeding purposes at a 
maximum fee of 4s. per service. The stud goats used must 
have been entered, or be considered eligible for entry, in the 
British Goat Society's Herd Book, and they must have been 
bred from milk-producing stock. As in previous years, the 
scheme will be administered by the Society, and owners 
desirous of having their stud goats registered are requested 
to make application to the Secretary, Roydon Road, Diss, 
Norfolk, not later than April 15. No application will be 
considered after May 20, and goats submitted for approval 
must be available after that date for inspection at the premises 
at which they arc intended to stand at stud. It is interesting 
to note that Tamarisk*, a smallholder’s goat whose sire and 
grandsire were registered under the scheme, won her star at 
the New Forest Agricultural Show last summer with a one-day 
yield of 17 lb. 

Farm Workers* Minimum Rates of Wages. — A meeting of the Agri- 
cultural Wages Board was held at Kings Buildings, Smith Square, London, 
S.W.I, on Tuesday, March i6, 1937, Mr. W. B. Yates, C.B.E., J.P., 
presiding. 

The Board considered notifications from Agricultural Wages Committees 
of decisions fixing minimum and overtime rates of wages and proceeded to 
make the following orders : — 

Devonshire, — An Order fixing minimum and overtime rates of wages to 
come into operation on March 21, 1937 (i.e., the day following that on 
which existing rates are due to expire), and to continue in force until 
March 26, 1938, The minimum rates for male workers of 21 years of 

97 



Miscellaneous Notes 


age and over are 34s. (instead of 32s. 6d. as at present) per week of 
50 hours in winter, except in the weeks in which Good Friday, Easter 
Monday, Christmas Day and December 27, i 937 i when the hours 
are 41, and 52 hours in summer, except in the week in which Whit 
Monday falls when the hours arc 43, with overtime unchanged through- 
out the period at B\d. per hour on weekdays and lod. per hour on 
Sundays and for overtime employment on the hay and corn harvests. 
The minimum rates for female workers of 18 years of age and over are 
unchanged at 6d. per hour for a week of 48 hours, except in the weeks 
in which Good Friday, Easter Monday, Whit Monday, Christmas Day 
and December 27, 1937, fall when the hours are 40, with overtime at 
7^^. per hour as at present. 

Essex , — ^An Order fixing minimum and overtime rates of wages to come 
into force on March 28, 1937 following that on which the 

existing rates are due to expire), and to continue in operation until 
April 2, 1938. The minimum rates for male workers of 21 years of age 
and over are 325. 6d. (instead of 31s. td. as at present) per week of 50 
hours in summer, except in the weeks in which Easter Monday and 
Whit Monday fall when the hours are 41^, and 48 hours in winter, 
except (i) in the week in which Christmas Day and Boxing Day fall 
together, when the hours are 31, and (ii) in the weeks in which Christmas 
Day and Boxing Day fall, when those days fall in separate weeks, when 
the hours are 39J, with overtime at g\d. per hour on weekdays 
(including Easter Monday, Whit Monday and Boxing Day), and io\d. 
per hour on Sundays and on Christmas Day (instead of g\d. and io|<f. 
per hour respectively as at present). The minimum rate for female 
workers of 21 years of age and over remains unchanged at 6\d. per 
hour for all time worked. 

Herefordshire . — An Order fixing minimum and overtime rates of wages to 
come into force on May i, 1937 following that on which 

existing rates are due to expire), and to continue in operation until 
April 30, 1938. The minimum rates are (i) in the case of male workers 
of 21 years of age and over employed wholly or mainly as bailiffs, 
waggoners, stockmen, or shepherds, 37s. (instead of 365. as at present) 
per week (including Sunday) for all time necessarily spent on the 
immediate care of animals (not exceeding 60 hours) with overtime 
unchanged at 9^. per hour, except for employment on Christmas Day 
and Good Friday where a worker has completed less than 60 hours in 
the weeks in which those holidays fall, when the rate is 2d. per hour ; 
(ii) for other male workers of 21 years of age and over, 32s. 6<f. (instead 
of 3 IS. 6d. as at present) per week of 48 hours in winter, except in the 
week in which Christmas Day falls when the hours are 39 J, and 54 hours 
in summer, except in the week in which Good Friday falls when the 
hours are 44 J, with overtime at gd. per hour on weekdays and lod. 
per hour on Sundays (as at present) ; and (iii) for female workers of 
18 years of age and over, 5<f. per hour (as at present), with overtime at 
6d. per hour, except for employment on Christmas Day and Good 
Friday where a whole-time worker has completed less than 46J hours 
in the weeks in which those holidays fall, when the rate is i Jd. per hour. 

Kent . — An Order fixing minimum and overtime rates of wages to come 
into force on March 28, 1937 (i.e., the day following that on which 
existing rates are due to expire), and to continue in operation until 
April 2, 1938. The minimum rates for male workers of 21 years of 
age and over employed wholly or mainly as horsemen, stockmen or 
shepherds are 35s. (instead of 335. 6d. as at present) per week of 52 hours, 
except (i) in the weeks in which Easter Monday and Coronation Day 
fall when the hours are 42J, (ii) in the week in which Christmas Day 

98 



Miscellaneous Notes 


and Boxing Day fall together when the hours are 33, and (iii) in the weeks 
in which Christmas Day and Boxing Day fall when those days fall in 
separate weeks, when the hours are 42 J. The minimum rates for other 
male workers of 21 years of age and over are 345. (instead of 335. as 
at present) per week of 52 hours in summer, except in the weeks in 
which Easter Monday and Coronation Day fall when the hours are 42 J, 
and 48 hours in winter, except (i) in the week in which Christmas Day 
and Boxing Day fall together when the hours are 31 (instead of 30 hours 
as formerly), and (ii) in the weeks in which Christmas Day and Boxing 
Day fall, when these days fall in separate weeks, when the hours are 39 1 . 
The overtime rates are, in the case of ordinary male workers of 21 years 
of age and over, gd. per hour on weekdays and'iorf. per hour on Sundays, 
Easter Monday, Christmas Day and Boxing Day (as formerly) and lod. 
per hour on Coronation Day, and in the case of horsemen, stockmen or 
shepherds of similar age lod. per hour on Easter Monday, Coronation 
Day, Christmas Day and Boxing Day and gd. per hour for all other 
overtime employment (including Sundays). The minimum rate for 
female workers of 18 years of age and over is unchanged at 6d. per 
hour, with overtime at 6\d, per hour on weekdays and 7^. per hour on 
Sundays, Easter Monday, Christmas Day and Boxing Day (as at present) 
and 7</. per hour on Coronation Day. 

Lincolnshire {Holland). — An Order cancelling the existing minimum and 
overtime rates of wages and fixing fresh rates in substitution therefor 
to come into force on March 28, 1937. to continue in operation until 
October 30, 1937- The minimum rates for male workers of 21 years 
of age and over are 35s. (as at present) per week of 50 hours in summer 
except in the weeks in which Coronation Day, Whit Monday and 
August Bank Holiday fall when the hours are 41. In the case of horse- 
men, cattlemen and shepherds of similar age additional w^eekly sums are 
fixed to cover all time worked in excess of the number of hours mentioned 
above, except employment which is to be treated as overtime employ- 
ment. The overtime rates for male workers of 21 years of age and over 
are is. i\d. per hour on Sundays (as at present), gd. per hour (instead 
of %\d. as at present) on Whit Monday and August Bank Holiday, gd. 
per hour on Coronation Day, io\d. per hour on Saturday or other 
w^eekly .short day (as at present) and lojtf. per hour (instead of gd. as 
at present) for all other overtime employment. The minimum rate for 
female workers of 15 years of age and over is per hour, except in 
Coronation Week when the minimum rate is ^d. per hour, with overtime 
at 'jd. per hour for all employment in excess of 5J hours on Saturday or 
other agreed weekly short day, on Sundays and in excess of 8 hours on 
any day. 

Northumberland. — An Order fixing minimum and overtime rates of wages 
to come into force at noon on May 13, 1937 (i.e., when the existing rates 
are due to expire), and to continue in force until noon on May 13, 1938. 
The minimum rates for male workers of 21 years of age and over em- 
ployed as stewards, horsemen, cattlemen, stockmen, or shepherds and 
hired by the week or longer period are 395. 6d. (instead of 38s. 6d. as at 
present) in the case of workers who are householders, and 365. 6d. (instead 
of 355, 6d. as at present) in the case of workers who are not householders, 
per week of customary hours (not exceeding 62). For other male 
workers of 21 years of age and over (except workers in casual employ- 
ment) the minimum rate is 32s. 6d.. (instead of 31s. 6d. as at present) 
per week of 48 hours in winter and 52 j hours in summer, overtime being 
payable in the case of all regular male workers at not less than gd. per 
hour on weekdays and iid. per hour on Sundays. The minimum rate 
for casual male workers of 18 years of age and over is Sd. per hour 

99 



Miscellaneous Notes 


(instead of *]d, per hour as at present) for all time worked. The minimum 
rates for female workers of i8 years of age and over are 6d, per hour 
(instead of 5^. per hour as at present) in the case of re^lar workers, 
and 4d. per hour (instead of 3d. per hour as at present) in the case of 
casual workers, with overtime at jd. per hour and 5d. per hour 
respectively (instead of 6d. per hour and 4^. per hour as at present). 

Somerset — An Order fixing minimum and overtime rates of wages to come 
into force on March 28, 1937 following that on which the 

existing rates are due to expire) and to continue in operation until 
March 26, 1938. The minimum rates for male workers of 21 years of 
age and over are 34s. (instead of 32s. fid. as at present) per week of 52 
hours in summer, except in the weeks in which Easter Monday 
Coronation Day, Whit Monday and August Bank Holiday fall when the 
hours are 42^, and 50 hours in winter, except in the weeks in which 
Christmas Day and December 27, 1937 when the hours are 41J, 
with overtime unchanged at gd. per hour, except for overtime employ- 
ment on the hay and com harvests when the rate is lod. per hour. 
Provision is made for adjustment of the hours in respect of which the 
minimum weekly wage is payable in the weeks in which Easter Monday, 
Coronation Day, Whit Monday, August Bank Holiday, Christmas Day, 
and December 27, 1937, meet cases where alternative holidays 

are given within 14 days of such holidays. The minimum rate for female 
workers of 21 years of age and over is unchanged at fid. per hour for all 
time worked. 

Sussex . — An Order fixing minimum and overtime rates of wages to come 
into force on March 22, 1937 following that on which the 

existing rates are due to expire) and to continue in operation until 
July II, 1937. The minimum rates in the case of male workers of 21 
years of age and over arc (i) for workers employed wholly or mainly as 
horsemen, cowmen, stockmen, or shepherds, 37s. fid. (as at present) per 
week of 58 hours except in the weeks in which Good Friday, Coronation 
Day and Whit Monday fall when the hours are 50 ; and (ii) for other 
workers, 32s. fid. (as at present) per week of 52 hours, except in the 
weeks in which Good Friday, Coronation Day and Whit Monday fall 
when the hours are 44. The overtime rates for all classes of adult male 
workers are unchanged at gd. per hour on weekdays, and lod. per hour 
on Sundays. The minimum rate for female workers of 18 years of age 
and over is 5d. per hour, with overtime at 6Jd. per hour on weekdays 
and 7id. per hour on Sundays (as at present). 

Wiltshire . — An Order cancelling the existing minimum and overtime rates 
of wages and fixing fresh rates in substitution therefor, to come into 
force on March 25, 1937, ^md to continue in operation until January i, 
1938. The minimum rates for male workers of 21 years of age and 
over are 325. fid. (instead of 31s. as at present) per week of 50 hours, 
except in the weeks in which Good Friday, Easter Monday, Coronation 
Day, Whit Monday, August Bank Holiday, Christmas Day, and 
December 27, 1937» fall when the hours are 41. The overtime rates are 
9jd. per hour on weekdays (instead of 9d. as at present) and lod. per 
hour on Sundays, Good Friday, Easter Monday, Coronation Day, Whit 
Monday and Christmas Day (as at present) and lod. per hour on August 
Bank Holiday and December 27, 1937. J*ate for overtime employ- 
ment on the hay and com harvests on weekdays is 9 Jd. per hour (instead 
of gd. as at present). The minimum rate for female workers of 18 years 
of age and over is sd. per hour for all time worked (as at present). 

Radnor and Brecon . — An Order fixing minimum and overtime rates of wages 
to come into force on May i, 1937 (i.e., the day following that on which 
the existing rates are due to expire) and to continue in operation until 

100 



Miscellaneous Notes 


October 31, 1937. The minimum rates for male workers of 21 years of 
age and over are 325. (instead of 31s. as at present) per week of 50 hours 
in winter and 54 hours in summer, with overtime unchanged at gd, 
per hour. For female workers of 18 years of age and over, the minimum 
rate is unchanged at 5<f. per hour with overtime at per hour on 
weekdays and yjif. per hour on Sundays (as at present). 

Enforcement of Minimum Rates of Wages. — During the month ending 
March 13, 1937, legal proceedings were taken against fourteen employers 
for failure to pay the minimum rates of wages fixed by the Orders of the 
Agricultural AVages Board. Particulars of the cases follow^ : — 


Committee 

Area 

Court 

Fines 

Imposed 

Costs 

Allowed 

! 

i Arrears of 
Wage.s 
ordered 

No. of 
\\'orkers 
involved 



/ 

s. 

d 

: £ 

5. 

d. 

£ 

s. 

d. 


Berkshin' . . 

Wantage 

iJ 

10 

0 

' 1 

3 

() 

3 

ti 

0 

r 

Do. 

Do. 


» 



— 



0 

0 

I 

Cheshire . . 

Macclesfield 

2 

0 

0 

3 

0 

0 

* 19 

T5 

0 

2 

Lancashire 

Radcliffe 

■ 12 

0 

0 

4 

h 

8 

! 60 

13 

4 

2 

Nottingham- 












shire 

Worksop 

> 

0 

0 

0 

10 

6 

1 49 

I 

2 

2 

Do. . . 

Do. . . 

0 

10 

0 

0 

5 

0 

i 8 

8 

0 

I 

Shropshire 

Baschurch 

TO 

0 

0 

0 

10 

0 

' 47 

10 

0 

4 

Somerset . . 

Axbridge. . 

3 

f> 

0 

0 

I 2 

6 

34 

1 6 

IT 

i 

W'estmore- 












land 

Appleby . . 


+ 



— 



- 


3 

Yorkshire 












(K.H ; , 

File>' 

7 

H) 

0 

2 

12 

(> 

1 2 

3 

2 

1 

Do. . . 

Bridlington 

2 

0 

0 

f ) 

3 

0 

15 

7 

0 

1 

Carmarthen 

Llanfihangel 

0 

5 

0 


— 


M 

j I 

4 

1 

Carnarvon 

Pwllheli .. 

1 

0 

0 


— 


0 

L 5 

0 

1 

Do. . . 

Carnarvon 

1 

0 

0 

0 

5 

0 

1 ^7 

II 

5 

I 



' 41 

1 

15 

0 

1 

19 

8 

321 

! 

3 

4 

» 

1 


* Dismissed under Probation of Offenders ” Act. 
t Dismissed. 


Foot-and-Mouth Disease. — No outbreak of Foot-and-Mouth Disease 
has been confirmed since February 5. At the time this issue of the 
Journal went to press, no part of Great Britain w^as subject to any 
restriction in connexion with this disease. 

APPOINTMENTS 

COUNTY AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION STAFFS; ENGLAND 

Essex ; Miss D. O. Ashton, B.Sc., N.D.H., has been appointed Instruc- 
tress in Rural Domestic Science, vice Miss E, W. Jameson, N.D.H. 
Lincolnshire (Lindsey) : Mr. A. Mann, B.Sc., has been appointed 
Agricultural Organizer, vice Mr. A. McVicar, B.Sc., N.D.A., N.D.D., 
who resigned on March 31 to take up a -similar appointment in Shrop- 
shire. 

Norfolk ; Mr. P. E. Cross, N.D.H. , has been appointed Assistant Director 
of Horticultural Education, and will take up his duties on May i. 

lOI 




WIRELESS TALKS TO FARMERS, APRIL, 1937 


Station and 
Date 

Time : 
p,m 

1 

1 Speakers 

j Subject 

National : 
AprUs, 12. 

IQ, 26 

Midland : 

0*20 

Mr J (i Stewart 

1 

j 

April I 

0-40 

j Messrs. \V. B Thompson 

1 Shire Horses 



j and W Milner 

1 

- i 

j 

8-30 

1 Our ( ountrv Correspon- 
1 dent • Captain H. A 

1 (lilberl 

j Wild Fowl Inquiry 

1 

M 11 


i Mr Kobin Whitworth 

\'ale of Kvesbani Fruit- 

' 



grow'ing 

.. 15 ' 

0*40 


I 'or Midland Farm(‘r*> 

West : 


* 


April \ ' 

<)• 50 

! I'ortnighll}' Letter 

I'or Western FarnuTs 

” 1 

(>•40 

1 Messrs A \V Ling and 

What is Going on in 



! JL J . Fricker 

(iloucestershiic 

M 15 j 


i I'ortnightly Letter 

For Western Farmers 

1 > 22 j 

0-30 

1 Messrs A \V Ling and 

What IS (ioing on in Corn- 



1 B J Fricker 

wall 

^<1 : 

()• 50 

‘ Fortnightly l.etter 

For W'estern rarnier'* 

North ; 




April () 

*)• jO 

! .Mes'^is J J Oreen, Ct M 

J'^oiiltry harming in Lant a- 



Kobcitson and ] 1.. 

' iMoorhouse ; 

shire. 

,, 22 

<»• 20 

j Prof J A Hanley and 

T.and I tili^.ixion 



' Mr F. Wylie LVnton 


Welsh : 




April 2 

7 ' 

' Mr Moses C.rdtUh (in 

h'or Welsh h'armers 'Die 

1 


Welsh) 

1 , 

F.irming Situation in 
Wales 'i'o-day. 

,, (i ' 

7 * 

Mr W 11 (ones (in 

hor W'clsh 1 ariners In- - 

j 


i Welsh) 

troductory to a new senes 
ol talks 

Scottish : ; 



1 

April i ' 

0* 40 

1)1 J Knssell (ireig 

For Scottish Farmeis 

" 7 1 

0*30 

Dr. Allan Fraser : 

I'or Scottish Fanners 


()• 20 

Principal W, (L R Pater- ' 

Bracken Fradication 

i 


j son 


»» 22 1 

0-20 

As North Regional ' 

— 

Northern i 

i 

[ 


Ireland: i 

April ij 1 

7-30 

Mr. Peter Fitzpatrick 

Farmers’ Work and Woiry. 


102 




NOTICES OF BOOKS 


Land-Rcclamation in Italy : Rural Revival in the Building of a 
Nation. By C'csare Longobarcli. Translated from the Italian by 
O. i<. Agicsti. I’p. \ii 243, & 29 Figs. (London : P. S. King 
A' Son, Ltd. i93f). 1 ^‘K‘e i26. Od.) 

Tbi^ ICnglisli verhion of an Italian work published in 1934 makes far 
from easy rcatling, but is a useful account of the machinery and aims of 
land reclamation under the Fast ist regime. Stress is laid on the “ integral 
cliaraeter ot the work, as part of a co-ordinated movement for "rural 
re vival " a character which, it is claimed, the corporative system alone 
<<inld h<ive imjiarted It is stated that on July t, 1934, pnblic reclama- 
tion works had lu'cn fully or nearly completed on 1,760,000 hectares 
(4,330,000 acre s j Of this area, 780,000 hectares had previously consisted 
of unprodiictu e or " extensively ’ ciiltiv'ated lands, on which reclamation 
woihs proj)(*r liavc' to be followed by agricultural conversion and settle- 
nu’iit 'rhe < ost of Government and private works executed from 1870 
to July I, 1031, IS given elsewhere a.s 8,000 million lire, of which works 
costing 6.000 million lire were executed in the twelve years of the Fascist 
era. Operations in the Pontine Marshes, including acquisition of lands, 
road-making, building, stump-extracting, bieaking-iip and conditioning 
the land, supple mg water, (dc , are stated to have cost 7,000 lire per 
hectare lor the smaller larms and 2.300 lire ]>er hectare tor the larger 
farms jii less fertile regions, or /31 and /ii per acre respectively. In 
Littoria and Sabaudia loan charges tor drainage works and cost of 
imiiutenance average 70 lire ])er hectare, or 6.s pt r acre "The plans 
arc studied and selei tod so that the quota (»1 costs charged to each owner 
may be cxpec ted to earn a normal rat(‘ of inten^st provided by the increa.scd 
income derived from the land itsidl : and in the case of the Government 
so that the <piota toi which it is Iiabh‘ tlic maximum Government grant 
towards cliff ereni public w'orks varying from 60 per cent, to 100 per cent, 
according to the nature of tlu' work, and even for works beneficial only to 
one or more farms from 25 pcT cent to 75 per cent. — " is proportional 
to the economic and social advantage secured for the country.” An 
allocation of that p<irt of the cost met by landowners is provisional!}’ made 
oil the basis of benefit, and is revised on the completion of the works. 
Where the works rc»sult in a saving (>f expenditure to provinces and com- 
munes, they may be Te(]uired to make--- apart from any quota to w’hich 
they may lie liable as owners — a contribution not exceeding a quarter of 
the Treasury contribution. Fhe execution and upkeep of the work is 
usually entrusted to a consortiion of landowners, although either the land- 
owners or the Government may have the final responsibility, according 
to the nature of the work A large part, however, has been played by the 
National Foundation for Ex-Service Men, which may require land subject 
to reclamation obligations to be transferred to it. 

An Introduction to the Principles of Plant Physiology. By W. Stiles, 
M.A., Sc.D., F.L.S , F.R.S. Pp. viii -f- 613 and 60 Figs. (London : 
Methuen & Co., Ltd. 1936. Wee 27s o^^.) 

Botanists are only too familiar with the bewildering mass of original 
publications concerning the physiology of plants that have appeared during 
the last 20 years. In the absence of up-to-date text-books on this subject, 
it has frequently been beyond the capabilities of students who are working 

103 



Notices of Books 


through an honours degree course in a limited time, to assess the relative 
value of apparently contradictory statements, or to extract information 
from these papers, and synthesise a clear picture of the essential features 
of the more important processes which make up the life of a plant. The 
result is that many botanists have no clear physiolopcal background 
against which their activities in other branches of the subject can be clearly 
seen. For this reason Professor Stiles’s book will doubtless be welcomed 
by many as a safe haven in which to anchor awhile, and take stock of the 
situation. With further lapse of time, a change in direction of the physio- 
logical wind may necessitate the erection of fresh breakwaters, or even 
the reorganization of the harbour itself, but this can bo left for the future 
to decide. 

The book is divided into four main parts, entitled : (i) The ^ncral 
Physiology and Development of the Plipt Cell, (ii) Metabolism, (iii) The 
Physiology of Development, (iv) Irritability and Movement. There is 
also a useful list of more than 900 original papers to w^hich reference is 
made in the text. Some of the information in parts 1 and ii is already 
available in Professor Stiles's own previous works, and in other books dealing 
v-ith special aspects of plant physiology, but that in parts iii and iv will 
probably be found particularly valuable. The book is well written, easy 
to follow, and unnecessary or confusing detail has been omitted. All these 
desirable features could have come only from the pen of one who has 
thoroughly mastered the subject in hand. 

The selection of material for inclusion in a bdok is always a difficult task, 
and in this instance much care has evidently been expended. It is impor- 
tant to realise, however, that only a small proportion of those taking an 
honours course in botany will in after life be engaged in researches in 
pure physiolog>^ For purposes of general education it therefore seems 
desirable that special emphasis should be laid on the ways in w^hich the 
principles of plant physiology can or might be applied to agricultural and 
horticultural practice, just as in a text-book of chemistry it is customary 
to show how general principles have been employed in industry. The 
book under review is essentially one that deals with principles rather 
than their applications, although these have not always been omitted. 
For instance on p. 393, the commercial possibilities which arise out of the 
work of Garner and Allard on the effect of length of day in controlling the 
flowering of plants, or how work on vernalization might be applied to 
facilitate the production of cereals (pp. 389-90) are indicated. On the 
other hand, no attention is drawn to the fact that the knowledge concerning 
growth-promoting substances, which has accumulated during the past 10 
years, might be of use in attempting to propagate refractory plants by vege- 
tative means. Since fields, gardens and greenhouses are the domains in which 
so many students have in later life to apply scientific knowledge to earn their 
daily bread, it seems probable that a closer relationship between laboratory 
work and commercial practice would of great value to all concerned. 

Professor Stiles’s book is undoubtedly a very valuable addition to 
botanical literature, and is strongly to be recommended to all who are 
interested in plant physiology. 


Printed under the authority of His Maiesty’s Stationery Office, 
By William Clowes & Sons, Ltd., Duke Street, SUmford Street, S.E.i. 



THE JOURNAL 

OF THE 

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE 

Vol. XLIV No. 2 May, 1937 


The World Feeding-Stuffs Position 

A good deal of attention has been aroused in recent months 
by the world rise in prices of animal feeding-stuffs, and a brief 
statistical review of the world position of the more important 
feeding-stuffs, barley, oats, maize and linseed, may be of 
interest. 

Recent statistics published by the International Institute of 
Agriculture, Rome, arc summarized in the following table of 
world production : — 



i 

j Number 

1 of 

' Countries 
: compnsed 

1 in the 
j total (a) 

Percentage 
of world 
pro<luction 
(a) 

I^oduction in 

193O-37 

Increase (+) or 
Decrease { — ) com- 
pared with 

1 Average of 
i sea.sons 

m 5 - 3 <> 1 ending 

' 1934-35 

Barley . 

1 

% 


0/ 

/(} 

0/ 

,0 

• ' 4 ^ 

8 j 

485 million | 
cwt. 1 

— 12 

— 10 

Oats 

. 1 30 

98 

802 million 1 
cwt. 1 

— lO 

- 13 

Maize . 

• -3 

84 

1,443 million 
cwt. 

- 17 

^ 17 

Linseed . 

IM 

j 

99 

2,780 thousand 
tons 

-1- ir 

— 2 


(a) Kusmr and China excluded. 


The harvests of barley and oats in Europe in 1936-37, 
although about 7 per cent, under average, were little different 
from those of the previous season, while the maize crop 
increased by about 27 per cent, on the year and 16 per cent, 
above average. Since 1932, linseed production in Europe 
has progressively expanded, and a further large increase was 
recorded in 193^37. 

The harvests of barley, oats and maize in North America 
were about one-third smaller than in 1935-36 and the 
production of linseed declined by more than one-half. 

A 


105 




Notes for the Month 


Good crops of barley and oats were taken in Argentina, and 
a first estimate of the maize harvest, although 5 per cent, less 
than last season’s crop, is 10 per cent, above average. 
Linseed production in Argentina, although very slightly under 
average, was 32 per cent, more than in I935“36- 
Total shipments of feeding-stuffs, together with United 
Kingdom imports, during the first eight months of the present 
season, compared with the corresponding period in 1935-36, 
are given in the following table : — 



i World Shipments, 

1 August to March 

i 

United Kingdom 
Imports, August 
to March 

i 1936-37 

1935-36 

1936-37 

1935-36 

Barley, million cwt. 

. 1 22*9 

27-8 

13*9 

i 5'7 

Oats ,, ,, 

. i 7*3 

6-7 

1*4 

1-7 

Maize 

. i 159-1 

131-1 

54*7 

48-3 

Linseed, thousand tons 

1560-6 

1257*5 

i 

195*7 

189-2 


The bulk of the oats, maize and linseed shipments were 
supplied by Argentina, while Russia and the Danubian 
countries shipped the largest proportion of the world barley 
exports. Larger quantities than usual of animal feeding stuffs 
have been imported into the United States to supplement the 
poor crops taken in that country, and arrivals of maize in the 
United Kingdom were considerably above average. 

The trend of prices in this country is shown in the following 
table of monthly average prices : — 



Imported 
Feeding 
Barley 
per cwt. 

Imported 

Oats 

per cwt. 

Argentine 

Maize 

per cwt. 

Linseed 

Cake 

per ton. 

August, 1936 

s. d. 

7 I 

.. d. 

1 4 

s. d. 

6 3 

L s- i- 

8 18 0 

September ,, 

6 6 

7 3 

5 10 

906 

October ,, 

6 II 

1 7 9 

5 8 

i 8 16 6 

November ,, 

6 II 

: 7 9 , 

5 3 

8 14 0 

December 

8 0 

; 8 10 

5 9 

930 

January, 1937 

8 II 

9 4 

5 11 

990 

February 

8 6 

! 8 II 

1 5 11 

990 

March „ . . 

8 5 

1 9 * 1 

1 3 

966 

March, 1936 . . . . i 

1 

5 4 

i 6 3 

< 

1 

4 3 



106 







Notes for the Month 


The new maize and linseed crops in Argentina are good and 
should be available on the market in the near future. It is too 
early, however, for any indication of prospects for this 
season's crops in the northern hemisphere. 

Dried Poultry Manure Experiments 

A series of field experiments on dried poultry manure was 
carried out in 1936 by the Rothamsted staff in conjunction with 
Advisory Chemists, County Organizers, Farm Institutes and 
others along lines developed since 1933. Several of the 
experiments begun in 1934 and 1935 were planned to run a 
term of years and many of them were continued in 1936. 
Others on a similar plan were started. After the preliminary 
year it was decided to concentrate attention on the organic 
matter and nitrogen in poultry manure and to omit any further 
attempt to assess the value of the phosphoric acid iri dried 
poultry manure by giving all plots in each experiment the same 
total amoimts of P2O5 and KgO, allowing for those in the 
poultry manure. It was agreed that the value of an organic 
manure such as poultry manure might not be properly esti- 
mated by considering only the immediate effects in the year 
of application. Attempts to measure either cumulative or 
residual effects necessarily complicate the form of the experi- 
ments. It is believed that the general pattern adopted in most 
of the recent experiments meets the requirements as satisfac- 
torily as is possible with a moderate number of plots to be 
employed for a short term of years. 

The experiments as a whole gave larger responses than in 
previous years, and thus gave a better opportunity for 
comparing poultry manure and sulphate of ammonia. The 
1936 results are in good agreement with those of the earlier 
years, though both manures gave better results in the wet year 
1936 than in the average of the three preceding drier ones The 
variation between centres makes it unsafe to conclude from the 
information at present available that the cumulative effects of 
poultry manure are greater than those of sulphate of ammonia, 
but there are at least indications that this is so. 

The results of the main series of trials indicate that the rela- 
tive effects of poultry manure and sulphate of ammonia differed 
from crop to crop in 1936, but it must be remembered that the 
number of experiments in each group was small. It appears, 
however, that for the crops known to respond abundantly to 
inorganic nitrogen, the poultry manure is definitely inferior to 

A 2 107 



Notes for the Month 


sulphate of ammonia. There is, however, some suggestion 
that for special crops and for cumulative effects poultry manure 
may have advantages over sulphate of ammonia. The precise 
conditions must, however, be worked out more thoroughly 
before a definite statement can be made. For immediate 
effects on crops responding to inorganic nitrogen, poultry 
manure is definitely inferior to an equivalent amount of 
inorganic fertilizers. The average residual effect of poultry 
manure, judging from first-year residues in these experiments, 
was small relative to that of sulphate of ammonia, which in 
the 1936 experiment may well be assumed to have been zero. 

While it is thought desirable to place the interim results of 
these experiments on record, it must be said that the results 
are tentative and that it is proposed to carry on the experiments 
for three more seasons. At the conclusion of the experiments 
it is hoped that there will be available definite data that will 
provide sound criteria for evaluating the material. 

Interesting Birds: (3) The Kestrel 

The Kestrel is still fairly common in Great Britain, and is 
perhaps the most familiar of our birds of prey. The character- 
istic hovering flight, which in some districts has caused the 
Kestrel to be known as the “ Windhover," makes its identifica- 
tion when in flight an easy matter. Like all birds of prey it is 
veiy keen sighted, and it may often be seen hovering at a 
considerable height, stationary and almost motionless except 
for the balancing action of the wings and tail, watching some 
creature on the ground beneath. 

In general colour the male Kestrel is a light chestnut, spotted 
and streaked with black. The breast is buff, and the head and 
lower part of the back and tail are slate grey. The female 
differs in that the head, neck and tail are chestnut, barred or 
streaked with black. 

The Kestrel makes no nest, being content to occupy the 
disused nest of a crow or some other large bird, or to lay its 
eggs in a cleft in a rock, in a hollow tree, or even on a ledge in 
some building. The eggs, which may number 4-6, are very 
handsome, and vary considerable in colour and marking. 
The most common form is one having a creamy or yellowish- 
white ground, so densely marked with rich red-brown that the 
ground colour is almost or entirely obscured. 

The Kestrel’s food consists almost wholly of mice, voles, 
young rats, and large insects. Sometimes, however, it takes 

108 




Phoiofiriitifi Cut>yriiihi hy Eric J. Husking. 

Kestrel, witli Field Vole 

To face puge loS. 




Notes for the Month 


a small bird of one kind or another. Individual Kestrels may 
fall into bad habits and take to stealing young chickens and 
pheasants, but these occasional lapses should not be allowed to 
prejudice the species in the eyes of landowners or farmers. 
The Kestrel is, in fact, one of the most useful birds that we 
have, and is a good friend to agriculturists generally. In the 
destruction of rodent pests it has no superior, with the possible 
exception of the Barn Owl. Nowadays, happily, it escapes 
much of the persecution to which it was at one time subjected, 
and all occupiers of land should make it their business to 
protect and encourage so useful an ally. 

Potato Synonyms 

The following note has been communicated by the National 
Institute of Agricultural Botany : ~ 

It was reported to the Council of the National Institute of 
Agricultural Botany, which met on April 15, that the work of 
the Potato Sj'nonym Committee had resulted in the practical 
elimination of synonymous names from the catalogues of the 
largest seedsmen. Of these firms, only two refused to with- 
draw their synonyms, namely Chenib, Clcadon Park and 
Early Favourite. 

Communications had recently been sent to a very large 
number of the remaining firms throughout the country 
suggesting where necessaiy' that synonymous or alternative 
names be withdrawn from their catalogues. A gratifying 
response had been received, for out of 125 firms offering such 
names in their 1937 04 already agreed to fall in with 

the suggestions of the Committee, while only 4 firms had 
definitely refused. In these instances the varieties were being 
grown at Ormskirk, and publicity would be given to the 
Committee’s findings in due course. 

Whey 

In the Report of the Advisory Committee on Nutrition 
recently is.sued, attention is drawn to the nutritive value of 
whey. The Report says : 

“ The belief that whey is of no significant nutritional value is 
erroneous. Undoubtedly it is inferior to skimmed milk, cheese, or butter, 
but it is nevertheless sufficiently nutritious to warrant its use in human 
diets wherever it is available. Whey contains much of the sugar and 
minerals and some of the proteins and \’itamins of the milk from whicli 
it was derived, and, as an ingredient of foods made from cereals, it 
would go some way towards correcting the deficiencies in such foods.’' 

109 



Notes for the Month 


The manufacturing industry is, in general, already well 
aware of the value of this by-product of cheese-making, and 
it is used to some extent already in the manufacture of certain 
patent milk foods. As to its constitution, it has 93 per cent, 
water, 5 percent, milk-sugar and lactic acid, i per cent, soluble 
protein, and traces of mineral ash and butter fat. As a food 
substance it is, of course, highly diluted and subject to rapid 
deterioration. Where cheese is made on a small scale, whey 
is generally fed to pigs and should thus be well utilized on the 
farms. In large-scale cheese-making, whey is obviously a 
difficult by-product to deal with, as it must either be returned 
to farms for stock-feeding or concentrated sufficiently to permit 
of its transport to a central factory for the further processing 
and extraction of the milk-sugar. A large quantity of whey 
is at present sent from cheese-making factories in the West 
Midlands to the finishing depot at Haslington, near Crewe, 
where an excellent grade of lactose is produced for inclusion 
in certain patent foods. From this process there is a further 
by-product containing some minerals and proteins suitable for 
stock-feeding. It may well be that in large-scale cheese- 
making in the future, provision will always be made for the 
concentration of the valuable ingredients in whey, with a view 
to their utilization in various forms of milk and other foods. 

Wild White Clover Certification Scheme 

The IQ36 harvest of wild white clover seed was one of the 
smallest that has been known for many years. The supply 
of certified seed from fields that have been recorded under this 
scheme has been insufficient to meet the demand. The price 
of the seed is higher than it has been for several seasons, and 
stocks of wild white clover seed must now be very low. 

There is a steady demand from the U.S.A. for English 
certified seed, and although this demand is not for a very great 
volume of seed at present, there is every indication that an 
increase is likely as soon as the satisfactory results from the 
inclusion of this plant in the seeds mixtures, particularly in 
the Eastern States, become more widely known. 

About 9,000 acres of seed have been recorded under the 
scheme, of which approximately 7,700 acres are Grade A (old 
pasture that has been in grass not less than 10 years) and 1,300 
Grade B (less than 10 years old and sown down with seed from 
a pasture which was not less than 10 years old). Over 3,600 
acres that were submitted for inspection have not been 

no 



Notes for the Month 


recorded; of these, about 2,900 were either rejected on 
inspection or otherwise found to be ineligible, while the 
remaining acres were withdrawn from the scheme. 

Farmers who intend sowing down fields to grass with a 
seeds mixture including wild white clover are advised that 
it is desirable to use certified Grade A seed, so that if they 
subsequently decide to harvest wild white clover seed, the 
fields will be eligible for recording under the scheme. 

Seed offered for sale is sometimes described by the seller 
as being from an inspected pasture, but it should be under- 
stood that, where no reference is given to the certificate 
number, the buyer has no guarantee that inspection of the 
pasture was followed by its acceptance and recording under 
the scheme. It is therefore advisable to quote the certificate 
number in all sales of certified seed. 

This scheme for the recording of fields and the certification 
of seed is a voluntary and self-supporting one that is being 
operated jointly by the Ministry of Agriculture and the 
National Farmers’ Union. Full particulars can be obtained 
on application to any County Secretary of the National 
Farmers’ Union or direct from the Secretary of the Central 
Wild White Clover Committee of the National Farmers’ 
Union, 45, Bedford Square, London, W.C.i. The scheme 
is not limited to members of the National Farmers’ Union. 
Application for inspection of pastures this year must be in 
the hands of the National Farmers’ Union by May 15. 

Scientific Principles of Poultry Feeding 

For the 4th edition of the Ministry’s Bulletin No. 7,* which 
the Ministry has recently issued, the author, Mr. E. T 
Hainan, has incorporated the new knowledge that has been 
acquired since the appearance of the 3rd edition. As a result, 
several sections of the work have been rewritten, and much 
new material has been added. In the new sections dealing 
with poultry dietetics, the relation of feeding to the quality 
of eggs and flesh, the relation of nutrition to the moult, the 
relation of minerals to growth and egg production, and the 
factors affecting palatability, have been given special 
attention. 

Methods of feeding poultry were once more or less of a 
rough-and-ready kind, and were based almost entirely on 

• Obtainable from His Maje.sty’s Stationery Office or through a 
bookseller. Price is. (by post is. zd.). 


Ill 



Notes for the Month 


empiricism. Such methods may have been excusable so long 
as poultry were regarded merely as scavengers or as a means 
of using up inferior grain produced on the farm, or while the 
average egg yield was small and production was almost 
confined to the spring and summer months. In view, 
however, of the greatly increased demands that are now made 
upon the egg-laying capacity of fowls, especially in the 
autumn and winter, and of the present desire for quicker 
growth and earlier maturity, it is clear that it is vitally 
important to base feeding methods upon both scientific and 
economic factors. Further, the close relation between 
nutrition and disease is now generally appreciated. 

Evidence continues to accumulate to indicate that a ration 
that is deficient in certain constituents may be directly 
responsible for the appearance of certain diseases. There is, 
in fact, reason to suppose that, in some instances the progress 
of disease in infected birds may be checked by an appropriate 
ration. Apart from this question of the more direct 
preventive or curative influence of diet on disease, it is of 
great importance that the nutritive requirements of the fowl, 
whether for the production of normal growth, eggs, or flesh, 
should be satisfied. Research into the problems of poultry 
nutrition has lagged behind similar work in connexion with 
larger farm animals. With the establishment of the National 
Poultry Institute a few years ago, the position in this respect 
has been largely remedied, and recent investigations throw 
considerable new light on the subject. 

The Bulletin is divided into several main sections — ^Thc 
Essential Constituents and Functions of Food; The Anatomy 
of the Digestive System of the Fowl and its relation to Diet; 
Digestibility from a Practical Standpoint; The Anatomy of 
the Egg-Producing Apparatus of the Fowl and its Relation to 
Egg Production; Poultry Dietetics; Feeding Standards in 
Relation to Poultry Production ; and The Quantitative 
Requirements. In addition, there is described a system of 
table poultry production suitable for farmers, and some short 
notes on feeding stuffs for poultry are given. 

ElectrO'Culture Committee Report 

The Electro-Culture Committee, which was set up i8 years 
ago by the Ministry, under the chairmanship of Sir John 
Snell, G.B.E., M.Inst.C.E., has now issued its i8th and Final 
Report. 

II2 



Notes for the Month 


'The main object of the Committee was to determine the 
effect of overhead electrical discharge upon growing crops; 
and experiments on a field scale and on pot cultures were 
carried out under the supervision of Professor V. H. Blackman, 
Sc.D., F.R.S., mainly at the Rothamsted Experimental 
Station by courtesy of the Director, Sir John Russell, F.R.S. 

The difficulties in connexion with the field experiments 
were found to be so considerable that these experiments were 
discontinued after 1922 and the work confined to pot cultures. 

The results of the pot culture work, briefly set out in the 
Report, show that such increases in yield as have shown 
themselves have been of the order of 20 ])er cent, only, and 
have been very erratic in their occurrence. 

The report states that : — 

‘‘In spite of the failures of recent years, the field results obtained 
some years ago and the earlier pot culture results would seem to have 
established the fact that the electro-culture eifect is a real one. It 
\vouId seem, however, to be of little advantage to continue the work 
either on economic or on scientific grounds. Increases of 20 per cent, 
can hardly be considered economic even if obtained in most years ; 
experiments, however, demonstrate that the regular occurrence of the 
effect cannot be expected. On the scientific side the erratic occurrence 
of the phenomena to be investigated — a \'agary possibly related to 
weather conditions — renders their full study im])ossible. 

“ Although the economic results of the work of the Committee have 
been nil, this prolonged investigation has not been without value. 
Electro-culture appliecl to cnips by an overlicad di.schargc has excited 
con.siderable intere.st both in this country and abroad, and very high 
claims have been made for it. The elaborate .studies which the 
Committee have undertaken during a period of 18 years do not support 
these claims The study earned out over so many years has in fact 
brought to light the diflicultics a.s.sociated with the .scientiiic study of 
electro-culture by reason of the other variables involved. 

“ The Committee regret that after so exhaustu c a study of this 
matter the practical results should be so disappointing." 


The Plum Sawfly 

At a conference of plum growers arranged by the Worcester- 
shire County Education Authorities a few weeks ago. Dr. 
H. G. H. Kearns, of the Long Ashton Fruit Station of the 
University of Bristol, gave some interesting infonnation and 
advice concerning Plum Sawfly. It appears that the fly was 
noted in Worcestershire as long ago as 40 or 50 years, but, 
strangely enough, did not do any appreciable damage to plum 
crops until recent times. During the past five years, it has 
been on the increase, and last year, had it not been for the 
exceptional plum harvest, the fly attack would have been badly 

T13 



Notes for the Month 


felt. As it was, the pest thinned many orchards most 
obligingly. Dr. Kearns thinks that the pest is to some extent 
being encouraged by the modern tendency to plant coloured 
plums instead of the “ Yellow Egg ” plum, the Sawfly 
showing marked preference for the coloured varieties. Also, 
the modem system of intensive planting may have something 
to do with it. As regards its preference for coloured vareties, 
” Czar,” “ Victoria ” and damsons appear to suffer most, 
particularly ‘‘ Czar.” A great deal, however, depends upon 
the state of the blossoming when the fly emerges. The flowers 
offer the greatest attraction just after they are in full blossom. 
If ” Czar ” happens to blossom early, and the fly emerges 
late, then it is quite possible to find in that year an attack on 
” Yellow Egg,” while ” Czar ” goes free. Another point 
of interest is that whilst in some years the pest concentrates 
locally, in others, it spreads all over a district. 

Briefly, the life history of the Sawfly is that it emerges and 
lays its eggs about mid-April to mid-May, according to 
climatic conditions, which, of course, also rule the time of 
plum blossoming. The eggs are laid in the " cot ” of the 
blossom, but there is no conspicuous puncture as with the Apple 
Sawfly in apples, and this makes attack difficult to detect. 
Each female lays about 30 eggs, and 14 to 18 days are required 
for incubation. 

As the plum fruitlet swells there is pressure exerted on the 
‘‘ cot,” and this, which is now dry and partially shrivelled, 
splits at the stalk end. When the majority of these dried 
” cots ” are' split for two-thirds of their length but are still 
sticking to the fruitlets, the eggs hatch and the larvae consume 
a piece of skin from off the fruitlet which they immediately 
enter. A week elapses between the hatching of the eggs and 
the entry of the larvae into the second fruitlet. The careful 
noting of the above condition of the dried " cots ” is one of 
the most important guides to the right time for spraying, 
which should take place just prior to the hatching of the eggs 
and before the larvae enter the fruitlet. If undeterred, the 
larvae will remain in the fruitlet for several days, then emerge, 
and enter other plums up to perhaps seven in number. At 
four to five weeks old, the larvae fall or wander to the ground, 
enter the soil and pupate, spinning the usual Sawfly cocoon. 

It is difficult to find eggs or the evidence of egg-laying 
without recourse to some such method as the following. 
Between full blossom and petal-fall, take a beating tray of 

114 



Notes for the Month 


black cloth or an inverted umbrella and hold this under the 
branches, giving the latter a sharp tap with a stick. The flics 
will then fall into the tray and remain a few seconds before 
flying away. This method of observation carried out on 
several consecutive warm evenings on the same trees provides 
an approximate idea of the chances of infestation. A consis- 
tent absence of sawflies on days favourable for their flight 
may be taken as a fairly safe indication that the infestation 
will be negligible. As to control, two applications of a wash 
are recommended, the first at the time when the “ cots ” have 
split longitudinally for two-thirds of their length, and the 
second a week later. The washes recommended are either 
Derris or Barbasco ground root with a wetting preparation, 
e.g., 2| lb. Derris (1-5 per cent, crystalline rotenone) and J lb. 
Agral II, or Lethclate Wetting Preparation, or Sulphonated 
Lorol; or the same quantity of Derris or Barbasco with i gal. 
of White Oil Emulsion (67 per cent, oil) ; either preparation 
to be diluted to 100 gal. with water. The amount of Derris or 
Barbasco ground root or their extracts per 100 gal. wash 
depends on their content of crystalline rotenone. The concen- 
tration of crystalline rotenone in the wash should be not less 
than 0 004 per cent. Of the two sprays, the latter is the more 
effective. The second application of the wash ensures a high 
control of both Sawfly and Red Spider. 



SOME DEFICIENCY DISEASES OF CROP PLANTS 

Winifred E. Brenchley, D.Sc., 

Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Herts. 

The necessity for feeding the soil in order to improve the 
yield and quality of crops has been recognized from time 
immemorial, the materials generally used being those most 
readily available, particularly animal excreta with or without 
litter, seaweed, etc. With the progress of agricultural science 
it became clear that these complex manures supplied a variety 
of plant foods, the most obviously important being nitrogen, 
phosphate and potash, in addition to organic matter or humus. 
During the last century the practice has arisen of supple- 
menting these organic manures with chemical or “ artificial ” 
fertilizers supplying one or more of the essential plant foods, 
and since the available quantity of organic manures has been 
much lessened by the increasing use of mechanical, instead 
of horse, traction the artificial fertilizers are steadily increasing 
in importance. 

During recent years it has gradually become apparent that 
the requirements of many plants are not entirely satisfied 
by the supply of the principal plant foods that were previously 
recognized, but that very small amounts of other elements 
are also necessary. Various obscure diseases or conditions of 
general unhealthiness are controlled or prevented by the 
presence of traces of such elements as boron, manganese, 
copper, and zinc, to mention only those about which most is 
known. The probable importance of some of these accessory 
or minor elements was indicated by scientific workers long 
ago, but the practical application of the facts is of compara- 
tively recent date, and has sometimes resulted from an 
accidental observation that led to more extended inquiry. 
During the last few years, interest in the matter has become 
world-wide, and practical men and research workers in many 
countries are carrying out experiments and field trials and 
publishing their results for the benefit of others. 

The difficulties in the way of establishing the facts are 
many. With the ordinary fertilizers it is comparatively easy 
to find out what is required by any soil, and, within reasonable 
limits, it is unlikely that sufficient will be given to damage the 
crops. The minor elements, however, are required in such 

ii6 



Deficiency Diseases of Crop Plants 


small quantities that soils usually contain sufficient of most 
of them, and it is extremely difficult to determine if any are 
deficient. Also, most of these elements and their compounds 
are poisonous to plants in very low dressings and great care 
is needed in their use. 


Boron. From the practical point of view, active interest 
in these minor elements is naturally not roused until it becomes 
apparent that their deficiency in certain soils is the cause of 
trouble in crops. Although Warington'®* proved conclusively 
in 1923 that the development and flowering of broad beans was 
absolutely dependent on the presence of a trace of boron, 
the active ingredient of borax, the discovery at the time 
seemed of little practical value. Enterprising scientific 
workers in various parts of the world followed the matter up, 
however, and the value of dressings of a few pounds of borax 
jx;r acre in certain instances soon became apparent. “ Top 
sickness ” of tobacco in Sumatra is now controlled by the 
addition of borax to the fertilizers as a matter of routine. In 
Canada and elsewhere the losses of turnips and swedes due to 
Brown Heart have been very greatly reduced by the same 
means, and in New Zealand there arc indications that the 
disease of apple fruits known as Internal Cork is due to an 
insufficient supply of boron. The most striking and universal 
results, however, have been made in connexion with Heart 
Rot or Crown Rot of sugar-beet. This disease causes heavy 
losses in yield of roots and sugar, and also adversely affects 
the production of seed where crops are replanted for this 
purpose. The first visible symptom is a shrivelling of the 
central rosette of leaves or, in the second-year growth, injury 
to the growing stem, which begins to die from the top down- 
wards, with a characteristic blackening due to the breaking 
down and decay of the stem tissues. This is succeeded by the 
production of a number of side shoots around the crown, 
which, in their turn, may show symptoms later if the disease 
is not controlled. The bunchy side shoots give a curious 
“ parsley top ” appearance to the plant, arousing suspicion 
when seen. The root injuiy shows itself in a breaking-down 
and blackening of the central part, often associated with a 
type of dry rot that spreads inwards from the outside, and 
may be aggravated by attacks of fungi that find a suitable 
home on the decayed tissue. Before the cause of the disease 

♦ For references sec p. 122 . 


117 



Deficiency Diseases of Crop Plants 

was found to be boron deficiency it was frequently attributed 
to fungal attack, but it is now established that the fungi are 
secondary invaders. Heart Rot is usually most in evidence 
in hot, diy summers, and with the advent of cool, wet 
weather the severity of the disease is mitigated and some 
recovery may take place. 

The characteristic symptoms of boron deficiency appeared 
in 1935 in a field of sugar-beet at Rothamsted, and the 
opportunity was taken to determine how far the second year’s 
growth of flowering stems could be influenced by the use of 
boron. A number of affected and of apparent healthy roots 
were transplanted into pots filled with sand supplied with 
fertilizer, small doses of boric acid being given to some pots 
and not to others. In the latter, the characteristic symptoms 
of deficiency appeared even on plants that were healthy when 
lifted, the shoots and young flower buds turning black and 
dying. In the plants that received boric acid the tops 
remained green and healthy, the flowers developed normally 
and fruit would doubtless have ripened if it had not been 
necessary to stop the experiment. This happened even on 
plants that showed deficiency in the field, thus indicating that 
when seed production is the object, late treatment with borax 
might prove successful even when the deficiency had not been 
remedied at an earlier date. 

In the Irish Free State^ extensive field trials were carried 
out for several years at numerous centres where Heart Rot 
was prevalent. Effective control was secured with 28 lb. 
of borax per acre, but as this is getting near the border line 
of danger, the low'er treatment of 21 lb. per acre is probably 
more economic, as very few plants showed disease at this 
rate. Application with the seed was the most satisfactory, 
though good results were obtained by top dressing when the 
disease first appeared. Norfolk experiments® confirm the 
rate of application, and emphasize the need for very careful 
distribution of the borax, to prevent some areas from getting 
insufficient to control the disease, while others receive enough 
to harm the crop. It is obviously impossible to distribute 
evenly so small a dressing as 21 lb. per acre, and admixture 
with sand or fertilizer is recommended. In the latter event 
it is essential to mix the borax with superphosphate or potash 
manures before the addition of sulphate of ammonia, as direct 
admixture with the sulphate depreciates the value of the 
fertilizer. 

118 



Deficiency Diseases of Crop Plants 


Brown Heart (” Raan ”) of swedes affects the central 
portion of the bulb, which becomes mottled with brown areas 
of diseased tissue, thus diminishing the feeding value and 
spoiling the cooking properties. The symptoms appear to be 
confined to the root portion of the bulb, and do not extend 
into the upper part (which botanically is stem tissue) or 
into the leaves. Consequently it is impossible to detect Brown 
Heart in the growing crops without special search. The 
results of experiments in Scotland®- •' and Walcs“ have con- 
firmed that the trouble is due to boron deficiency, and 
dressings of 15-20 lb. of borax per acre are recommended 
where required. The trouble does not usually show itself in 
the early stages of development, and the suggestion is made 
that when rapid growth occurs on well-manured land the 
plant uses up any available boron from the soil to which it 
has access by its root system, and then suffers from 
deficiency. White- and yellow-fleshed turnips were at first 
thought to be immune from Brown Heart, but it is now known 
that the yellow-fleshed varieties, at least, are somewhat 
susceptible, and further evidence from other parts of the 
country would be very valuable. 

Both Brown Heart of swedes and Heart Rot of sugar-beet 
are more prevalent on alkaline soils, and it is thought that 
the lime present locks up the boron in some way, thus rendering 
it useless to the plant, and inducing deficiency. This 
prevalence on soils rich in lime has also been observed abroad, 
as in Hungary and Denmark, but the trouble also occurs 
occasionally on neutral or slightly acid soils. 

There is some evidence that potatoes may suffer from 
lack of boron, though their needs are apparently not as great 
as those of beet and swedes. In Scotland, O’Brien and 
Dennis^ have obtained results which suggest that a non- 
parasitic disorder, simulating Leaf Roll and often conspicuous 
in dry seasons, may be prevented in some varieties by the use 
of 10 to 20 lb. of borax per acre before planting, the treatment 
also increasing the yield. 

Manganese. Boron is the subsidiary plant nutrient that has 
perhaps attracted most attention in this country on account 
of its proved economic value. Many other elements are 
widely distributed in soils in very small quantities, and it is 
not easy to find out which are really needed by plants, and 
whether certain instances of defective crop growth are due 

119 



Deficiency Diseases of Crop Plants 


to a deficiency of one or other of them. It is generally 
acknowledged that manganese is required by plants, but 
true instances of manganese deficiency are often difficult 
to recognize. The most definite information is in connexion 
with the Grey Leaf disease of oats which was proved to be 
due to manganese deficiency b}' Samuel and Piper in 
Australia in 1928.® The disease is more prevalent on well 
limed soils than on those that tend to be acid, and is 
characterized by stunted growth associated with yellowing of 
the leaves and death of the growing points. Applications of 
manganese sulphate up to i cwt. per acre have often been 
found effective in controlling the trouble both in this country* 
and abroad. In Scotland, Brown Heart of swedes was at 
first suspected to be a possible manganese deficiency disease,® 
but though manganese is essential for the development of the 
plants, it is useless against Brown Heart, which is prevented 
only by the application of boron. 

In some districts peas are subject to Marsh Spot disease, 
which affects the seeds and depreciates their market value. 
There is a certain amount of evidence that this may also be 
due to deficiency of manganese in the soil, as some ameliora- 
tion has been obtained by treatment with manganese sulphate 
solution,® but further confirmation is needed from tests 
carried out in different seasons. Care is needed in the use of 
manganese fertilizer just as much as with borax, as large 
amounts are definitely poisonous, and cause yellowing or 
“ chlorosis ” of the leaves, and this trouble must not be 
contused with a somewhat similar discoloration caused by 
deficiency of the element. 

Copper. Apart from boron and manganese no other 
subsidiary element has yet come within economic range in the 
British Isles, but the possibility exists that others may even- 
tually prove to be important in certain places or for particular 
crops. Abroad, the value of copper is recognized as a 
preventive of the “ reclamation disease ” that affects crops 
on land that is reclaimed for cultivation after the removal 
of surface peat, and in Holland about 30 lb. of copper sulphate 
per acre are added as a mattef of routine when such land is 
first broken up. In Florida, also, extraordinary results have 
been obtained by applying a similar amount of copper 
sulphate to the very infertile saw-grass peat land, better 
crops of tomatoes, lettuce, beet, rape, etc., being obtained 

Z20 



Deficiency Diseases of Crop Plants 

in this way than by the use of liberal dressings of organic 
fertilizers. 

Zinc. Zinc also has been found valuable as a specific against 
certain diseases of fruit trees that are characterized by 
mottling or deformation of the leaves, zinc sulphate causing 
considerable improvement when added to the soil at the rate 
of from J to 15 lb. per tree, according to sjjecies and size. 
It is not, however, proved that ('ither copper or zinc is required 
for growth, though they may be needed in certain instances, 
but boron and manganese are definitely essential for most, 
if not all plants, and their presence in the soil in sufficient 
amount is of definite economic importance. 

General. The growing interest in the deficiency diseases 
of crops is largely due to the increase of our knowledge as to 
their cause and remedies, but it is also probable that they 
are actually more prevalent than they used to be. Organic 
fertilizers, such as farmyard manure, contain a considerable 
variety of elements, and their continued use helps to maintain 
the requisite supply of the nutrients that are needed only in 
small quantities. This source of supply has become less with 
the decreasing use of organic manure and the increase in 
artificial fertilizers, particularly with the continued improve- 
ment in the purity of the latter. It is quite possible that, 
owing to this, on some soils the available amount of such 
subsidiary plant foods as boron and manganese is falling 
below the limits required by certain crops, with the result that 
deficiency diseases appear or become more widespread than 
formerly. It is of great importance that this fact should be 
realized and careful watch kept for signs of trouble, as 
unnecessaty loss may otherwise be incurred. In those 
instances where the cause of deficiency is already known the 
remedy is cheap, readily available and easy of application. 
In others, where deficiency is suspected, but not traced to its 
source, it may be anticipated that further information will 
become available if the active co-operation between practical 
agriculturists and scientific workers is maintained and 
fostered. 

At this stage a word of warning may not be out of place. 
The majority, if not all, plant nutrients become jwisonous or 
at least somewhat harmful if they are supplied in too great 
quantities. Large amounts of nitrogen, potash or phosphate 
are necessary before any damage occurs, but quite small 

121 



Deficiency Diseases of Crop Plants 


amounts of borax, copper, zinc, etc., are actively poisonous 
and will severely damage or even kill the plants. For 
instance, considerable losses of potatoes and other crops 
occurred in America during the War owing to the use of 
fertilizers containing borax ranging up to 23 per cent., 
especially when it was applied in the furrows,^ and the 
harmful effect of excess manganese has already been 
mentioned. As the symptoms of deficiency and poisoning may 
resemble one another, care is needed to avoid confusion, and 
the possible supply of toxic amounts of certain elements in 
artificial fertilizers needs to be guarded against. In' one 
instance, for example, it was found that the failure of basic 
slag to produce results proportional to expectations was 
apparently due to the presence of small quantities of 
vanadium, whose poisonous properties acted in opposition 
to the beneficial effect of the phosphorus in the slag. 

For the reasons given, it is advisable that applications of 
such substances as borax and manganese sulphate should be 
made only where they are known to be needed, and the 
general consensus of opinion is against their inclusion in 
compound fertilizers for general use. Some crops need so 
much less of these subsidiary nutrients than others that there 
is danger of accumulation of pjoisonous quantities in the soil 
if dressings are applied without discrimination. 

REFERENCES 

1. Brown, B. E. : (1922) Effect of Borax in Fertilizers on the Growth and 

Yield of Potatoes, U,S. Dept. Agric. Bull., 998, i~8, 

2. Davies, D. W., and Jones, E. T. : (1931) Grey Speck Disease of Oats, 

Welsh Jour. Agrtc., Vol. VII, 349-358. 

3. Hanley, F., and Mann, J. C. : (1936) The Control of Heart Rot in 

Sugar Beet, Jour. Min. Agric., XLIII, 15-23. 

4. Irish Free State : (i 935 - 3 ^) Cro\vn Rot in Sugar Beet, Jour. Dept. 

Agric., Dublin, Vol. XXXIII, 207-210, XXXIV, 131-132. 

5. O'Brien, D. G., and Dennis, R. W. G. : (1935) Raan or Boron Deficiency 

in Swedes, Scot. Jour. Agric., Vol. XVIII, 326-334. 

6. O'Brien, D. G., and Dennis, R. W. G. : (1936) Further Information 

relating to Control of Raan in Swedes, Scot. Jour. Agric., Vol. XIX, 
40-6. ' 

7. O'Brien, D. G., and Dennis, R. W. G. : {1936) The Place of Boron in 

Potato Cultivation, Scot. Farmer, March 14, pp. 364-365. 

8. Pethybridge, G. H. : (1936) Marsh Spot in Pea Seeds : Is it a deficiency 

disease ? Jour. Min. Agric., Vol. XLIII, 55-58. 

9. Samuel, G., and Piper, C. S. : (1929) Manganese as an Essential Element 

for Plant Growth, Ann. Appl. Biol., Vol. XVI, 495-524. 

10. Warington, K. (1923) The Effect of Boric Acid and Borax on the Broad 

Bean and certain other Plants, Ann. Bot., Vol. XXXVII, 629-672 

11, Whitehead, T. : (1935) A Note on ‘‘ Brown Heart," a New Disease of 

Swedes, and its Control, Welsh Jour. Agric., XI, 233-236. 

122 



COUNTY COUNCIL SMALL-HOLDINGS IN DORSET 
AND HAMPSHIRE: 

II. DAIRYING SMALL-HOLDINGS 

Edgar Thomas, B.Litt., B.Sc., 

Agricultural Economics Department, Reading University. 

The Sample. The information in this section is based on 
data from 85 small-holdings, 59 in Dorset and 26 in Hampshire. 
The majority of the Dorset holdings were situated north of the 
chalk belt in the Blackmore Vale region, the others being more 
or less concentrated in the south of the county in the Bridport 
area. Most of the Hampshire holdings were situated in the 
district around Mattingley to the north-east of Basingstoke. 

The total area of the holdings was 4,633 acres, 46 being over 
50 acres and 39 under 50 acres in area. As regards 19 holdings 
part only of the total acreage farmed by the holders was county 
council land, the remainder being either rented from private 
owners, or, in a few instances, owned by the smallholder 
himself. 

Type of Farming. All 85 holdings were primarily dairjung 
holdings concerned mainly with the production of milk for 
liquid sale. Nevertheless, most of the holdings had some other 
supplementary enterprises, usually pigs or poultry or both. 
The most popular combinations were : dairying, poultry and 
pigs (28); dairying and poultry (18); dairying only (13): 
dairying and pigs (7); other combinations (19). 

The holdings were predominantly grassland holdings, only 
9 5 per cent, of the total acreage being under the plough. The 
management of the grass land conformed to local practice. 
Approximately 46 per cent, of the total 4,126 acres of grass was 
cut for hay. Generally the same fields were kept for hay each 
year, though in several instances there was some attempt at 
rotation of fields. Many of the smallholders considered that 
the fields were too large for the proper management of small 
farms. Practically all the farmyard manure produced on the 
holdings found its way to the hayfields. About one-fifth of the 
smallholders also applied artificial manures to some portion of 
the land every year. 

The total area under the plough was only 441 acres. One- 
half of the holdings had no arable land at all, and only 24 

123 



County Council Small-Holdings 


holdings had over lo per cent, arable. Moreover, in most 
instances the arable land was used for producing food for 
consumption on the fann. Only ig holdings sold any arable 
produce. 

The relative importance of the various classes of livestock is 
well illustrated by the following figures of the total number of 
each class of livestock on the holdings when visited : 

Cattle - - - 1,734 Pigs - - -507 

Horses - - - 153 Poultry - 10,407 

Of the total cattle population 1,364 were cows and heifers in 
milk or in calf, 222 yearling or 2-year-old heifers, 94 calves 
and 54 bulls. Grouping the holdings according to the size of 
the dairy herd, 15 kept under 10 cows, 31 had from 10 to 15 
cows, and 39 had over 15 cows. On 75 holdings the cows were 
cither Shorthorns or Shorthorn crosses. No holding had a 
pedigree herd, though one herd was in process of being graded 
up for registration. Only 47 holdings kept a bull, so that 44 
per cent, of the smallholders had to hire bull service. Pedigree 
bulls were kept on three holdings only. On 31 holdings all the 
herd was home-reared, 22 holdings reared some and bought 
some and 32 holdings sold all their calves. Several of the 
smallholders at present rearing all or some of their cows were 
contemplating a change of policy, partly because they were 
cramped for rearing space and partly because they thought the 
process too expensive. Those who bought in all their replace- 
ments were generally satisfied that it was the more economic 
policy, since the holdings were too small to admit of a rearing 
system without reducing the number of productive cows. In 
general, the calves were sold at from one to six weeks old, but 
on 14 holdings it was the practice to fatten all calves before 
selling. Contagious abortion and Johnes’ disease had been 
serious on 12 holdings, four smallholders attributing the trouble 
to defective water supply. 

No horses were kept on 7 holdings, 23 holdings had one 
horse each, 43 had two horses and 12 had three or more horses. 
There was some co-operation in horse labour on the smaller 
holdings, while holdings having three or four horses used them 
for outside work such as haulage. 

While 44 holdings numbered pigs among their enterprises, 
at the time of visiting only 39 holdings had pigs. The total 
number kept was 507, of which 75 were breeding sows. 

All the holdings except 9 kept some poultry, 30 had less 

124 



CoiTNTY Council Small-Holdings 

than loo birds and 46 had over too birds per holding. On 
practically all of them production of eggs was the main object, 
very little attention being given to table birds. 

Capital Invested. From here onwards the information 
given is for 60 smallholders only, as only 60 were able to supply 
full data about their financial results. The figures given cover 
roughly the farming year ending September, 1935. 

The average capital invested pt;r acre and per cent, in live- 
stock, implements and machinery for all 60 smallholdings is 
shown in Table I. 

TABL1-: I 

Average Capital Invested per acre and per ckst. on 
60 Dairy SMALL-HOLDiNtiS 


Dairy herd 

Per acre 
£ 

7 0 f) 

Per cent. 

Horses 

oil 6 

5 ’3 

P>gs 

027 

j • 2 

Poultry 

077 

3*3 

Implements and Machinerv 

2 810 



/lo 17 0 

100*0 


The above figures emphasize the preponderating importance 
of dairying on thes<* holdings, 67-5 per cent, of the average 
investment of ;^io 17s. od. per acre being on account of this 
enterprise. The heavy investment of £2 Ss. lod. per acre for 
implements and machinery and ii.s. (ul. jier acre for horses 
illustrates one of the most serious difficulties of the small farm. 

Expenses. The average exjienses per acre and per cent, are 
set out in Table II. 

TABI.E II 


Average Expenses per acre and per cent. 
Dairy Sm \ei -holdings 

/Vr acre 
i *’• <£ 

ON (x) 

Per cent. 

Rent and rates 

^3 

(> 

21 -3 

Family labour 

28 

0 

-i 3*3 

Hired labour . . 

0 18 

4 

8-9 

Feeding stuffs 

212 

6 

^ 3*7 

Dairy livestock 

013 

(> 

6*6 

Other livestock 

..08 

0 

3*9 

Miscellaneous 

10 

8 

10*1 

Total expenses 

•• ;£lo 4 

6 

100*0 


125 



County Council Smaix-Holdings 


The average total expenditure of ;^io 4s. 6 d. per acre shown 
in the table does not represent an actual outgoing of this amount, 
for it includes an estimated wage for the family labour 
employed. This family labour has been assessed at the county 
rate of wages appropriate to the various classes of family 
workers. It amounted to the equivalent of 8 s. od. per acre. 
The actual cash expenditure of these 60 smallholders was, 
therefore, equal to an average of £y i 6 s. 6 d. per acre. 

When an estimated charge for family labour is added to the 
wages bill it is clear that labour was the biggest item of cost, 
accounting for 32 4 per cent, of the total. Hired labour was 
not a relatively big item, although amounting to i8s. 4 d. per 
acre, or 8 9 per cent, of total expenditure. 

The second biggest item of expenditure was that on 
purchased feeding stuffs, amounting to roughly one-quarter of 
the total. The bulk of this expenditure of £2 12s. 6 d. per acre 
was incurred in buying food for the dairy cows, though on 
some holdings the food bill for pigs and poultry was also 
impiortant. 

Rent (and rates) figures as the third biggest item of cost, 
accounting for 21-3 per cent, of the total and amounting to 
£2 3s. 6^i. per acre. 

The miscellaneous costs (;£i os. 8 d. per acre) in order of 
importance were as follows: purchase and repair of imple- 
ments, blacksmith, veterinary and medicines, manures, seeds, 
thatching, carriage charges and hire of machinery. 

Receipts. The average receipts per acre and per cent, are 
shown in Table HI, and provide a good indication of the type 
of farming, emphasizing still further the dependence of these 
smallholders on their milk cheques : — 


TABLE III 

Average Receipts per acre and per cent, on 60 
Dairy Small-holdings 




Per acre 

Per cent. 



£ 

d. 


Milk 


83 

4 

71 *0 

Dairy livestock 


0 14 

8 

6*4 

Eggs and poultry 


13 

3 

10*1 

Pigs 


12 

0 

9-6 

Crops . . 


. . 04 

6 

I *9 

Sundries 


0 2 

3 

I‘0 

Total receipts 

. • 

M 

0 

0 

100 ‘O 


126 



County Council Small-Holdings 


The average figure of £ii los. od. per acre for receipts is 
inclusive of the estimated value of the produce of the holdings 
consumed by the smallholders’ families. Assessed at average 
farm prices the value of the produce consumed by the families 
was equal to £15 2.?. od. per family per annum. All 60 
families were self-sufficing as far as milk was concerned, the 
average consumption being approximately equal to 140 
gallons per family per annum. Fifty-five holdings produced 
their own eggs, the average consumption per family being 
roughly 78 dozen eggs per annum; in addition these families 
consumed about 25 fowls per family per annum. Fifty-three 
families stated that they produced their own supplies of 
potatoes, and four families produced their own bacon supplies. 
On seven holdings rabbits were said to be important both for 
family consumption and for sale. 

Nearly four-fifths of the total income of these holdings was 
derived from the dairy herd, 71 per cent, coming from milk 
sales and 6-4 per cent, from sales of dairy livestock. Of the 
total milk available for sale 92 p>er cent, was sold wholesale, 
6 g per cent, sold retail and i i per cent, consumed by the 
families. The 60 smallholders comprised 6 producer-retailers, 
34 who sold all their milk wholesale and 20 who sold the bulk 
of it wholesale with some retail sales also. Of the total 
receipts of 14s. 8d. per acre for dairy livestock 47 per cent, 
was for calves and 45 per cent, for cast cows. 

The other items of receipts in order of importance were : eggs 
and poultr}% pigs, crop products and sundries mostly derived 
from work done outside the holdings — such as haulage and 
ploughing. 


Profits and Losses. The average profit (i.e., excess of 
receipts and closing valuation over payments and opening 
valuation) for the 60 holdings was equal to £62 is. xod. per 
holding or £1 os. yi. per acre. This average figure is, 
however, inadequate for it gives no indication that 23 of the 
60 holdings actually worked at a loss. Moreover, the various 
sizes Of holdings show considerable variations in the degree of 
success obtained. A better picture of the position is supplied 
by Table IV where the 60 holdings are arranged in three 
groups according to the size of the dairy herds, and the 
frequency distribution of profits and losses within each group 
is shown. 


127 



County Council Small-Holdings 


Table I\' 

Profits and Losses on 6o Dairy Small-holdings 



! 

Group I 
,(13 holdings 
! with less 
than 10 
cows) 

Group II 
(26 holdings 
w ith from 
10 to 15 
COW'S 

Group III 
(21 holdings 
with over 
15 cows) 

All 

holdings 


No. 

No. 

No. 

No. 

Profit per holding : 





Over £100 

2 

6 

9 

^ 7 ) 

From £f^o to ;^ioo 

3 

5 

4 

"1 61-7% 

From £2^ to ^50 

2 

4 

0 

Less than £$o . . 

0 

I 

1 

' I 

2 

Loss per holding : 



1 

1 


Less than £2^ . , 

4 

4 

3 

” 1 

From £2^ to /50 | 

! I 1 

1 ! 

1 

4 38-3 ?o 

Over £so ‘ 

1 

I ! 

5 1 

1 

> ‘ 

8) 


The profit and loss figures in Table IV show the amounts 
available to the smallholders after all expenses other than 
interest on capital and remuneration of management had been 
met. In addition to the profits shown the smallholders had the 
use of the farmhouse free of rent and rates, and had also been 
credited with wages for all manual work performed by them 
and their families. 

In view of the great significance of family labour and the 
possible objections to its assessment at the prevailing wages for 
hired labour, it is necessary to show the final results in the form 
of the amount available as “ family income ", i.e., omitting 
the charge for family labour. When this is done the holdings, 
with one exception, showed a surplus income. The position 
is illustrated in Table V. 

TABLE V 

Average " Income " per Family and per Person on 
6o Dairy Small-holdings 

^erage family 
income 

L 

133 

167 
220 

178 124 


Average income 
per person f 
£ 

lOT 

II7 

143 


Group I 
Group 11 
Group III 

All Groups , . 


t All members of the family working on the holding have been converted 
to the common denominator of man-equivalent/' 

128 





County Council Small-Holdings 

It may be that the results us shown in this table 
provide a better indication of the standard of living of the 
smallholders concerned. They certainly explain why it is 
possible for these smallholders to carry on even though it can 
be demonstrated that according to more rigid financial 
standards many of them are running “ unprofitable ” 
businesses. 

The results as given in Table IV show that each of the three 
groups had its quota of “ successful ” and “ unsuccessful ” 
holdings. This indicates that the holding after all only 
provides the chance for the occupier to show his intelligence, 
and that it is the capability of the man himself that is the most 
important factor. Nevertheless, the dispersion of profits and 
losses in Table IV indicates also that the man with the larger 
holding has a better chance of succeeding. A comparison of 
the 12 holdings making the biggest profits with the 12 
holdings making the biggest losses brought out the following 
relative characteristics of the profitable dozen : larger acreages 
and larger herds; higher milk output per cow and per acre; 
higher expenditure on feeding stuffs; more economical use of 
labour as shown by a higher return per labour cost; slightly 
lower rentals; relatively more diversity of enterprises with the 
milk cheque accounting for a comparatively lower percentage 
of total income. 


{To be continued.) 


129 



STEM EELWORM DISEASE OF FIELD BEANS 

L. R. Johnson, M.Sc., and H. W. Thompson, M.Sc., 
Department of Agriculture, The University, Leeds. 

The Stem Eel worm {Anguillulina dipsaci) is one of the most 
injurious and widespread of the plant-parasitic eelworms. A 
voluminous literature has arisen with reference to the occur- 
rence of the various strains of this eelworm on a variety of 
cultivated crops. There has, however, been little information 
recorded concerning Stem Eelworm disease of field beans 
{Vida faba) in this country since the writings of Ormerod® and 
Bos® towards the end of the last century. Since that time 
attacks have been recorded by Theobald^ in Kent and Pether- 
bridge® in the Eastern Counties. 

The present writers have encountered a number of cases of 
severe injury to the bean crop during recent years, especiaUy 
during the past season, and the following account summarizes 
their observations. 

The Nature of Stem Eelworm Disease Beans. 

Ormerod has described the condition of a number of diseased 
plants received from a correspondent, and Bos, to whom the 
material was submitted, identified the Stem Eelworm as the 
cause of the trouble and also described the symptoms exhibited 
by the plants. Neither of these workers had the opportunity 
of observing the disease in the field and it is felt, therefore, that 
the following observations may be of interest. 

The first obvious signs of injury in the bean crop, which, 
it should be added, is autumn-sown in Yorkshire, are notice- 
able during late February or early March. Patches occur in 
which a number of plants are retarded in growth. Many of 
these plants die off, or if they survive remain stunted, so that 
by the time the pods are formed they may have reached a 
height of not more than 12 in. Fig. i shows a badly diseased 
plant of this type taken in early July from a crop sown the 
previous October. The poor development of such plants and 
the rapid death of many of them, quickly produce bare or 
almost bare patches in the field. As the infestation progresses, 
plants that have not been severely stunted show characteristic 

* For references, see p. 136. 

130 




Fig. t. — Fean Plant 'stunted and di'^tortcd by stem Helworm Fig 2 Ba^e ot Stern ot attacked mature Bean Plant, sho\Mng 

attack di->Lolonred Pith and bending of the Stem 

(PhotOliTaphs Cnf^yyish: Lcx^ds L'n'l’t-TN tv > 






Stem Eelworm Disease 


symptoms of distortion. Affected plants are often swollen at 
the base of the stem, which frequently becomes markedly 
flattened. The stem, which is severely twisted, may be bent 
in several places and often falls to the ground as the pods 
develop. Such plants easily break off at ground level, 
especially if struck by the foot or by implements. Gradually 
the thin or bare patches increase in size. Fig 3 illustrates a 
portion of a badly infested crop and the conditions prevailing 
during early summer. The lower leaves tend to fall early and 
the pods may be distorted and small, with consequent reduction 
in the harvest of beans. 

If the stems of such plants arc split longitudinally it will be 
seen that the interior of the hollow stem is brown, and as the 
plant matures this brown pith becomes dry and powdery owing 
to the loosening of the cells of the pith. The discoloration ol 
the pith, which begins at the base ot the stem, may extend up 
the stem, in some instances almost to the tip of the plant. 
Microscopic examination of the brown tissue reveals the 
presence of large numbers of eelworms. It is worthy of 
emphasis that, as Bos stated, the mature bean straw carries 
enormous numbers of the parasites in the infective form in the 
pith. It is well known also that the infective form of the Stem 
Eelworm can remain quiescent for a number of years in dried 
plant material and be revived when moistened with water. 
Fig. 2 shows a portion of the base of the stem of a plant split 
longitudinally to show the browning of the pith; incidentally, 
the photograph also illustrates the severe bending of a badly 
affected plant. 

The writers have not had the opportunity of observing in 
the field the earliest stages ol eelworm invasion of individual 
plants, but observations have been made on experimental 
plants sown in early summer in soil containing infected 
material. From such observations it can be briefly stated that 
the eelworm enters the plant at the base of the stem just below 
ground level and invades the cortical tissue immediately 
beneath the epidermis. It would appear that the eelworms 
congregate in the pith as the outer tissues become woody 
and the whole plant matures. The lower leaves undergo 
infestation by way of the petioles, and eelworms have been 
recovered by dissection from the stipules, the petioles and from 
the leaflets, especially from tfie veins. The main veins of 
infected leaflets are swollen and frequently slight distortion 
of the leaflets takes place. It should also be noted that the 

131 



Stem Eet.worm Disease 


parasite may enter the stalks of the pods. The writers have 
recovered eelwonns from the bases of dried pods collected 
from the stack. 

Factors predisposing to Eelworm Attack. Severe attacks 
of Stem Eelworm disease in the bean crop are spasmodic, but 
it would seem not unlikely that slight attacks would be over- 
looked in the crop. During the past year an unusual number 
of cases of the disease occurred in the bean growing districts 
of East Yorkshire, and it is possible that climatic conditions 
may have favoured the increase of eelworm at the expense of 
the bean crop. Some of the more important factors that may 
determine the persistence of eelworm infection on the farm arc 
dealt with below. 

Rotation. The question of crop rotation is always a matter 
of prime importance in relation to the incidence of plant pests, 
and especially is this tme of parasitic eelworms, which are 
notoriously difficult to combat by direct remedial measures. It 
is a common practice in Yorkshire to allow a period of four 
years to elapse betw’een successive bean crops on the same field. 
The writers have encountered only one instance where severe 
eelworm injury occurred in w'idely separated bean crops on 
the same field, and in this case four alternative crops had been 
taken between the affected bean crops, which suffered in 1930 
and again in 1935. The cropping of this field during this period 
was Beans, Barley, Seeds, Oats, Wheat, Beans. 

Two instances observed in 1936 may be quoted. The first 
occurred in East Yorkshire on a farm on which according to 
the farmer no trouble had ever been experienced in the past. 
The cropping of the field had been Beans, Fallow, Wheat, 
Seeds, Oats, Beans. The bean plants first began to go off in 
late February, and the trouble spread so rapidly that the whole 
crop was ploughed in in June. The preceding oats were 
described as a full crop, so that it was difficult from the 
information available to describe this sudden failure of the 
beans as a legacy from an infested oat crop. In this connexion 
it should be mentioned that seed saved from this oat crop was 
sown on another portion of the farm, and careful inspection 
revealed no sign of eelworm injury. It should also be added 
that tick beans that were sown in the spring of 1936 in an 
attempt to fill in the thin patches succumbed to eelworm 
attack. 


132 



Stem Eel worm Disease 


The second case is of interest in relation to the observations 
recorded by Ormerod and by Bos. The field of beans began 
to show the usual field symptoms in early March and one-half 
of the crop, which followed oats, was so badly affected that 
by late spring it was ploughed in. The rest of the field followed 
barley and was allowed to stand, although badly affected, and 
by late June carried extensive patches where complete failure 
occurred. The cropping history of the field was Oats, Beans, 
Roots, Wheat, Oats or Barley, Beans. Again the grower 
asserted that the previous bean crop taken in 1932 was healthy. 
Ormerod and Bos refer to a case of Stem Eelworm disease in 
beans following oats that had suffered badly from the eelworm, 
whereas in the same field, beans following barley, which is not 
susceptible, were intact. In the instance described by the 
present writers it seems obvious that very considerable infection 
was present in that portion ot the field that had carried barley 
before the bean crop, and in fact the resultant harvest amounted 
to less than half the normal return. The theory that infested 
oats may play an important role in producing an outbreak of 
Stem Eelworm disease in the subsequent bean crop is perhaps 
strengthened by the writers’ obserx'ations that an oat crop 
adjoining the affected beans, although from a distance appear- 
ing to be a good crop, revealed on closei inspection obvious 
signs of eelworm trouble, and this was confirmed by laboratory 
examination. The oat crop at harvest was considered to be 
a good one by the grower. It is certain, therefore, that slight 
eelworm attack in the oats in such farms may be easily over- 
looked by the grower, and that unknown to him an eelworm 
infestation may be maintained in this way and so provide the 
right conditions for a sudden outbreak of serious disease. 
Preliminary infection experiments have shown that under 
experimental conditions the oat strain of the Stem Eelworm 
is capable of infesting field beans, thus bearing out the 
inferences drawn from field observations. 

Weed Hosts. Many weeds are listed by Goodey as hosts 
of the Stem Eelworm and the same writer^ has more recently 
referred with emphasis to the possibility that weed hosts may 
serve to mai ntain in the soil infection of strains of the eelworm 
capable of attacking cultivated crops. Certain workers, 
notably Hodson^’ » in this country, have shown that this fact 
is true of certain weeds and certain specified cultivated plants. 
One of the present writers® has recently published a note on the 

133 



Stem Eel worm Disease 


occurrence of the Stem Eelworm on certain weeds growing 
in fields of infested oats and beans. These observations 
showed that infested specimens of the weed Cleavers, Galium 
aparine, occur commonly in association with the infested crops 
mentioned. It was also pointed out that this comparatively 
widespread occurrence of infested Cleavers plants among 
eelworm-infested beans and oats was highly suggestive that the 
weed and the cultivated crop were serving as hosts for the same 
strain of the eelworm. 

Preliminary infection experiments have revealed that the 
Cleavers strain of the eelworm is capable of infesting the field 
bean just as the oat strain under similar experimental 
conditions is capable of transference to beans. These find- 
ings are of great practical significance and will be referred 
to later in the discussion on control measures. It should be 
noted that as an infested crop becomes depleted so the weeds 
have a better chance of survival in abundant numbers with the 
greater possibility of large numbers of susceptible weeds, like 
Cleavers, becoming infested by the eelworm. 

Infested Debris and Ground-keepers. The presence of large 
numbers of eelworms in the bean straw has already been 
mentioned, and the usual practice of ploughing in a badly- 
infested crop only serves therefore to return to the soil an 
increased eelworm population whose chance of survival 
depends on the growth on the land of suitable wild or cultivated 
hosts. The growth of adventitious bean plants which spring 
up in the ensuing crop as a result of germination of seeds shed 
before and during harvest is a common phenomenon. Such 
plants are clearly potential reservoirs of infection and would 
tend to offset the value of a reasonable period of rest between 
successive bean crops. 

Control. It has already been suggested that climatic 
conditions may play an important part in conjunction with 
the factors already discussed, in providing suitable conditions 
for the onset of a sudden widespread attack in the crop, 
provided that there is some degree of eelworm infection of the 
soil. In no instance of the disease in the writers' experience 
was there any cause to criticize the cultural practices involved 
in the growing of the crops, all of which made apparently 
normal growth during the early growing period immediately 
after sowing. It is only necessary to discuss briefly from the 

134 



Stem Eel worm Disease 


point of view of prevention of eelworm infestation certain 
practical points that emerge from the foregoing account. 

Rotation. A reasonable period of rest between successive 
bean crops is essential, and as far as Yorkshire conditions are 
concerned it would be considered under normal circumstances 
that the rotations are not seriously at fault in this respect, since 
a four-year rest is usually adopted. In spite of such a 
practice, however, severe attacks occur, and it is advised, 
therefore, that after a bad attack a longer period should elapse 
before the infested field carries another bean crop; one instance 
has already been quoted in which two bean crops were badly 
injured in spite of a four-year interval of alternative cropping. 
It is impossible from the information available to state with 
any degree of certainty the minimum period of time that 
should elapse after a bad attack in order to ensure freedom 
from infection in the next bean crop. Robertson^® has 
reported that Stem Eelworm disease of oats may occur with 
regularity in spite of a rest of three years from cropping with 
oats. The theory which seems to be established, that the oat 
strain of the eelworm is capable of infesting beans, adds greater 
difficulty to the problem of preventing trouble in the latter 
crop, and it should be remembered that oats usually fall 
immediately before beans in the rotation. If it is impossible 
to omit the cereal crop from the rotation, then it would be 
advisable after a bean crop has failed with the disease to omit 
oats from the cropping of the field for a full course of 
the rotation. Further, the question of the great chance of 
a slight attack on oats or beans being overlooked should always 
be borne in mind and any suspicion of such a contingency 
should be verified by expert examination. 

Destruction of Weeds. The field observations and 
preliminary experiments already described have shown that 
Cleavers acts as a host for the bean strain of the Stem Eelworm. 
It is essential, therefore, that this weed should be exterminated 
as far as possible in hedgerows as well as in arable land, on 
which, in Yorkshire, Cleavers is becoming a very common weed 
especially in cereal and bean fields. The past season has 
favoured the increase of such weeds especially, since cereal 
crops have been seriously depleted by insect and other pests. 
It is of interest to consider the bearing of the rotation upon 
the question of weeds in relation to their capacity to maintain 
an eelworm infestation in the field. In the first case of Stem 

135 



Stem Eel worm Disease 


Eel worm disease quoted (see p. 132) the cropping during the 
four years between the two infested bean crops was Barley, 
Seeds, Oats, Wheat. Such a preponderance of cereal crops 
without a cleaning crop would undoubtedly tend to foster the 
growth of weeds that may have been infested. In the two 
further instances described the bean crop is followed by a 
fallow crop and bare fallow respectively. Bare fallowing, 
which is an essential cultural practice on many lands, may tend 
to assist the celworm to tide over the interval between suscep- 
tible cultivated crops by fostering the growth of susceptible 
weeds. One of the writers has already recorded the occurrence 
of infested Cleavers seedlings growing in the fallow shortly 
after the ploughing in of a badly-infested bean crop. This 
fact again emphasizes the real need for the extermination of 
Cleavers. 


Destruction of Infested Material. Enough has been said 
to indicate the necessity of removing as completely as possible 
all infested plant material from the field. The practice of 
ploughing in a severely infested crop is obviously unwise, and 
it would be preferable to collect and burn on the spot all such 
sources of infection. Similarly, the bean straw harvested from 
an infested crop that carries enormous numbers of the eelworm 
should also be burnt. 

Adventitious bean plants have also been referred to, and the 
destruction of these potential carriers of infection would help 
to minimize subsequent eelworm attack. 

Acknowledgements. The writers desire to express their 
thanks to Mr. J. Manby for the photograph shown in Fig. 3. 


REFERENCKS 


1. Goouey, T. 

2. Ormerod, E. a. 

3. Bos, J. Ritzema 

4. Theobald, F. V. 

5. Petherbridge, F. R. . . 

6. Goodey, T 


“ Plant Parasitic Neinatoclcs,” London, 
1933 - 

“ Report of Observations on Injurious 
Insects for the Year 1890.’’ 1891. 

“ L’Anguillule de la Tige {Tylenchus ie- 
vastalrix Kiihn) ct les Maladies des 
plantes dues h ce Nematode,” Arch. 
Mus. Teyler, S^r. II (3). 

Min. Agric. Plant I’ath. Laby. Monthly 
Summaries, 1928. 

Ibid., 1935. 

“ Some applied Biological Aspects of Pro- 
blems Relating to Plant-parasitic Nema- 
tode.s,” Ann. App. Biol., Vol. 23, No. 2. 


136 



Stem Eelworm Disease 


7. Hodson, W. E. H. 


8 . 


9, Johnson, L. R. 


10. Robertson, D. 


“ The Occurrence of Tylenchus dipsaci 
Kiihn on Wild Host Plants in South- 
West England/' Jour. Helm., Vol. 7, 
No. 4, 1929. 

“ Eelworms : i. The Stem and Bulb 
Eelworm, Anguillulina dipsaci,** The 
Estate Magazine, Vol. 33, No. 3. 

“ A Note on the Occurrence of Anguil- 
lulina dipsaci (Kiihn 1858) on Certain 
Weeds, including a New Host Record,*' 
Jour. Helm., Vol. 14, No. 4, 1936. 

Observations on the Disease of Oats 
Caused by the Stem Eelworm, Anguil- 
lulina dipsaci (Kiihn 1857)," Ann. App. 
Biol., Vol. 15, No. 3. 


B 


137 



THE APPLE PITH MOTH 


Mary Miles, M.Sc., 

Vicioria University of Manchester 

For the last few years the Apple Pith Moth {Chrysoclista aira 
Haw.) has caused a good deal of damage locally in apple 
plantations in the south and east of England, and in the spring 
of 1936 its attacks were more serious and widely distributed 
in south Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire, Kent and Hertford- 
shire.* The insect is a well known pest in Germany, Poland, 
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Holland, and France,! and 
though the injury that it causes is usually only slight, there are 
records of severe attacks that have almost completely defoliated 
the apple trees. In Britain the insect was first recorded as a 
pest in 1855 by Staihton,! whose correspondent noted that it 
was " a most destructive little wretch in apple grounds ”. 
Since that time numerous observations on the habits of the 
insect and the nature and extent of its attacks have been 
collected by Ormcrod, Theobald and Carpenter. 

Injury. Injury by Apple Pith Moth can be easily 
recognized and identified. The caterpillars feed on the 
“ pith ” of shoots and fruit spurs, and in time completely 
destroy the interior woody tissue. The leaves of infested 
shoots wilt and later shrivel and turn brown, and the blossoms 
of attacked fruit spurs die before opening or the cluster of 
fruitlets perishes just after the fruit has set. Attack by Apple 
Pith Moth is in progress from late summer onwards, but the 
final destruction of infested shoots does not take place until 
May or June of the following year, when healthy leaves and 
shoots are making rapid growth and the trees are in blossom. 
The dead shoots and spurs are very conspicuous at this time of 
the year and the extent of the damage is easily seen. Besides 
the direct loss of crop caused by the reduction of the number of 
healthy spurs, the injury to the bark permits the access of fungi 
and bacteria to the plant tissue. 


* Monthly Summary of Plant Pests, Min. Agric., June and July, 1936. 
t Rev. Appl. Ent., 1916 and onwards. 

J Entomologists' Annual, 1855. 

138 










Apple Pith Moth 


Certain fungus and bacterial diseases may destroy the young 
shoots of apples in the spring, but it is not difficult to distin- 
guish between injury by these organisms and that caused by 
the feeding of Apple Pith Moth caterpillars. Shoots killed by 
the caterpillars have the interior tissue eaten away and the 
cavity filled with dark brown powdery frass, and frass may 
also be found exuding from cracks or holes in the stem and the 
caterpillar or pupa may be present. 

Most varieties of apples seem to be susceptible to attack by 
the moth. In Lancashire and Cheshire infested varieties 
include " Golden Spire”, “ Grosvenor ”, ” Irish Peach ”, 
" Ecklinville Seedling ”, ” Gladstone ”, ” Worcester Pear- 
main ”, " Allington ”, “Bismarck”, and “Grenadier”. 
In a plantation in Hertfordshire “ Worcester Pearmain ” was 
highly susceptible to attack and “ Newton Wonder ” was 
practically immune, but in another part of the same plantation 
a sport of “ Newton Wonder ” was badly attacked. 
“ Bismarck ” and “ Newton Wonder ” were found to be 
attacked in Gloucestershire, and “ Lane’s Prince Albert ” in 
Sussex. From Kent it has been recorded that “ Worcester 
Pearmain ” was severely infested while alternate rows of 
“ Lord Derby ” were not attacked, and that shoots and fruit 
spurs of “ Cox’s Orange Pippin ” were destroyed. 


Description and Life History. For some time the identity 
of the Apple Pith Moth was confused with that of a closely 
allied moth that feeds in hawthorn fruits, but in 1933 Fletcher 
and Stringer* made a careful comparison of type specimens 
with moths bred by the writer from both apple twigs and haw- 
thorn fruits, and came to the conclusion that the pith moth of the 
apple is Chrysoclista atra Haw. The moth measures about 
half-an-inch across the expanded wings, and is blackish with a 
white head and faint light markings and prominent black scale 
tufts on the wings. When the moth is in a resting position the 
wings are folded over the back, and the light markings appear 
as three pairs of whitish areas : one pair in front of the first 
pair of scale tufts, the second pair at the base of the second 
pair of scale tufts, and a third pair near the tips of the wmgs. 
Extending along the middle of the wings from base to tip is 
a faint irregular band containing white and rusty yellowish 


B 2 


• Entomological Record, Vol. xlv, pp. 86-90. 


139 



Apple Pith Moth 


scales mingled with the black scales; this band varies in 
intensity in different individuals. 

Observations in the north of England* showed that the 
moths emerged during July and were on the wing in fruit 
plantations during July and early August. It is possible that 
emergence is earlier in some seasons and in more southerly 
districts, since it has been recorded from Francef that the 
moths emerge from June 6 to 23. 

During the day the moths are inactive, but in the evening 
they may be found on the wing and are attracted to light. 

The eggs arc usually laid singly in the leaf axils or near the 
thickened base of the leaf stalk, and are present in northern 
fruit plantations from mid-Jul}'. to mid-August. They are 
broadly oval, rounded at one end and somewhat truncate at 
the other, and with a thin, delicate shell sculptured by broken 
longitudinal ridges. When first laid the eggs are pearly white, 
but during incubation they become yellowish and later rather 
brownish. The incubation period as obser\a‘d in northern 
England was two weeks, but in Francef it was found that the 
eggs hatched in about a week. 

When the caterjjillars leave the eggs they are transparent 
greyish green, with large dark shining heads and long bristles. 
They wander about the twig for a short time and then tunnel 
into the bark, usually near the base ot a leaf stalk. Within 
twenty-four hours after hatching they are generally completely 
out of sight in the plant tissue, and tiny entrance holes with 
fragments of rusty frass adhering near them may be found 
about the twigs. The caterpillars remain under the bark 
throughout the winter, and eat away the tissue, frequently 
killing buds in the vicinity of the feeding sites. In the spring, 
during May and early June in north England, the caterpillars 
become fully fed. They are then about one-third of an inch 
in length, dark brownish-pink in colour, and sparsely covered 
with long bristles. The head is dark brown and partly with- 
drawn into the thorax, which is covered by a dark brown 
thoracic plate, and there arc three dark brown caudal plates 
at the tip of the body. 

When ready to pupate the caterpillar makes its way towards 
the surface of the twig, usually near the terminal bud or just at 
the base of the blossom truss, and eats out a small circular hole 
through which the adult can escape. Pupation takes place 

* Miles, M., Ann. Appl. Biol., Vol. xvii, 1930. 
f Balachtnvsky, Rev. App. Ent., Vol. xxiii, 1935. 

J40 



Apple Pith Moth 


beneath the bark near the exit hole, but the pupa may some- 
times be found projecting from the bark or among the flower 
stalks of the dead blossoms, or the breaking of an infested twig 
by the wind may leave the pupa exposed. 

The pupa is rather less than a quarter of an inch long, and 
is golden brown with the head dark. The wings are long and 
narrow and the feelers extend beyond the tips of the wings. 
Near the tip of the abdomen is a pair of rather flattened tubular 
projections that bear a number of strong hooked bristles. The 
pupal stage lasts about a month. 

There is only one generation in the year. 

Control Measures. Since the caterpillars feed within the 
stems of the apple it is difiicult to control them effectively by 
artificial means. The use of a lead arsenate spray during the 
summer when the caterpillars arc hatching has been recom- 
mended, but the practical difficulties of covering the entire 
surface of the twigs at this season and the possibility of a 
deposit remaining on the fruit, render this method of control 
unsuitable. It has also been suggested that the creeping 
character of the tar oil and other winter washes should enable 
them to penetrate into the tunnels and destroy the caterpillars. 
In practice, however, it has been found that outbreaks may be 
very severe in plantations that have received routine applica- 
tions of winter spray for many years; and observations of 
infested twigs have shown that it is only when the trees are 
making rapid growth, after the time for winter spraying is past, 
that the bark over the injured areas tends to crack and expose 
the feeding sites of the caterpillars. 

The trapping of the moths during July and August in light 
traps has been recommended, and Theobald lists the Apple 
Pith Moth among insects captured at light traps in July in Kent. 
The use of light traps for pest control has not been tried exten- 
sively in this country, but where outbreaks arc serious locally 
they might be used with advantage to reduce the number of 
moths. 

Hand picking of the infested shoots is practicable in small 
plantations or in intensive apple plantations where all parts of 
the trees are easily accessible. The shoots should be 
destroyed immediately or kept in boxes closely covered with 
gauze that would permit the escape of parasites while retaining 
the host insects. Many of the parasites are small and would 
be able to escape through meshes one-tenth of an inch in 

141 



Apple Pith Moth 


diameter, and larger parasites can be easily separated since 
they are active in sunlight while the moths are at rest among 
the twigs. 

The Apple Pith Moth is highly susceptible to the attacks of 
parasites. The large ichneumon flies, Pimpla inquisitor Scop, 
and Ephialtes albispiculus Morley, have been bred from grubs 
found feeding externally on the caterpillars. The most 
effective parasite, however, appears to be a small chalcid wasp, 
Copidosoma woroniekae Now., which lays its eggs in the eggs 
of the moth. The writer has reared as many as 17 parasites 
from a single Apple Pith Moth caterpillar. This parasite is 
probably widely distributed, since it has been recorded from 
France and Poland, and in England from Kent, Lincolnshire 
and Hertfordshire. It is probable that the Apple Pith Moth is 
usually controlled naturally by its numerous parasites, and 
that its increase in the south and east of England in recent years 
is the result of some check on parasitism. Weather conditions 
or some other factor may have adversely affected the develop- 
ment of parasites and allowed the moths to increase beyond 
their normal numbers; or the parasites may have been auto- 
matically checked through lack of hosts after a period of 
increasingly effective parasitism, and may, in a short time, 
again become abundant and control the pest. 

In infested fruit plantations the prunings frequently contain 
caterpillars of the Apple Pith Moth, and these may regain the 
trees unless the prunings arc collected and burnt. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT — C ertain of the illustrations accompanying 
this article have already appeared in the Annals of Applied Biology , 
the author is grateful to the Association of Applied Biologists for per- 
mission to reproduce them here. 


142 



CATTLE INDUSTRY (EMERGENCY PROVISIONS) 
ACTS, 1934 TO 1936 : 

NUMBERS, WEIGHT AND PRICES OF CATTLE 
CERTIFIED FOR PAYMENTS 

In previous issues of this Journal, information was given 
regarding the cattle and carcasses of cattle certified for 
payments under the Cattle Industry (Emergency Provisions) 
Acts, 1934 to 1936, during the first two years of the Scheme. 
Similar information is now available for the six months 
September, 1936, to February, 1937, and in this article the 
particulars for these months are set out on similar lines to those 
previously published and are compared with the data for the 
corresponding period a year earlier. 

The classes of cattle in respect of which payments are made 
are steers, heifers and cow-heifers (a cow-heifer is defined as 
an animal which has calved and which has grown not more 
than six permanent incisor teeth). The standard of eligibility 
for subsidy is that the animal shall have an estimated killing- 
out percentage of not less than 54 per cent. 

Table I shows the numbers of each class of cattle certified 
in the six months ended February 28, 1937, as compared with 
the numbers in the corresponding months a year earlier : — 


TABLE I 



Steers 

Heifers 

_ 

Cow-Heifers , Total | 


1936-7 1935-0 

1936-7 j 1935 -(> 

1936-7 ! 1935-6 1 1936-7 

1935-6 

September 
October . . 
November 

72,527. 74,581 
7^753 77.O52 
68,970 ' 66,745 

66,912 

70.455 

70,295 

63,248 

65,826 

60,529 

5.490 

5.400 

5.272 

4,521 ii 44,929 
4,558 1148,608 
4,702 '144.537 

142.350 

148,036 

131.976 

Total : 

Sept, to 
November 

i 

214,250 218,978 

207,662 

189,603 

16,162 

13-781 

438,074 

422,362 

December 
January . . 
February 

72,635' 74,896 
78.735 1 83,831 
81,508 1 85,380 

65.050 

57.696 

50,248 

58,539 

54,066 

47,629 

4,659 

5,872 

5,638 

4,410 

5.663 

5.423 

142.344 

142.303 

137.394 

137.845 

143,560 

138.43* 

Total : 

Dec. to 
February 

232,878 

244.107 

172.994 

160,234 

i 

16,169 

15,496 

422,041 

419,837 

Total : 

(6 months) 

447 A 28 

463,085 

380,656 

349,837 

1 

3 ^». 33 i 

29.277 1 

860,1x5 

842,199 


T43 





Cattle Industry Acts, 1934-1936 

As has been pointed out in previous articles, the rate of 
marketing of fat cattle from month to month cannot be judged 
accurately from these figures, owing to the fact that the great 
majority of fat stock markets are held on the early days of 
the week; but useful comparisons are possible for three- 
monthly periods. 

The number of cattle certified in the six months under 
review was 17,916 (or 21 per cent.) more than in the 
corresponding months of 1935-36, but the increase was mainly 
in the first three months of the period, the numbers certified 
in September to November showing an increase of 15,712, as 
compared with an increase of only 2,204 the period 
December to February. 

In the following statement the numbers of cattle certified 
each month have been adjusted in order to allow, as far as 
possible, for the fact that a large number of fat cattle markets 
are held on Mondays and that the number of markets held 
decreases day by day as the week proceeds. From these 
figures it would appear that the rate of marketing of eligible 
cattle in September, 1936, was higher than in September, 1935, 
by 0 9 per cent. ; in October by 71 per cent. ; in November 
by 3’5 per cent.; in December by 6-6 per cent.; in January 
by 3 5 per cent. ; and in February by 0 2 per cent. 

TABLE 11 


September . . 


i93<’-37 

No. 

142,287 

No. 

141.030 

October 


152,841 


November . . 


I43.2I3 

138,418 

December . . 


I 37>238 

128,763 

January 


149,218 

144.232 

February . . 


148,440 

148.139 


Although the total number of animals certified showed an 
increase, the number of steers decreased by 2 per cent, in the 
tiiree months September to November compared with the 
(Corresponding three months of 1935, and by nearly 5 per cent, 
in the three months December to February compared with 
the corresponding period of 1935-36. Heifers increased by 
9 and 8 per cent, in the two periods respectively, and cow-heifers 
by 17 and 4 per cent, respectively. 

In each month of the period under review the relative 
proportion of steers certified showed a decline of from 2-4 to 
3 4 per cent, as compared wi& die same month a year earlier. 
The proportion of heifers and cow-heifers showed a corres- 
144 



Cattle Industry Acts, 1934-1936 

ponding increase, but cow-heifers accounted for only about 
3J to 4 per cent, of the total number of animals certified. 

The following is a comparative statement of percentages 
of the different classes of animals : — 

TABLE III 



Steers 

Heifers ' 

Cow-Heifers 


! 1936-37 

i 035 - 3 ^> 

1936-37 

! i 935 - 3 ^> , 

i 93^>“37 

1935-36 


% 

% 

% 

i % 

0/ 

% 

September . . 

. . 50*0 

5 - 5*4 

46*2 

44*4 

3 ”« 

3*2 

October 

490 

52*4 

47*4 

44*5 

3*9 

3*1 

November . . 

47-7 

50*6 

4«-6 

45*9 

3*7 

3*5 

December . . 

510 

54-3 

45*7 

425 

3*3 

3*2 

J anuary 

55-3 

5^-4 

40*0 

, 37*7 

4*1 

3*9 

February . . 

59-3 

oi * 7 

36 -(> 

1 34*4 

4 *^ 

3*9 


Live-weight Certifications. Animals certified at Live- 
weight Certification Centres accounted for 828,851 of the total 
of 860,115 animals certified at Live-weight and Dead-weight 
Centres in the six months September, 1936, to February, 1937. 
Details of the numbers of each class of animal certified at Live- 
weight Centres in each of the agricultural divisions into which 
the country is divided are given in Table IX (p. 150). 

Table IV shows the numbers of animals certified at Live- 
weight Certification Centres in England, Wales, Scotland, 
Northern Ireland and the United Kingdom respectively in 
September, 1936, to February, 1937, compared with the 
corresponding period in 1935-36: — 


TABLE IV 



September- 

—November 

— 

j December- 

-February 


1936-37 

1935-36 

j 1936-37 

1935-36 


Number 

Per 

cent. 

Number 

[ I’er 
i cent. 

i Number 

1 

IVr 

cent 

Number 

Per 

cent. 

England .. 

282,922 

67*1 

268,783 

65*6 

; 260,806 

64*0 

254,663 

62*3 

Wales 

28,632 

6-8 

26,765 

6-5 

i 26,034 

6*4 

26,913 

6*6 

Scotland . . 
Northern 

78,225 

i8-6 

78,008 

191 

i 86,567 

21*3 

88,111 

21*6 

Ireland . . 

3 X .825 

7*5 


8*8 

33,840 

8-3 

39,026 

9*5 

United 





*1 1 

1 

j 


i 

Kingdom 

421,604 

100*0 

409,621 

100*0 

j 407.247 1 

100*0 

408,713 

100*0 


145 







Cattle Industry Acts, 1934-1936 

The total number of animals certified at Live-weight Centres 
in the United Kingdom in the period September to November, 
1936, exceeded the number certified in the corresponding 
period in 1935 by 2 9 per cent., but in the period December, 
1936, to February, 1937, the number certified declined by 04 
per cent, as compared with the corresponding period a year 
earlier. In England the numbers certified increased by 5-3 per 
cent, in the period September to November, and by 2-4 
per cent, in December to February, while in Wales an increase 
of 7 0 per cent, in the first quarter was followed by a decline 
of 33 per cent, in the second quarter. In Scotland the 
numbers certified increased slightly in the period September 
to November, but fell by i-8 per cent, in the period December 
to February. In Northern Ireland certifications declined by 
11-8 percent, and 133 per cent, in the two periods respectively. 

In England, a comparison between the number of animals 
certified in the different agricultural divisions shows that in 
the three months September to November, 1936, the largest 
percentage increases were in the East Midland Division with 
183 per cent., the North-Eastern Division with ii-8 per cent., 
and the West Midland Division with 7 2 per cent. Slight 
increases were also shown by the South-Western and Northern 
Divisions, but in the Eastern, South-Eastern, and North- 
Western Divisions there were small reductions. 

In the three months December, 1936, to February, 1937, 
the East Midland Division showed an increase of 12 3 per 
cent. There were reductions of 47 per cent, in the Eastern 
Division and 6-5 per cent, in the South-Eastern Division, but 
small increases were shown in the remaining Divisions. 

In Wales, in the period September to November, 1936, 
increases of 6-5 per cent, and 74 per cent, were shown in the 
Northern and Southern Divisions respectively. In the three 
months December, 1936, to February, 1937, the number 
certified in the Northern Division declined by 70 per cent., 
while there was practically no change in the Southern Division. 

In Scotland, in the period September to November, 1936, 
certifications increased by 2 3 per cent, in the South-Eastern 
Division, and by 13 per cent, in the North-Eastern, and the 
Northern and North-Western Divisions compared with 1935, 
but small reductions were registered in the East Central and 
the Western and South-Western Divisions. In the period 
December, 1936, to February, 1937, reductions were shown 
in every Division, ranging from i i per cent, in the East 

146 



Cattle Industry Acts, 1934-1936 

Central to 4-3 per cent, in the Northern and North-Western 
Divisions. 

Dead-weight Certifications. The total number of animals 
certified at Dead-weight Certification Centres in the six 
months September, 1936, to February, 1937, was 31,264, 
compared with 23,865 in the corresponding period of 1935-36, 
an increase of 31 per cent. Comparative particulars for each 
country are given in Table V, which shows that the increase 
was relatively larger in Scotland, with a rise of 69 per cent., 
than in England and Wales with a rise of 21 7 per cent. 


TABLE V 



England and 
Wiiles 

Scotland 

Cireat Britain 


i 93 (i -37 ' i 035 - 3 <i 

1936-37 

1935-36 

1036 -37 

1935-36 

September . . 
October 

November . . 

3.570 

4.475 

3.833 

3.343 

3.336 

3.419 

1.381 

1.557 

l.<>54 

063 

9()8 

1,012 

4.951 

0,032 

5,487 

4,006 

4.304 

4.431 

Total : September 
to November 

11,878 

10,098 

4.502 

2.643 

10,470 

12.741 

December 

January 

February 

3.354 

4.368 

3.747 

2,297 
' 3.553 
3.233 

1,180 

1.053 

1 1,092 

525 

827 

689 

4.534 

5.421 

4.839 

2,822 

4,380 

3,922 

Total : December 
to February 

11,469 

1 9,083 

j 

j 3,325 

2,041 

14.704 

11,124 

Total for six months 

23.347 

19.181 

1 

i 7.017 

1 

4,684 

' 31,204 

1 

23.865 


Average Weight of Fat Cattle. The average live-weight 
(after a deduction of 28 lb. had been made for subsidy payment 
purposes) at which fat cattle were marketed in the United 
Kingdom as a whole in the six months September, 1936, to 
February, 1937, was 9 cwt. 1 qr. 25 lb., which was 3 lb. 
lighter than in the corresponding period of 1935-36. The 
average live-weight for each of the six months was : September, 
1936, 9 cwt. o qr. 25 lb.; October, 9 cwt. i qr. 4 lb.; 
November, 9 cwt. i qr. 16 lb. ; December, 9 cwt. 2 qr. 26 lb. : 
January, 1937, 9 cwt. 2 qr. 14 lb. ; and February, 9 cwt. 2 qr. 
8 lb. The weights for September and October were 
respectively 21 lb. and 9 lb. less than the weight in the 
corresponding months a year earlier, but the weights for each 
of the re maining months were slightly heavier. From Table 
VI it will be seen that the cattle certified in the autumn and 

147 




Cattle Industry Acts, 1934-1936 

winter of 1936-37 were lighter than in 1935-36 by i lb. in 
England and Wales, 17 lb. in Scotland, and 3 lb. in Northern 
Ireland. 


TABLE \T 



1 Average weight over 
, 3 months, September 

1 to November 

1 

; Average weight over 
i 3 months. December 
to February 

i 93^>--37 j 1935 3 ^> 

Average weight over 

0 months, September 
to l^'ebruary 

193b 37 ^ 935 - 3 b 

England and 

1 cwt 

qr lb. 1 cwt qr. lb. 

1 

1 

cwt. qr lb |c\\t qr lb. 

1 ' 

cwt qr. lb cwt qr. lb. 

Wales 

•i 0 

Til! 0 116 

9 i 24 . 

9 2 20 

9 2 3 

924 

Scotland 

Northern 

•; 

1 

3 ' 0 3 7 

1 

9 3 ’ 

<) 311 

9 2 20 

9 3 9 

Ireland 

United 

8 

1 o' 8 1 J(J 

j 

S I 27 , 

8 J 22 

8 1 18 

8 1 21 

Kingdom . 

•1 9 

1 

I 4 ; 0 T 15 

9 2 16 i 

i 

9 2 12 

9 I 25 

920 


The dressed carcass weights of the animals certified at 
Dead-weight Certification Centres averaged 614 lb. in the six 
months September, 1936, to February, 1937, as compared 
with 604 lb. in the corresponding period of 1935-36. There 
was little change in Scotland, but in England and Wales the 
average carcass weight was 9 lb. heavier in 1936-37, as will 
be seen from the figures in Table VII. 


TABl.K VJI 



Average weight over 

Average weight over 

Average w'eight over 


3 months, September 

3 months, December 

0 months, September 


to November 

to February 

to February 


193b 

1935 


>935 3 <> 

i 93(>-37 

l 935 - 3 <> 

! 

England and ! 

lb. 

lb. 

lb. 

lb. 

lb. 

lb. 

Wales . . 1 

59b 

5 ‘J.i 

bl 7 

()02 

606 

597 

Scotland . . ^ 

029 

628 

943 

640 

b 35 

b 34 

Great Britain , 

60O 

600 

02 3 

609 

014 

1 

604 


Average Prices of Fat Cattle. The average price per live 
cwt. of fat cattle certified in the United Kingdom in the six 
months September, 1936, to February, 1937, was 35.S. 6d., as 
compared with 34s. 3d. a year earlier. It will be seen from 
Table VIII that in each month of the period under review 
prices showed some improvement on the previous year, the 
greatest increases being recorded in September and October. 

148 




Cattle Industry Acts, 1934-1936 


TABLE VIII 



1 

England & Wales 

Scotland 


Northern Ireland 

United Kingdom 


193(1- 

37 i 

I 935 “ 3 h ’ 193b -37 

1935 36 

i 93 b -37 

193.5- 3 ^> 

i 93 <i -37 

1935-3^ 


5. 

d, i 

A', d ' 

. 9 . d 

s 

d. 

s. 

d. ' 

s. d 

5 . 

d. 

s. d. 

Srpt . . 

35 

i 

33 4 i 

39 0 

3 b 

4 

32 

4 

29 4 

3b 

0 

33 8 

Oct .. 

31 

i 

3 ^ « 

3 « 3 

35 

7 

30 

JO 

' 2 S 2 

34 

7 

32 II 

Nov. . . 

33 

^ 1 

3 ^ 5 

3 « 4 

3 b 

0 

29 

10 

27 7 

33 

11 

32 9 

3 months 
Sept to 
Nov. . . 


1 

3 ; 

3 - JO 

3 ^^ 7 

3 b 

1 

3 f 

0 

28 3 

34 

10 

33 I 

Dec . . 

35 


35 0 

39 5 


2 

31 

5 

28 10 

35 

10 

35 3 

Jan. .. 

35 

0 

35 “ 1 

<1 


0 

: 33 

1 

30 9 

3b 

I 

35 5 

l*cb . . 

3 ^> 

5 : 

35 ^ 

3 « J 

37 

5 

! 33 

3 

31 II 

3b 

6 

i 35 5 

^ months 


1 










i 

Det to 

I Vb . . 

35 

9 ; 

35 ^ 

pS s 

^7 

10 

32 

9 

30 It) 

3 b 

2 

35 5 

1 0 months' 











1 

Sept, to 
Tcb . . 

35 

0 

34 0 

3 ^ 

37 

0 

' 3^ 

10 

20 7 

35 

0 

1 34 3 


The average prices of dressed carcasses moved on similar 
lines, the average for the 6 months September, 1936, to 
February, 1937, being 62s. Gd. per cwt., as compared with 
59s. 10^. in 1935-36. Details of average prices per cwt. 
dressed carcass weight where certification took place on a 
dead- weight basis arc as follows : — 



193<i 

-37 

i 

1935 - 3 '> ; 

T934-35 


s. 

d. 

A. 

d i 

s. 

d. 

September 

b5 

7 

()0 

6 ‘ 

07 

3 

Oetober 

b3 

2 

5 S 

1 1 1 

b5 

0 

November 

bo 

3 

57 

1 1 ; 

62 

9 

Three months, September to 




1 

t 



November . . 

02 

11 

59 

2 ' 

64 

8 

December 

01 

3 

.5« 

1 

0 

61 

7 

January 

02 

3 

(>o 

0 1 

O 2 

II 

February 

02 

7 

02 

1 

1 

61 

8 

Three months, December tt> 




1 



FeViruary . . 

()2 

1 

bo 

8 

62 

I 

Six months, Sept<*inber to 




1 

1 



Februarj' . . 

02 

6 

59 

10 1 

! 

63 

4 


149 








Cattle Industry Acts, 1934-1936 


H 

< 

S 

u 

< 


i 

H 


r" 

MM 

H CO H 00 «r)vO Q\ 

X 0 ro l-^X sO VO 

rr t>. 0\vO w «n 

N 

vO 0 

X 

X ^ 0 0 
ox Cl vO 0 

9 


0 

1 

.Q 


X 0 

0 



c? 

1 



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TABLK IX { coniittued ). — Number of Cattle Certified for Payment under the Cattle Industry (Emergency Provisions) 
Acts at Live-weight Certification Centres in Each Month from September, 1936, to February, 1937.* 


Cattle Industry Acts, 1934-1936 





MARKETING NOTES 


Milk Marketing Scheme. Pool prices and rates of 
producer-retailers’ contributions for March, I937» given 
below, with comparative figures for February, 1937. and 
March, 1936. The monthly wholesale liquid milk price was 
IS. 5 ^. per gal. in each of these months. 

Pool Prices Producer-Retailers 

Contributions 


Region 

Mar. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

1937 

1937 

I 93 h 

1937 

1937 

1936 


d. 

d. 

d. 

d. 

d. 

d. 

Northern . . 


14 

122 



3 f 

North-Western . . 

i 3 i 

14 

122- 



3 i 

Eastern 

14 

Hi 

I 3 i 


2* 

3 i 

East Midland 

14 

i 4 i 

13 


2 * 

3 'Ar 

West Midland 

i 3 i 

13! 

I2i 

3 * 

2 « 

3 tt 

North Wales 

i 3 i 

i 3 i 

lij 

3 iV 

2 « 

3 i 

South Wales 

i 3 i' 

H 

I2| 



3i 

Southern . . 

T 4 i 

Hi 

Hi 

2i 

2 t 

3 -h 

Mid-Western 

i 3 i 

Hi 

12 i 

3 * 

2 « 

3 « 

Far- Western 

i 3 i 

i 3 i 


3 A 

2 « 

3 « 

South-Eastern 

Hi 

Hi 

Hi 

2f(r 

2* 

3 * 

Unweighted Average 

13*82 

14*07 

32*89 

2*82 

2-57 

3-65 


These prices are exclusive of any premiums for special 
services and level deliveries, and also of the Accredited 
producers’ premium of id. per gal. 

The number of producers who qualified for the accredited 
premium was 19,383 and the sum required for the payment of 
the premium was equivalent to a levy of -351^. per gal. on pool 
sales. 

The inter-regional compensation levy was fixed at i\d. per 
gal., compared with 2^d. per gal. in March, 1936. 

Sales on wholesale contracts were as follows : — 


March 1937 March 1936. 

{estimated) 

Gal. Gal. 

Liquid 49,166,814 47.538,5<>3 

Manufacturing . . . . 20,281,962 26,511,974 


69,448,776 74,050,537 


Percentage liquid sales .. 70*80 64*20 

Percentage manulacturing sales 29 * 20 35 • 80 

152 



Marketing Notes 


The average realization price of manufacturing milk during 
March was 5-82^. per gal. compared with per gal. for 

March, 1936. The quantity of milk manufachired into cheese 
on farms was 547,080 gal., compared with 342,674 gal. in the 
previous month and 629,414 gal. in March, 1936. 


Milk Acts, 1934 and 1936: Manufacturing Milk. Advances 
made by the Ministry up to April 15, 1937, in respect of milk 
manufactured during the financial years 1934-35, 1935*36 and 
1936-37 are as follows : — 


Section 
of Act 

^ (Quantity 

Advances 


Milk Marketiug Board for 

England and Wal 

es 


In respect of milk : 




Manufactured at factories othe.r than the Board 

’s : 



Gallons 

1 

; 1934-35 

I 5 ^. 7 ii.. 5 m 

996.053 

1 1935-36 • • 

206,976,659 

977.546 

! 1936-37 

151.5*^5.133 («) 

2 1 2,984 


Manufactured b\ the Hoard : 



1 1934-35 

846,293 

5.9-24 

1 193.5-.36 

1,7.27.369 (b) 

6,926 

! 1936-37 

(No claims re 

ceived.) 

3 

Made into cheese on lanns : 



1 1934-35 i 

18,425,918 

1 13,081 

i 1935-36 

14,524,551 

66,946 


1936-37 

10,707,678 (r) 

13.051 


Total for England and Wale.s 

557.505,145 

<2.392,51 


1 

Government of Nor them Ireland 



In respect of milk : 



6 

Manufactured into cream and 

butter at registe 

red 


creameries : 




1934-35 

18,281,963 

164,110 


1935-36 

23,940,711 

132,853 


1936-37 

24.297.565 («) 

92,119 


Total . . 

6^4,025,384 

2,781,593 


Gallonage to end of (a) Feb., 1937 , (6) Sept., 1935 ; [c) Dec., 193b. 


Milk in Schools Scheme. The following figures show the 
gallonage of milk consumed in the first four months of the 
third year of the Scheme compared with the corresponding 
period in the first and second years. The figures for the third 
period will be slightly increased when further returns are 
received. 


153 





Marketing Notes 


October, 1934, ^0 Januarj^ 1935 . . 
February to September, 1935 

Gallons 

8,367.873 

14.485.307 

Exchequer 

Contribution 

Total for ist year . . 
October, 1935, to January, 1936 . . 
February to September, 1936 

22,852,180 

7,689,042 

14,209,194 

;t40i,86i 

Total for 2nd year . . 
October, 193O, to January^ 1937 - . 

21,898,236 

7.502,151 

1^397.184 

;^I 71.925 

Total 

52,252,567 

£970.970 


Cheese-Milk Price. For the purpose of payments under the 
Milk Acts (whether by the Exchequer to Milk Marketing 
Boards or by Boards to tlic Exchequer) in respect of milk 
used for manufacture, the cheese-milk price has been certified 
by the Minister and the Secretary of State for Scotland to be 
5 36 pence per lb. for the month of April, 1937. No advances 
are, therefore, payable in respect of milk mcinufactured in 
Great Britain during April. 

Wheat Act, 1932 : Sales of Home-Grown Wheat, Cereal 
Year, 1936-37. Certificates lodged with the Wheat 
Commission by registered growei-s during the period August i, 
1936, to April 9, 1937, cover sales of 17,723,865 cwt. of 
millable wheat as compared with 27,726,795 cwt. in the 
corresponding period (to April 9,) in the last cereal year. 

Suspension of Quota Payments. The Minister of Agriculture 
and Fisheries on the recommendation of the Wheat Com- 
mission, has made an Order, the Wheat (Quota Payments) 
No. 2 Order, 1937, (S. R. & O. 1937, No. 310) suspending 
the liability of millers and importers of flour to make quota 
payments under the Wheat Act. The Order came into 
operation on April 18, 1937, and remains in force until such 
time as a further Order is made by the Minister. 

The making of this Order does not imply that no more 
deficiency payments are to be made to registered growers in 
respect of sales of home-grown millable wheat. Deficiency 
payments would only cease to be payable in respect of home- 
grown millable wheat sold in any cereal year ended July 31 
if the ascertained average price of home-grown millable wheat 
for the year rose to approximately los. a cwt. The average 
price to date for the current cereal year is appreciably below 
that figure, and in accordance with previous announcements, 
the Wheat Commission made on April 17 an advance payment 

154 



Marketing Notes 


to registered growers on account of deficiency payments for 
the current cereal year at the rate of per cwt. (equal to 3s, 
per qr. of 504 lb.) in respect of proper applications on valid 
wheat certificates delivered to the Commission up to March 18, 
1937. The present Order of the Minister is based on a 
calculation that the surplus in the Wheat Fund as shown by 
the accounts for the cereal year ended July 31, 1936, together 
with the quota payments which have accrued since, will be 
sufficient to provide for deficiency payments in respect of the 
current cereal year and the other expenditure of the Wheat 
Commission attributable to that year. 

The following table shows how the rate of quota payment 
has varied since the Wheat Act came into operation in 1932, 
and in particular how the rate has been reduced in recent 
months concurrently with the rise in the price of wheat. 


JJalc on which new ulr 

Rate of Quota Payment 

of Quota Payment came 

Per cwt. 

Per sack of 

into operation 


280 lb. 


d. 

s d. 

June 19, 1932 

10-8 

^ 3 

October 30, 1932 


2 i) 

August 2, 1933 . 

i6-8 

3 

November 5, 1933 

21-0 

4 

August 12, 1934 • • 

19-2 

4 

March 17 , 1935 • • 

21*6 

4 6 

September 29, 1935 

19 *2 

4 

November 3, 1935 

ifvS 

3 ^ 

February 23, 1936 

\ 

3 « 

August 9, 1936 . . 

9 -(> 

2 0 

November i, 1936 


i 0 

January 27, 1937 

2-4 

0 6 

April 18, 1937 

. . (}uota I’ayments suspended 


Sugar Industry (Reorganization) Act, 1936: Sugar 
Refining Agreement (Approval) Order, 1937. The 

Minister, after consultation with the Sugar Commission, and 
with the consent of the Treasury, has made the Sugar Refining 
Agreement (Approval) Order, 1937, dated March 22, 1937 
(S, R. & O. 1937, No. 221), approving an agreement, which 
the British Sugar Corporation, Ltd., have entered into with 
otlier refiners of sugar making provision for the matters set 
out in the Third Schedule of the Act. 

Cattlo Fund. The following table gives particulars of 
payments made under the Cattle Industry (Emergency 

155 



Marketing Notes 


Provisions) Acts, 1934 to 1936, and shows the number of 
animals marked on importation into Great Britain : — 



April J, 1936 

April 1, 1935 

♦Sept. 1, 1931 


to 

to 

to 


March 31, 1937 

March 31, 1936 

March 31, 1037 

Paymont.s 

Animals in rc.spect of 
which payments 

0.98^7^8 

.0.884,049 

;£ 9 , 88 o,o 84 

were made 

Average jiayment per 

1,690,800 1 

1.036,7^2 j 

4.167.858 

animal 

Imported animals 
marked at Ports 

L'- 1 ^ : 

.0 7 5 l j 

-O 7 5 

(Great Britain only) 

570, (>05 ; 

477,883 j 

i, 3 i 3 . 757 t 


* ConmiLMicenient subsidy payments f As from August 6, 1034. 


International Beef Conference. On April 8 the Board of 
Trade issued to the Press the following Notice regarding the 
appointment of the Chairman of the International Beef 
Conference : — 

The Jioard of Trade aiinoiuice that the JYinie Minister has appointed 
Sir Henry Fountain, K.C.M.CT, C.B., to be Chairman of the International 
]^eef Confenmee, TIve object of this conference, which, it is hoped, 
will shortly be set up by agreement with the countries ctincerued, is to 
arrange for the regulation of supplies of beef to the United Kingdom 
from o\'erseas. 

Sir Henry Fountain was Second Secretary to the Board of 
Trade at the time of his retirement from the Civil Service in 
1935 - 

Fat Stock: Carcass Sale by Grade and Dead Weight. 

During the three months ended March 31, 1937, 3,676 cattle, 
5,465 sheep and 2,490 pigs were dealt with under the Grade 
and Dead-weight Scheme, as compared with 2,792 cattle, 
7,000 sheep and 2,509 pigs during the first three months of 
1936. 

In the period under review, prices for fat cattle and sheep 
rose substantially. 

National Mark Beef. During the three months ended 
March 31, 1937, 100,417 sides (73,842 home-killed and 26,575 
Scotch-killed) were graded and marked with the National 
Mark. The number of sides marked was 3,057 in excess of 
that for the corresponding period of 1936. 

156 





Marketing Notes 


National Mark Cider Scheme. Evidoncc of the satisfac- 
tory progress of this scheme is afforded by the returns of the 
output of National Mark Cider during the year ended 
September 30, IQ36. These show an output for that year of 
over 2,400,000 gal., which compares favourably with the total 
figures of 2,216,000 gal. and i ,781 ,000 gal. for the years 1934-35 
and 1933-34 re.spectively. The output of cider under the 
National Mark for each of the three preceding years was less 
than 1,000,000 gal. 

The National Mark when applied to cider is not only an 
assurance to the consumer that the cider satisfies specific 
requirements as to quality, but it enables him to identify a 
beverage that is produced solely Irom fruit grown in England 
or Wales. 


National Mark Cheese Schemes. The year 1936 was one 
of expansion with respect to National Mark schemes for 
cheese. At the opening of the year schemes for Cheshire, 
Stilton, Caerphilly, Cheddar and Cream cheese were in 
operation, although the three last-mentioned schemes had been 
but lately introduced. During the year, in addition to the 
efforts directed to secure the development of the older schemes 
and the firm establishment of the newer schemes, further 
schemes were introduced for Lancashire, Leicester, and 
Wensleydale chee.se, while preliminary steps were taken to 
set up a scheme (since brought into operation) for Derby 
cheese. 

Changes of some importance were made in the arrangements 
for grading under the Cheshire cheese and Caerphilly cheese 
schemes. As regards the former the grading arrangements 
under the original scheme were undertaken solely by the 
Cheshire Cheese Federation. In March, 1936, however, the 
newly-formed Association of National Mark Cheese 
Manufacturers took over this responsibility with respect to 
creamery- made Cheshire cheese, while the Federation 
retained their responsibility with respect to the grading of 
farmhouse Cheshire cheese. 

As to the Caerphilly cheese scheme, the grading of the 
cheese was carried out originally by each packer with respect 
to his own output. At the instance of the packers themselves, 
however, a Grading Committee was set up to control the 
grading and appoint official graders to carry out the duties. 

157 



Marketing Notes 


Particulars of the total output of cheese under each of the 
schemes for the year 1936 are as follows : 

Number and. Weight of 
Cheese Graded 


Type of Cheese 

Number 

Weight 

cwt. 

Caerphilly . . 

37 L 30 I 

— 

Cheddar 

Cheshire — 

9,510 

4 , 52 ^il 

(a) Farm made 

108,645 

32,970 

\h) Creamery made . . 

102,633 

38,681 

Cream 

19,362* 

18J 

Lancashire 

35.893* 

12,740* 

Leicester . . 
vStilton — 

68 i* 

217* 

(a) Blue 

11,105 

i, 377 l 

(Z)) White 

18,538 

^, 824 i 

Wensleydale 

9,157* 

592' 


* Scheme in operation for part of year only. 


At the end of 1936, 329 farmhouse and creamery makers 
of cheese were enrolled in the National Mark cheese schemes 
as follows : Caerphilly 18, Cheddar 17, Cheshire 251, Cream 
2, Lancashire 19, Leicester 4, Stilton 13 and Wensleydale 5. 
The general position appeared to justify the conclusion that 
a steady increase of the total number of packers might be 
anticipated. 

Marketing Demonstrations at Agricultural Shows. The 

Ministry will stage exhibits at the following agricultural 
shows this summer : — 

Oxford County — Banbuiy — ^May 18-19. 

Devon County — Paignton — May 19-21. 

Bath and West — Trowbridge — ^May 26-29. 

Royal Counties — Reading — ^June 2-5. 

Suffolk County — ^Beccles — ^June 3-4. 

Three Counties — ^Hereford — June 8-10. 

Essex County — ^Maldon — ^June 9-10. 

Lincoln County — ^Spalding — ^June 16-18. 

Northampton County — ^Kettering — ^June 23-24. ' 
Aldershot — ^Aldershot — July 1-3. 

Royal — Wolverhampton — ^July 6-10. 

Great Yorkshire — ^Knavesmire, York — ^July 13-15. 

Kent County — Canterbury — ^July 14-16. 

Royal Welsh — ^Monmouth — ^July 21-23. 

Royal Lancashire — Withington, Manchester — July 29- 
Aug. 2. 



Marketing Notes 


Sandy and District — Sandy — ^Aug. 26. 

Sou&port Flower — ^Southport — ^Aug. 25-27. 

The Ministry’s exhibits this year will be designed to appeal 
particularly to the producer. Working demonstrations of the 
testing and grading of eggs, fruit or other products will be 
staged, and at the Suffolk, Lincoln, Royal, Great Yorkshire and 
Royal Lancashire shows live cattle, sheep and pigs will be 
exhibited to illustrate the various types of animal expected to 
yield carcasses of the grades defined under the Ministry’s 
Scheme for the sale of livestock by Dead Weight and Grade. 

Livestock Industry Bill. Service Schemes. The April, 
1937, issue of this Journal contained statements made by the 
Minister in explanation of Part IV of the Livestock Industry 
Bill, dealing with livestock markets, and Part V, relating to 
slaughtering. The following extracts from statements made 
by the Minister in the House of Commons and in Standing 
Committee give a general indication of the intention and 
scope of Part VI of the Bill, relating to Service Schemes. 

This part of the Bill was amended in Standing Committee 
in order (as indicated by the Minister in his statement) to give 
greater precision to the purposes for which Service Schemes 
could be used. 

In the Second Reading on January 20, the Minister said : 

“ On Part VI of the Bill, which relates to service schemes, 
I need not say a great deal. The purpose we have in view 
is to provide some means by which all sections of the industry 
can co-operate, either jointly or severally or nationally or 
locally, in order to carry out schemes of service to the industry. 

I have given the example of advertising. I would emphasize 
that' this part of the Bill is purely enabling legislation; it 
enables those who desire any sort of service to co-operate 
effectively for the purpose. How far it is made use of will 
depend, of course, upon the initiative, the ingenuity and the 
needs of those who might be helped by the proposals.” 

The Minister, in Standing Committee on April 8, moved the 
following sub-clause : — 

(i) On the request of any body or bodies appearing to the Commission 
to be substantially representative of the interests of any class or classes 
of persons engaged in one or more of the following activities, that is 
to say, the production, marketing and slaughtering of livestock and 
the preparation for sale, and the marketing, treatment, and use, of 
products of the slaughtering of livestock, the Commission, if they 
consider, after consulting the Livestock Advisory Committee and any. 

159 



Marketing Notes 


other bodies appearing to the Commission to represent the interests 
of the said class or classes of persons, that it is expedient so to do with 
a view : — 

(a) to the promotion of efficiency or economy in the production, 
marketing or slaughtering of livestock or in the preparation for sale, 
or the marketing, treatment or use, of such products as aforesaid, 
or to increasing the aeniand for livestock or such products as aforesaid, 
and 

(h) to the encouragement and promotion of co-operation between 
such persons as aforesaid, 

may make and submit to the appropriate Minister a scheme for the 
performance of services for one or more of the following purposes, that 
is to say ; — 

(i) the encouragement, promotion or conduct of research and 
education in matters affecting any of the said activities ; 

(ii) the collections and dissemination of statistics and other in- 
formation relating to the marketing of livestock or products of the 
slaughtering of livestock ; 

(iii) the insurance of livestock ; 

(iv) the advertisement of livestock rir products of the slaughtering 
of livestock ; 

(v) the grading or marking of livestock or carcasses ; 

(vi) the compensation of persons for any loss or damage which 

they may suffer by reason of the operation of this Act or any instru- 
ment having effect by virtue of this Act, the indemnification of persons 
in respect of their liability to contribute under any livestock markets 
order, or the making of contributions to the Commission for the 
purpose of defraying expenses incurred by them m respect of such 
compensation as aforesaid ; * 

(vii) any purpose similar to any of the ])urposcs mentioned in 
paragraphs (i) to (vi) of this sub-section. 

Any such scheme as aforesaid is hereafter in this Act referred to as 
" a service scheme.” 

He said : I would like the Committee to know, and I like 
to know myself, precisely what I am enacting. For that 
reason I have used the more precise language which appears 
in the new draft which I am now submitting.'' 

In the first place, some hon. Members might like a service 
scheme to come into operation to carry out some of the 
regulatory functions which are commonly associated with the 
operation of the Agricultural Marketing Acts. Some hon. 
Members might think it desirable that a service scheme should 
be put into operation in an area covered by a livestock markets 
order, so as to regulate the supply of cattle to the various 
markets within that area. There is no doubt that that activity 
IS excluded from the content of service schemes, by the wording 
which I am now proposing. The reason why, after a great 
deal of deliberation and anxious thought, I have come to the 
conclusion that it is wise to exclude those activities from 
.service schemes is that they are properly the subject of the 
i6o 



Marketing Notes 


procedure of the Agricultural Marketing Acts. The Bill as 
drafted, both before this Amendment is approved and with 
it, allows ample scope for the operation of a producers’ board 
under the Agricultural Marketing Acts to dovetail into the 
structure which this Bill sets up.” 

” I can quite conceive of some hon. Members thinking it 
desirable that we should take this short cut of the service 
scheme in order to put into operation some of the regulatory 
functions of the Agricultural Marketing Acts, without the 
cumbersome machinery necessarily associated with the 
operation of those Acts, but I will tell the Committee the 
reason which weighed my opinion down against such a course. 
I say this with no closed mind but with a desire to hear what 
hon. Members think of it. The reason which influenced me 
to exclude what I might call Agricultural Marketing Act 
activities from service schemes was that in those Acts where 
the power is given to a producers’ board to carry out certain 
functions, Parliament, in its wisdom, very properly attached 
to those powers a system of control in the public interest : that 
is to say, committees of investigation and also, of course, the 
democratic constitution of the marketing scheme which enables 
those concerned in production to express their own vote on 
the desirability or not of the clement of coercion which is 
implied, and necessarily so, in a marketing regulatory 
scheme.” 

” There is a second form of activity which hon. Members 
might also wish to see possible under the service schemes, and 
that is the trading activity. I tell the Committee, so that they 
may know exactly what they are deciding, that under the 
new draft of Clause 31 which I am proposing this activity 
is also excluded. I can conceive of hon. Members thinking 
that those concerned with the operation of this Bill and those 
affected by its provisions might desire to use this part of it — 
the operation of service schemes — in order to set up some 
subsidiary trading activity under a service scheme which 
would be ancillary to the operation of the Measure and would 
perhaps be of benefit. That is another matter which the 
Committee have to decide. I have given the suggestion 
careful consideration, and I have been influenced against it, 
in the main, by this consideration : The position is that under 
the law of the land any group of persons can always combine 
and incorporate themselves as a joint stock company, or under 
the Industrial and Provident Societies Acts, for trading 

161 



Marketing Notes 


activities of this character. I feel that if one were to have 
a trading activity under a service scheme, it would be more 
of the nature of a commercial venture than a service scheme.” 

" Again, there is this difficulty about promoting trading 
activities under a service scheme : If a group of persons come 
together, cither under the joint stock procedure of the 
Companies Acts or under the Industrial and Provident 
Societies Acts for the purposes of trading, the rights of the 
contributors to the trading venture are jealously guarded by 
the Acts in question. If we were to extend the operation of 
service schemes to introduce an element of compulsion into 
some trading activity there would be the danger that the same 
jealous supervision over the individual rights of contributors to 
the commercial venture might not be exercised. It is for that 
reason that I have sought to define the purpose of the Clause 
in this way. The object is to remove uncertainty. The 
questions which I have discussed, namely, the desirability or 
otherwise of promoting regulatory or trading functions to be 
exercised under this Part of the Measure are questions of policy 
on which I shall be glad to have the advice of hon. Members. 
As I say, my mind is not closed on the subject, though, for 
the reasons 1 have given, I believe that the exclusion of these 
activities from service schemes would leave the character of 
the service schemes clearer from confusion and would, on 
the whole, be desirable ” 

“ I should not like the Committee, however, to part with 
this matter under the misapprehension that the Amendment 
effects that radical change in initiative and in emphasis which 
some hon. Members appear to suppose. The matter has been 
discussed by some speakers as if it were a matter of principle 
and as if this were an inquiry into which method of organization 
was the better — the Agricultural Marketing Acts method or the 

Commission method Apart from the doubt as to whether 

those activities would be legally possible under a service 
scheme, there is no power of coercion involved here at all. If 
you proposed to use this Part of the Bill in order to get a 
regulatory marketing scheme, you would have to add to it 
the pains and penalties which are in the Agricultural Marketing 
Acts for those who transgress' the provisions of schemes under 
those Measures ” 

” There is no power for one interest to coerce another, but 
what is anticipated is that two classes of persons may have 
some interest in common, such as better display or more 
162 



Marketing Notes 


accurate descriptions, and may choose to come together and 
submit a joint scheme, and it is considered that provisions 
should be made accordingly ” 

“ No one can accuse the agricultural population of any 
unreadiness to co-operate and to use to the full the opportunities 
given them by the Agricultural Marketing Acts. I think the 
same will be true of this Part of the Bill. I believe it to be 
a delusion that those who live on the land and gain their living 
by agriculture are behindhand in intelligence and enterprise as 
compared with the people in the towns. In some ways they 
are closer to nature, and the great changes that have taken 
place in the agricultural industry in recent years show the 
readiness of the people concerned in it to adopt new methods, 
even though they may seem revolutionary to them at the time. 
I believe that by giving them power under this Part of the Bill 
to combine for these purposes, they will make use of it and 
work this Part of the Bill to the advantage of themselves and 
of the industry in which they are engaged.” 

Conclusion of Committee Stage. The Standing Committee 
of the House of Commons, which has been considering this 
measure, concluded their deliberations on April 13, when they 
agreed that the Bill, as amended should be reported to the 
House. The Committee sat on 18 days. 


163 



MAY ON THE FARM 


K. W. Whhldon, D.Sc., 

Armstrong College, Neivcastle-upon-Tyne . 

The present month sees the end of the winter season as 
far as live stock are concerned, horses, cattle, and sheep on 
by far the majority ot farms having left their winter quarters 
and finding all, or the greater part of their food, from 
pasturage. On mixed farms any labour freed from the work 
of attending to stock will be most welcome for assisting in 
getting in arable crops. The continuance of wet conditions 
right into April has delayed cultural operations and the getting 
in of spring sown croj^s is now a matter of great urgency on 
many farms. 

As the season advances soils dry out more rapidly during 
dry spells, and there is need for special care in the management 
of cultivations: this is particularly so on strong clay land, 
and a season like the present affords ample scope for the 
practice of the “ art of cultivation ”. To do the right thing 
just at the right time is often essential to obtain the necessary 
conditions for a good seed bed. To obtain tilth and retain 
moisture may be no easy matter when it is necessary to prepare 
strong land during dry weather after it has been waterlogged. 
If dry weather intervenes during May, how welcome " May 
showers ” may be, and how much labour can be saved if they 
come at the right time. 

Pasture Land. The cold weather in early April checked 
the normal growth of pastures, but a few days of favourable 
weather can soon make great changes in the availability of 
grass kept for stock. It is important, especially with high- 
yielding cows, to ensure that they get enough food, and if 
there is a shortage of pasture adequate compensation should 
be given in the way of concentrates. 

On large areas of grass land the pleasing sight of rich, green 
and luscious grass that we usually find at the end of April and 
the early days of May, soon begins to be marred by the 
appearance of the common Creeping Thistle. This weed is 

164 



May on the Farm 


very widespread in most districts and has definitely increased 
in recent years. It has been shown in the north of England 
that, if the thistles are cut when from four to six inches high, 
and again, when necessary, six weeks later, for two or three 
successive years, they can be practically eradicated even on 
badly infested areas. Where the thistles arc left until the 
middle of August and the stems have become well matured, 
the same results arc not obtained, the thistles continuing to 
appear in following years, when they will be both numerous 
and vigorous. The i^rinciple to bear in mind is that it is 
necessary to prevent the plant from utilizing its leaf-system 
for any length of time for the elaboration of food that it can 
store up under ground for the following season. When the 
thistles are cut in the early stages of growth the roots of the 
plants are prevented from storing up more food and are 
reduced in vigour, and in time succumb. Good hand cutting 
has proved most effective, but it is more expensive than 
machine cutting. It is unfortunate that on most farms 
pressure of other work frequently makes it difficult to tackle 
this problem in the vigorous manner that is needed if success 
is to bo obtained, but on many grass farms the question 
could receive more attention. It is satisfactoiy to note that 
many farmers are now tackling this pest in a more effective 
manner. 

Meadow Land. Yellow lattle or hen-penny {Rhinanthu^ 
crista-galli) is responsible for a great deal of loss in weight of 
hay on much of our permanent meadow land. The plant 
itself is practically worthless as a food, and is semi-parasitic 
on the roots of grasses, resulting in reduced growth and a light 
hay crop. The plant begins to show itself towards the end of 
April and beginning of May : it pei'sists, because it is an annual 
and seeds before the normal period for cutting the hay crop. 
Various ways of reducing the loss from this troublesome weed 
are recommended; at Cockle Park in 1916 on land badly 
infested, the crop was cut earlier than usual, just before the 
seeds of the weed had become ripe; a reduced hay crop was 
obtained in that year but in the following year very few 
yellow rattle plants were seen on the earlier mown portion 
of the field, while they continued in large numbers on the area 
cut at the normal period. A hay crop of at least 5 cwt. or 
more was harvested from the early-cut portion in 1917. The 
grazing of a meadow for two or three years will give the 

165 



May on the Farm 


same result, as the weed’ does not do well on land that is grazed 
and trodden by stock. On farms where liberal quantities of 
farmyard manure are available, liberal dressings of farmyard 
manure applied early and light grazing in spring allow the 
grasses to compete successfully with the young yellow rattle 
plants, and in this way have the effect of preventing them 
becoming established and producing seed. Early mowing 
of meadow hay fields often has the advantage of reducing 
other weeds and thus giving a larger proportion of grass and 
clover. 

Sheep. The anxiety of the lambing season is practically 
over except on some of the late hill farms. Amongst lowland 
flocks the percentage of lambs born appears to have been 
satisfactory, but on the average it would seem that losses have 
been heavier than usual, particularly on higher lying exposed 
farms. During April many complaints were heard of lambs 
not doing well. Young grass has been in short supply and 
it is very difficult to make adequate compensation for this 
valuable foodstuff in the diet of a milking ewe. 

It will not be long before the flockmaster is concerned with 
maggots and similar troubles. Care in keeping ewes and 
hoggs properly trimmed may do much to mitigate the evil 
as well as reduce losses from wool ball in lambs. In a season 
like the present, with a wet, late spring followed by rapid 
growth of succulent pasturage, there is a greater liability to 
scouring. The feeding of a low protein food like maize or 
a binding food like undecorticated cotton cake may check 
this tendency. 

In recent years there has been a tendency on many farms 
to overstock with sheep. There are several reasons for this, 
the more important being the relatively better returns from 
sheep feeding than from fattening cattle, and the improvement 
of much of the poorer pasturage by manurial treatment, 
especially with phosphates, involving increased stocking. 

The truth of the old saying “ a sheep’s worst enemy is 
another sheep ” has been amply demonstrated. Change of 
pasturage and as wide a distribution as is practicable are 
desirable. On sheep pasturage where there is a tendency for 
the herbage to become strong and send out flowering stems 
at a comparatively early stage, it is most desirable to graze 
a fair proportion of cattle. Cattle stock have not the 
powers of discrimination in grazing, and make possible a 
166 



May on the Farm 


much more even grazing of the sward. Where pasture plants 
are allowed to run to seed, the deterioration is rapid, both in 
quality and digestibihty. 

Poultry. Unlike certain other farm stock poultry are 
dependent upon direct feeding of concentrates, so that with 
the advent of the grass period the poultry keeper gets little 
relief from the expense of purchased concentrated foods. It 
is particularly important, with the present high prices of food- 
stuffs, that there should be efficient management, and the 
poultry keeper should only retain birds that are likely to give 
a return for food consumed. 

During May there is still some demand for boiling fowls, 
and any birds of this type: that are saleable should be disposed 
of before large numbers of cockerels appear on the market. 
The hatching of heavy breeds will be finished and chicks 
should be making good growth. The rate of growth for a 
batch of young chicks at this time of year is rapid, and it is 
important that they should receive a sufficient allowance of 
suitable food, supplying sufficient protein and minerals, as 
the foundation of the future laying hen is being laid down at 
this time. 

A continuous watch should be kept on tlie flock for any 
signs of disease, as, especially with ix)ultry, disease may spread 
so rapidly. On many farms Coccidiosis takes a very heavy 
toll of chicks. It should be borne in mind that this disease 
is controllable, and if the poultry keeper is not conversant 
with the symptoms or methods of control it is most advisable 
that, at the first signs of trouble amongst the young birds, 
the advice of an expert should be obtained — County Poultry 
Instructors can give much useful information and advice that 
may be most valuable in preventing serious loss. 

Horses. The last two or three years have seen a revival 
of interest in horse-breeding. During the last two years 
prices have been higher, and at present they are very 
satisfactory. The present month sees the height of the 
breeding season. Losses amongst foals from joint-ill are 
more numerous than necessary on many farms. Inoculation 
does much to reduce this loss; and on farms where the 
trouble is known to occur it is wise to consult a veterinary 
surgeon a few weeks before the mare is due to foal. 

Breeding results with horses are less satisfactory than with 

167 



May on the Farm 


other classes of other farm livestock. How often we find 
the foaling return as low as 55 per cent, and how seldom 
over 70 per cent. This means considerable loss, as service 
fees arc high and veiy often valuable breeding mares produce 
too few offspring. The risk of the marc not producing a foal, 
often makes breeders obtain the services of cheaper sires. 
This is usually false economy, as the saving of one or two 
pounds in service fee is not much compared with the sum 
total of breeding expenses, while the resultant progeny may 
be of much less value. The system of travelling horses on 
a weekly round, and it is not easy to avoid this, is no doubt 
a factor that contributes greatly to the poor foaling returns, 
as mares are not always mated at the most favourable time — 
which is towards the end of the heat period. 

Cereal Crops. Sjjring com frequently shows signs of 
trouble from grub attacks during this month. Wireworms, 
and on oats after temporary or long leys, leather jackets, 
may attack the roots, destroying many plants or checking 
growth of others. Frit fly, the grub of which attacks the 
centre growing shoot in the stem, often cause considerable 
loss to oats especially those sown late. Remedial measures 
are not easy; but generally speaking anything that helps 
the plant to make rapid growth is an advantage. Top- 
dressing with quick-acting nitrogenous fertilizers, such as 
nitrate of soda, nitrate of lime or nitro-chalk, may do much 
to reduce loss from such pests. Rolling on light soils or 
newly-ploughed-out grass land also helps in producing firm 
conditions for the root system. 

Charlock is responsible for a great deal of loss in some areas. 
Various methods of getting rid of the weed are recommended. 
Dry and wet sprays give satisfactory results when weather 
conditions are favourable. Finely-powdered Kainit does well, 
and on light soil short of potash, may be a useful manure in 
addition to destroying the weed. On soils where nitrogen 
can be applied without risk of lodging, dusting with calcium 
cyanamide may be recommended. Sulphuric acid and copper 
sulphate solution may be used as a wet spray. Farmers are 
advised to consult their County Agricultural Organizer as to 
form and method of application for their particular conditions. 

One often hears that on certain fields or farms barley seldom 
does well. Further inquiiy usually reveals the fact that these 
fields are deficient in lime. Barley is tiie least tolerant of all 
168 



May on the Farm 


cereals to acidity. It is satisfactory to note that more attention 
has been given to the question of liming during recent years. 
There is still room, however, for greater attention to this 
question. The good results from the applications of suitable 
dressings of lime on acid soils, where finger-and-toe occurs 
in swedes, cabbage, kale, etc., and also in helping clovers, 
barley, etc., are well recognized, but during recent years 
experiments have shown that for crops regarded as tolerant 
to acidity, such as potatoes and oats, applications of lime have 
given good results. 

Wherever crops are found to be showing signs of unsatisfac- 
tory growth an effort should be made to determine the reason. 
The Agricultural Organizer for the county is always willing 
to give assistance, and, if necessary, will take samples of soil 
for analysis. 


169 



NOTES ON MANURING 


F. Hanley, M.A., 

School of Agriculture, Cambridge 

Trends in Fertilizer Consumption. A comparison of 
annual fertilizer consumption in terms of the actual plant 
nutrients contained in the fertilizers discloses some interesting 
changes. Total consumption of fertilizer, and the selection 
of the form in which any particular plant nutrient shall be 
purchased, are obviously influenced by such factors as world 
trade, financial conditions in the agricultural industry, and 
the relative price of different fertilizers. 

Changes in the ratio of the different plant nutrients con- 
sumed, however, cannot be so readily explained. Doubtless 
such changes are influenced to some extent by the spread of 
knowledge based on the accumulated results of research and 
experimentation. Otlier factors, however, obviously exert a 
very considerable influence on fertilizer consumption in any 
particular country, especially in times such as the present, 
and in countries that produce one type of fertilizer but have 
to rely almost entirely on imports for supplies of some other 
plant nutrient. 

TABLE 1 


Kstimated Fertilizer Consumption in Great Britain and Ireland — 
Ratio of Plant Nutrients Consumed 

Year 

Nitrogen 

{N) 

Phosphoric Acid 
(P2O5) 

Potash 

(K,0) 

1913-14 

I 

4*3 

1*2 

1922 

1 

4*5 

0*5 

1926 

I 

3*7 

1*1 

1927 

1 

3*9 

1*3 

1928 

I 

3*9 

1*2 

1929 

I 

4*3 

I ‘2 

1930 

I 

3-9 

1*0 

1931 

1 

3*4 

I*I 

1932 

I 

2*4 

0-7 

1933 

I 

2*4 


1934 

. . . . . . I 2*7 

* Data not available. 

I -I 


Table I shows the relative estimated amounts of nitrogen, 
phosphoric acid and potash consumed annually in Great 
Britain and Ireland for a number of seasons during the period 
1913-1934. The figures are based largely on data published 
170 



Notes on Manuring 


by A. N. Gray in the Empire Journal of Experimental 
Agriculture (1934, II, 64), in Superphosphate (1936, No. 6, 
and 1937. No. 2), and in the Journal of the Royal Agricultural 
Society (Vols. 93 - 95 )- 

The figures in Table I indicate that a considerable reduction 
has taken place in the proportion of phosphoric acid used 
during the 20 years 1913 to 1933 — ^the change being 
particularly rapid during the years 1930 to 1933 inclusive. 
Whether such reduction could go still further without causing 
losses in crop yields is not easy to decide, since there is really 
little experimental evidence available as to the cumulative 
effects of using different proix)rtions of the various plant 
nutrients. On the other hand, it is possible that by 1933 the 
reduction had already gone too far and the small increase 
shown in 1934 may be the first indication of the appreciation 
of this fact by the farmer. It will be interesting to see whether 
the figures for 1935 confirm this reversal of the downward 
trend in the relative consumption of phosphoric acid. 

It should be noted that the reduction in the ratio of phosphoric 
acid to nitrogen used was not simply due to the total con- 
sumption of phosphoric acid remaining constant whilst that 
of nitrogen increased. Omitting the War years, there has 
been a fairly steady increase in the total consumption of 
nitrogen (except for the year 1931), but the total consumption 
of phosphoric acid has actually fallen considerably over the 
same period, though the year 1929 saw a temporary “ peak ” 
consumption which was reflected in a temporary increase in 
the ratio of phosphoric acid to nitrogen, despite the fact that 
nitrogen consumption also showed a large increase in that 
year. In 1934, however, the total consumption of phosphoric 
acid showed an increase over the previous year, and it may 
be that the pendulum is beginning to swing in the opposite 
direction and both total and relative consumption of phosphoric 
acid may now be rising again. 

During the period 1913-33 world fertilizer consumption 
showed a similar trend towards a lower phosphoric acid ratio. 
In France and Germany the proportion of phosphoric acid to 
nitrogen has for long been below that in this coimtiy. The 
continued use of such a low proportion of phosphoric acid, 
however, has been criticized in recent years by German 
investigators, who point to the low cereal yields in Germany 
du ring the Great War and the years immediately following 
the War, when phosphoric acid supplies were very low. They 

171 


c 2 



Notes on Manuring 


suggest that it may also be responsible for the increase in 
a variety of cropping troubles in their country in more recent 
years. 

Earlier notes in this series have drawn attention to the 
serious effects of definite phosphate deficiency on crop yields 
in this country, and there is evidence that in some districts 
this condition has made itself felt in recent years. The slight 
rise in the ratio of phosphoric acid to nitrogen used in 1934, 
which was accompanied by a rise in total consumption of 
phosphoric acid, may therefore be a very desirable trend, 
though it would be unfortunate if it developed too strongly 
and caused the pendulum to swing too far in the direction 
of an unnecessarily high PgOs : N ratio. On most farms too 
much money spent on one t5rpc of fertilizer usually means 
there is not enough left to purchase adequate supplies of other 
plant nutrients. 

The potash : nitrogen ratio reached a peak value in 1927 
and then declined steadily until the low value of 07 : i was 
reached in 1932. There was a definite rise, however, by 1934 
when the ratio was not far short of that for the peak period 
1927-29. 

Unfortunately it does not seem possible as yet to state what 
is the most desirable ratio of plant nutrients, and so it is 
impossible to forecast the ultimate effect of any particular 
trend. Further experimental work on the cumulative effect 
of standard schemes of manuring seems the most likely way 
of obtaining this information. A change for only one year is 
not likely to be of any great significance or to have any far- 
reaching effect. Such a change is often due to a temporary 
rise or fall in the price of some plant nutrient and may be 
automatically adjusted within a short time. 

The same trend extending over several years, however, must 
obyiously affect the balance of the reserves of plant food in 
the soil, and may reduce the ability of that soil to withstand 
an enforced reduction in supplies in a time of emergency. 

Maintenance of Soil Productivity. Renewed interest has 
been aroused in this question in recent months, for the 
desirability of keeping as much land as possible in a high 
state of fertility has been put forward as an important 
addition to any defence measures. When the agricultural 
industry is enjoying reasonable prosperity the main objective 
of the *' good " farmer is the maintenance of the cropping 

17* 



Notes on Manuring 


capacity of his land. This may be partly a matter of personal 
pride, but it has also the practical advantage that such stored-up 
fertility will often help crops to withstand temporary adverse 
conditions and will enable the farmer himself to tide over 
short periods of depression. For some years past the 
difficulties of the arable farmer have led him to direct attention 
more to the immediate problem of cutting down costs to meet 
the lower prices received for crops, rather than the wider 
problem of maintaining the cropping power of the land. 

The maintenance of the productivity of a soil under arable 
cultivation is a complex problem- of which manuring is only 
part. 

Attempts are frequently made to meet a new crisis in the 
farming industry by departure from some of the more 
restrictive and expensive traditional practices, and it is worth 
while considering how far such alterations may affect the 
general productivity of the land when continued as a long-term 
policy. Experimental evidence on these matters is badly 
needed, for though the Rothamsted and Woburn experimente 
provide data on some aspects of the problem, the evidence 
on many points is by no means conclusive. Indeed, the latest 
account of the Woburn experiments* serves to emphasize both 
the complexity of the problem and the need for further 
investigation of many of the points involved. 

The Woburn experiments showed that, given suitable 
manuring, cereal crops can be grown for many years in 
succession provided pests, diseases and weeds are controlled. 
Sooner or later, however, yields begin to fall even though no 
pest or disease has appeared. This deterioration cannot always 
be arrested even by the application of the requisite amounts 
of the common plant nutrients, either in the form of artificial 
fertilizers or as farmyard manure. At Woburn, annual 
dressings of farmyard manure kept up the yields better than 
any other method of fertilizing, and though, for wheat, a 
complete dressing of artificials was almost as good as farmyard 
manure, it was less effective for barley. 

The Woburn results provide no satisfactory answer as to why 
a crop supplied with dung or with complete fertilizer should 
show this falling off in yield; but they are not alone in this 
respect, for the long-term experiments at Rothamsted, on an 
entirely different soil type, show a similar deterioration. 

Fifty Years of Field Experiments at the Woburn Experimental 
Station ” : Sir E. J. Russell and J. A. Voelcker. 


173 



Notes on Manuring 


That the 5aeld reductions are not entirely due to some factor 
associated with the continuous growth of one crop is shown 
by the fact that similar effects may be seen on the rotation 
plots at Woburn and Rothamsted. At Woburn the rotation 
roots — barley — seeds — ^wheat, receiving only small and 
irregular supplies of organic matter, failed to maintain yields 
at their original level. 

Again, plots at Woburn on which a mustard or tares crop 
was ploughed in annually, deteriorated as rapidly as 
unmanured plots. 

The deterioration was completely overcome for a time by 
bare fallowing, but, though the first crop after the bare fallow 
was as good as the crop before the onset of deterioration, 
subsequent crops fell off very rapidly and in a short time 
yields were back at the previous low levels. 

To summarize the position, departure in certain directions 
from the established practices of good husbandly may result 
in a gradual deterioration in crop 5deld, the cause of which 
is not clear. Continuous growth of one crop, year after year, 
may result in a deterioration that can only be checked by 
larger dressings of farmyard manure than would normally be 
available in general farm practice. The deterioration is 
likely to occur even when complete artificial manures are 
given, but is more pronounced with incomplete manuring. 
Ploughing-in mustard or tares does not prevent the 
deterioration. The yield reductions are temporarily cured by 
bare fallowing, but the effect of the fallow is quickly exhausted 
and yields are soon back at their old levels. A similar 
deterioration has been observed where a rotation of crops is 
grown in conjunction with unusually small dressings of farm- 
yard manure. 

It is well to remember that the trouble apparently becomes 
really noticeable only after the lap>se of several years, for 
there was little deterioration on plots receiving complete 
artificial fertilizers during the first 15 years of the Woburn 
experiments. Deterioration seems to be associated in some 
way with exhaustion of the organic matter in the soil, and it 
is suggested that possibly the straw in farmyard manure is 
the source of some unknown factor not supplied either by 
artificials or green manuring, and the importance of the 
humus-forming properties of straw are emphasized. What- 
ever the explanation of the problem, the moral would seem 
to be that though ample supplies of farmyard manure will 
174 



.Notes on Manuring 


cover a multitude of sins against the old established practices 
of good husbandry, in the absence of dung the maintenance 
of the productivity of the soil is a much more difficult problem. 
It is of course possible to cite farms that appear to have cropped 
normally for many years without farmyard manure, but no 
satisfactory explanation has yet been forthcoming for the 
success of some and failure of others. 

A combination of the various factors, such as crop rotation, 
fallowing, reasonable manuring, etc., will keep the land in 
good condition, as, of course, happens in ordinary good 
farming. The problem is, however, both interesting and 
important in view of the development of new systems of 
farming and on account of the diminishing supplies of dung. 
In the long run the fertility of the soil is a reflection of the 
farming system, which, if not itself sound, cannot be made 
permanently successful by any system of manuring. 


175 



PRICES OP ARTIFICIAL MANURES 


Description. 

Average prices per ton (2,240 lb.) 
during week ended April 7. 

Bristol 

Hull 

L'pool 

London 

Costs 

per 

UnitH 



i 

5. 

L 

5 . 

£ 

5. 

£ 

5. 

5 . 

d 

Nitrate of Soda (N 15!%) . . ' 


7 

12c 

7 

I2C 

7 

125 

7 

125 

9 

10 

,, ,, Granulated (N. iO%) 


7 

12c 

7 

125 

7 

125 

7 

125 

9 

6 

Nitrate of Lime (N. 13%) 


7 

oc 

7 

05 

7 

05 

7 

05 

10 

9 

Nitro-Chalk (N. 15^%) 

1* 

7 

5c 

7 

50 

7 

5 ^^ 

7 


9 

A 

Sulphate of Ammonia : — 












Neutral (N. 20 *6%) . . 


7 

5C 

7 

.v 

7 

5r 

7 

5 ^ 

7 

0 

Calcium Cyanamide (N. 20*6%) ^ 


7 

5d 

7 

5d 

7 

5d 

7 

5d 

7 

0 

Kainite (Pot. 14%) . . . . ^ 


2 

18 

2 

15 

2 

15 

2 

15 

3 

ri 

Potash Salts (Pot. 30%) 


5 

0 

4 

17 

4 

15 

4 

17 

3 

3 

.. (Pot. 20%) 


3 

15 

3 

12 

3 

12 

3 

12 

3 

7 

Muriate of Potash (Pot. 50%) 


8 

3 

8 

I 

7 

17 

8 

1 

3 

3 

Sulphate ,, (Pot. 48%) 


9 

15 

9 

13 

9 

9 

9 

L 3 

4 

0 

Basic Slag (P.A. 1 5i%) 


2 

126 

2 

5b 


. . 

2 

106 

3 

2 

,, ,, (P.A. 14%) • • • • 

s 

2 

86 

2 

06 

2 

06 

2 

66 

3 

3 

Grd. Rock Phosphate (P.A. 26- 












274%) 


2 

I2fl 


. . 

2 

loa 

2 

5a 

I 

8 

Superphosphate (S.P. A. 16%) . . 


3 

4 


. , 

3 

3 ^ 

3 

of 

3 

9 

.. (S.P.A. 


3 

1 

2 

17 

2 

195 

2 

ibf 

4 

I 

Bone Meal (N. 3j%, P.A. 2oJ%) 



, . 

6 

10 

7 

5^ 

7 

0 


, , 

Steamed Bone Flour (N. }%, 












P.A. 27 }%~ 29 i%) .. 


5 

5 ^ 

1 5 

10 

5 

os 

5 

0 

wJLmm 

•• 


Abbreviations : N, = Nitrogen ; P.A. — Phosphoric Acid ; 

S.P.A.= Soluble Phosphoric Acid ; Pot. = Potash. 


♦ Prices are for not less than 0-ton lots, at purchaser’s nearest railway station 
unless otherwise stated. Unit values are calculated on carnage-paid prices. 

§ IMces are for not less than 2-ton lots, nett cash for prompt delivery f.o.r. in 
town named, unless otherwise stated. Unit values are calculated on f.o.r, prices. 
a Prices for 4-ton lots f.o r. Fineness 85% through standard sieve 
b Prices for 0-ton lots. Prices at Bnstol are f.o.r. Bridgwater ; at Hull and 
Liverpool f.o.r. neighbouring works, and at London f.o r. at depots in London 
district, lameness 80% through standard sieve. 

c For lots of 4 tons and under 0 tons the price is is per ton extra, for lots 
of 2 tons and under 4 tons, 5s. per ton extra, and for lots of i ton and under 
2 tons, 105 . extra. 

d Delivered in 4-ton lots at purchaser’s nearest railway station. For lots of 
2 tons and under 4 tons the price is 55. per ton extra, for lots of i ton and under 
2 tons, 105 . i>cr ton extra, for lots of 10 cwt. and under i ton, 155. extra, and 
for lots of less than 10 cwt. but not less than 2 cwt., 205. extra. 
e Prices shown are f.o.r. Widnes. 

/ Prices shown are f.o.r. northern rails ; southern rails 1$. 3d. extra. 
g Prices .shown are f.o.r. Appley Bridge. 
h Price shown is f.o.r. Newport, Mon. 

^1 These are calculated by regarding a ton as comprising 100 units " (equal parts 
0/ 22'4 lb,) so that a fertilizer, for example, with lO per cent, nitrogen contains 
16 such “ units ” in a ton. Then, if the price per ton of such a fertilizer be divided 
by the percentage figure, the deduced cost is that of a unit " of that agent. Those 
in the table above are based on London prices. (For further explanation, see 
Advisory Leaflet No. 14O, “ The Valuation of Artificial Manures,*' obtainable from 
the Ministry, free of charge.) 

176 




NOTES ON FEEDING 


Charles Crowther, M.A,, Ph.D., 

Harper Adams Agricultural College. 

The Food Requirements of Sheep. The accurate rationing 
of livestock is only possible under conditions of indoor manage- 
ment or confinement to yards. Under any outdoor system, 
whether on arable or pasture, there is bound to be great 
uncertainty as to the amount and food value of the material 
taken by the animal off the ground, and moreover the variable 
conditions of exposure from day to day probably give rise to 
greater variations in the daily food consumption than is 
customary indoors, even with ad lib. feeding. It is not 
surprising, therefore, that the formulation of feeding standards 
for the u.se in the rationing of sheep has been much more 
difficult than for dairy cows and pigs, and that at best such 
standards as have been drawn up for the sheep cannot claim 
to be more than rough guides to the needs of any particular 
flock, serving as a starting point for the rationing, to be raised 
or lowered according to experience, system of management, 
and nature of food supply. 

The first systematic attempt in this country to arrive at the 
fundamental requirements of the sheep over the whole range 
of live-weights was made by the late Professor T. B. Wood, 
in 1928, and his conclusions were embodied in the table of 
feeding standards contained in the Ministry’s Bulletin No. 48. 
In this table the requirements are given for different live-weights 
in terms of total dry matter consumed, and the amount of 
“ protein equivalent ” that should be contained therein. For 
a sheep of 100 lb. live- weight for example, the food requirement 
is given as 24 lb. dry matter per week (or 34 lb. per day) 
including if lb. of “ protein equivalent ”. 

The problem has been further explored at Oxford by Scott 
Watson and his co-workers, who have adduced evidence from 
the older literature and from new experiments, pointing to 
the conclusion that Wood's dry matter standards are too high, 
even for well-balanced rations consisting mainly or entirely 

177 



Notes on Feeding 


of palatable dry foods. The highest consumption recorded 
in Watson’s experiments with a wide variety of dry foods 
fell short of Wood's figures by 10-15 cent., whilst on 
a diet of roots, hay and limited concentrates the discrepancy 
increased to nearly 30 per cent. From his results Watson 
concluded, therefore, that witli the ordinary type of winter 
feeding practised in this country the daily dry matter 
consumption of sheep is unlikely to exceed zb-z'j lb. per 
100 Ib.live-weight, and that this level can only be maintained 
if from one-third to one-half of the dry matter is given as 
air-dry foods (hay, meals, etc.). This level of appetite 
represents 75-80 per cent, of Wood’s standard. With heavy 
root feeding or on low protein rations the consumption of 
dry matter may be still lower. 

This discrepancy between the Cambridge and Oxford 
standards has led to further investigation at Cambridge, the 
results of which, as reported by Dr. Woodman and co-workers 
in two papers in the current issue of the Journal of AgricuUural 
Science (Vol. 27, p. 191-211, 212-223), seem to settle the issue 
in favour of a close approximation to the Oxford standard. 

These new Cambridge reports contain much of interest, 
both as regards the methods of experiment and the details of 
the data obtained from day to day and at different seasons 
with individual sheep. The first report deals with trials'made 
in the winters of 1933-34, i934-35> and 1935-36 with a variety 
of rations, and the second report with determinations made 
in the summers of 1934 and 1935 of the amounts of grass 
consumed by sheep on pasturage of varying quality. 

In the first series of trials the sheep were kept continuously 
out of doors in boarded runs provided with shelters. Suffolk 
wethers were used in the first winter, and cross-bred wethers 
by Suffolk ram out of Cheviot x Border Leicester ewes in the 
two following winters. Ten experimental feeding periods of 
14 days each were carried out in the first winter, and nine in 
each of the following years. 

In the first year, the trials commenced in October and the 
diets tested consisted of lucerne hay of medium quality fed 
both in the chaffed and in the long condition; unchaffed 
lucerne hay of very good quality; lucerne hay and swedes; 
lucerne hay, swedes and balanced concentrates; ryegrass- 
sainfoin hay, swedes, and concentrates; hay, marrow-stem 
kale and concentrates: hay, raw potatoes and concentrates. 

In the second year, the trials commenced early in July and 
178 



Notes on Feeding 


the diet in the first period consisted of meadow hay, green 
lucerne and concentrates. Subsequently, the lucerne was 
replaced by either marrow-stem kale or thousand-head kale. 

In the third year, the trials commenced in early September, 
and the rations up to the last period consisted of hay, marrow- 
stem kale and concentrates. In the final period the kale was 
replaced by sliced mangolds. 

The rations thus included a considerable variety of foods, 
but in most periods were of the hay-succulents-concentrates 
type. 

On every diet the variations of consumption from day to 
day were considerable for each individual sheep. In one 
specimen case quoted, in which the animal was on a diet of 
chaffed meadow hay ad lib, marrow-stem kale ad lib, and a 
fixed allowance of concentrates, the variations in daily 
consumption of dry matter on 14 consecutive days ranged 
from 184 to 549 grm. for the hay, from 646 to 954 grm. for the 
kale, and from 1155 to 1654 grm. for the total dry matter con- 
sumed. On each diet a similarly wide range of variation was 
also observed in consumption as between different individuals. 

On comparing the results obtained on different diets, it is 
noted that, on changing from a diet of chaffed lucerne hay 
to one of the same hay fed long, the average daily consumption 
was lowered by nearly ^ lb. of dry matter per head. With 
lucerne hay of better quality, even though fed in the long state, 
the daily consumption rose fully up to the original level. 

In most instances the feeding of swedes along with the 
lucerne hay caused a slight depression of appetite, amounting 
on the average to about 5 p)er cent., but this was fully 
rectified when balanced concentrates were added to the diet. 
Replacement of swedes by kale did not materially affect the 
results, but when raw potatoes took the place of swedes the 
daily intake of dry matter was considerably reduced. 

When the results are arranged with relation to the live- 
weights of the sheep in each period, it is seen that at all 
weights the average daily consumption of dry matter was 
well below the amounts expected from Wood’s standards, the 
extreme individual values ranging from 69 to 108 per cent, 
of the expected appetites. In 34 out of 159 animals the 
consumption lay between 69 and 80 per cent, of the predicted 
value, in 86 animals between 80 and 90 p)er cent., in 27 
animals between 90 and 100 per cent., and in 12 animals 
between 100 and 108 per cent. The general average of all 

179 



Notes on Feeding 


results was 860 per cent. On the whole the degree of 
deficiency below Wood's standards was much the same 
throughout the whole live-weight range, with a slight tendency 
towards better appetites relative to the standards at the highest 
weights from about 135 lb. onwards. If the results for these 
heavier sheep be excluded, the average of the remaining 136 
results for sheep varying from 60 to 135 lb. live-weight works 
out at 85 2 per cent., and Woodman suggests, therefore, that 
the dry matter standards in Wood’s table be corrected by 
multiplication by the factor 0 85, or a reduction of 15 per cent. 
This gives, for example, for the 100 lb. sheep a daily appetite 
standard of 2 9 lb. (3-4 x 0-85), a figure in reasonably good 
agreement with Watson's figure of 2-6-27 lb. , Kellner’s figure 
of 2-6 lb. and Henry and Morrison's 27-31 lb. 

The new standards for dry matter arrived at as indicated 
above are summarized below : — 


Live Weight 

Appetite 

Dry Matter per Week 

lb. 

lb. 

60 

•. 145 

80 

17*9 

ICO 

20*4 

120 

22*9 

140 

25*5 

160 

28 '0 

180 

29-8 

200 

3^-5 


In the same paper, the Cambridge authors re-examine the 
evidence as to the maintenance requirements of sheep at 
different live-weights, as to which previous work at Cambridge 
had led to the conclusion that the standards of Kellner and 
others were much too low. This conclusion is confirmed by 
the additional data now available, and therefore no change 
is necessary in this particular in the revision of Wood’s 
standards. 

Grass Consumption by Sheep. The difficulties involved 
in ascertaining the amount of grass consumed by sheep under 
pasturage conditions, to which reference was made in 
the opening paragraph, were apparently overcome with a 
considerable measure of success by the Cambridge workers by 
the ingenious but laborious device of running digestion trials 
with weighed amounts of grass in parallel with the grazing 
trials, and comparing the weights of dry matter voided as 
faeces in the two series. 

180 



Notes on Feeding 


In the first grazing period of the season 1934 (May 10-24), 
conditions were ideal for high consumption, the herbage 
available being excellent in quality and digestibility. Under 
these conditions, and in marked contrast to the winter feeding 
results summarized above, the sheep consumed amounts of 
dry matter that were from 4 to 17 per cent, in excess of Wood's 
standards (unrevised). This increase in appetite is ascribed 
to the high palatability of the young spring herbage, and 
confirms the view that farm animals in general tend to over- 
eat when first put out to grass in spring, frequently with 
resultant “ scouring”, which is not surprising in view of the 
succulent, protein-rich nature of the herbage. 

During the second grazing period of 1934 (June 5-16), the 
quality of the herbage was not so good, the digestibility of the 
organic matter being about 10 per cent, less than in the first 
period, and probably also there had been a corresponding 
decline in palatability. Despite these disadvantages, the 
consumption of dry matter was little short of Wood's 
standards, the averages for different sheep ranging from 94 
to 106 pwr cent, of the ” standard ” values in the first half 
of the period, and from 90 to 100 per cent, in the second half, 
when the grass had undergone further deterioraton in 
digestibility and quality. Thus even at the worst the grazing 
animals were taking appreciably more dry matter per day 
than they did on the winter diets. 

In the 1935 trials, which commenced in May, the condition 
of the grass at the outscit was by no means so good as in May 
of the previous year, and consequently the dry matter 
consumption did not reach the same level, although still well 
up to Wood's standards (98-108 per cent.). 

From these results we may infer that sheep consume a 
bigger ration, in terms of dry matter, when on pasture in 
spring and summer than under winter feeding conditions 
with diets composed of hay, succulents and concentrates. 
The size of the ration will vary according to the quality of 
the herbage, and will normally be greatest on young, leafy 
pasturage. 

Influence of Food Oil on Body Fat in the Fowl. An 

important factor in the problem of securing high quality in 
meat production is the tendency of any oils in the food to 
impart their character to the fats of the body. Food oils of 
a softening tendency will lead to a softening of the body fat, 

181 



Notes on Feeding 


and this means that fats that are naturally inclined to be soft, 
such as the fat of the pig and the fowl, may thereby be 
seriously deteriorated in dietetic value. 

This problem, in its application to the fowl, has for some 
years occupied the attention of the Poultry Section of the 
Cambridge Animal Nutrition Research Institute, whose 
reports have indicated a close relationship in this instance 
between food-oil and body-fat. In particular it is the 
unsaturatcd acids of the food oils that tend to accumulate in 
the body-fat. A measure of these unsaturated acids is given 
by the power of the oil for combining with iodine, so that, 
broadly speaking, an oil of low “ iodine value ” may be 
described as “ hardening ” and one of high iodine value as 
“ softening ” in its effect upon the body fat. 

In poultry fattening, the foods used chiefly are oats, maize 
and barley, tire first two being comparatively rich in oil of 
softening character (3-6 per cent.), and it is therefore obviously 
of interest to know how these cereals compare in their influence 
upon the consistency and quality of the body fat deposited 
during the fattening period 

Data upon this subject are given in a paper by Dr. 
Cruickshank of the Cambridge Institute, in the current issue 
of the Journal of Agricultural Science. In her expepments 
the three cereals mentioned above were compared both with 
young and with older birds (Light Sussex), the ration in all 
instances consisting of 88 parts of the ground cereal mixed 
with 12 parts of dried skim milk. 

In both experiments the best growth rates were obtained 
on the oats ration, with barley second, and maize a bad third. 

With the mature birds the general consistency of the fats 
was practically normal, but the softest fat, as judged by the 
iodine value and other criteria, was produced by the oats 
ration, followed closely by the maize ration. From this it 
must not be assumed, however, that the oil of barley is a less 
potent softener than the oils of maize and oats, since, owing 
to the poverty of barley grain in oil, less of this oil was fed 
than of the other two oils. 

In the second experiment, in which the birds were less 
mature, and consequently the live- weight increases were 
greater, the body fat in all three groups was very similar, 
and gave an iodine value rather lower than the normal, or 
in other words tended to be firm rather than soft. In 
explanation of this result it is suggested that, since the weight 

182 



Notes on Feeding 


increases during the period were greater (i.e., the fattening 
was more rapid), a greater proportion of the fat had to be 
formed from the carbohydrate fraction of the food, which 
gives hard fat. This is in accordance with the experience 
in pig-breeding that rapid fattening tends to the production 
of firmer fat than slow fattening. 

These Cambridge results thus offer no support to the 
objections often raised against the use of maize in poultry 
fattening on the grounds of its assumed softening influence. 
That it exerts such an influence in pig-fattening can hardly 
be doubted, but with pigs the fattening period is far more 
prolonged than with poultry, and the proportion of body-fat 
produced from the oil of the maize correspondingly greater. 



PRICES OF FEEDING STUFFS 


Description 

Price 

per 

ton 

Manu- 

rial 

value 

per 

ton 

Cost of 
food 
value 
per 
ton 

Starch 

equiv. 

per 
100 lb. 

Price 

per 

unit 

starch 

equiv 

Price 

per 

lb. 

starch 

equiv. 

Pro- 

tein 

equiv. 

Wheat, British . . 

i 5 . 
10 0 

L 

0 8 

£ s. 

9 12 

72 

s. d, 

2 8 

d. 

1*43 

% 

9-6 

Barley, British Feeding 

8 10 

0 8 

8 2 

71 

^ 3 

1*20 

6*2 

,, Argentine 

8 17 

0 8 

8 9 

71 

2 5 

1*29 

6*2 

„ Persian . . 

8 7 * 

0 8 

7 ^9 

7 ^ 

2 3 

1-20 

6-2 

„ ► Polish . . 

8 I2§ 

0 8 

8 4 

7 ^ 

2 4 

I '25 

6-2 

Oats, English, white . . 

8 13 

0 9 

8 4 

60 

^ 9 

1*47 

7-6 

,, ,, black and 








grey .. 

8 13 

0 9 

8 4 

60 

2 9 

1*47 

7-6 

,, Scotch, white 

9 7 

0 9 

8 18 

60 

3 0 

1 *61 

7-6 

,, Canadian, mixed 








feed 

8 5 

0 9 

7 16 

60 

2 7 

1-38 

7-6 

Maize, Argentine 

7 0 

0 7 

6 13 

78 

I 8 

0-89 

7-6 

,, Gal. Fox 

6 I 3 t 

0 7 

6 6 

78 

^ 7 

0-85 

7-6 

„ South African, 







No. 3, White Flat 

7 

0 7 

15 

78 i 

1 9 

0-94 

7-6 

Beans, English, Winter. , 

7 0|! 

0 17 

3 

66 ' 

1 10 

0-98 

19*7 

Peas, English Blue 

11 5 § 

0 15 

10 10 

69 • 

3 I 

1-65 

i8-i 

„ Japanese . . 

24 5 t 

0 15 

23 10 

69 

() 10 

3-66 

i8- 1 

Dari 

8 5 t 

0 8 

7 17 

74 

2 I 

1-12 

7*2 

Milling Offals : — 





Bran, British . . 

7 12 

0 16 

6 16 

43 

3 2 

1*70 

9-9 

,, broad . . 

8 2 

0 16 

7 ^ 

43 

3 5 1 

1*83 

10 

WeatingsJ 

7 17 

0 14 

1 3 

.50 ' 

2 7 ^ 

1-38 

10*7 

,, Superfine J: . . 

« 7 

0 13 

7 14 

(>9 

2 3 

1*20 

12-1 

Pollards, imported . . 

7 

0 14 

6 8 


2 7 

1*38 

II 

Meal, barley 

10 0 

0 8 

9 12 

71 

2 8 

t -^3 

6-2 

M ,, grade 11 . . 

9 5 

0 8 

8 17 

71 

2 6 

1*34 

6*2 

, , maize . . . . { 

7 7 

0 7 

7 0 

78 . 

1 10 

0-98 

7-6 

,, ,, germ ..j 

7 10 

0 II 

6 19 

84 , 

I 8 

0-89 

10*3 

,, locust bean . .| 

7 15 

0 5 

7 10 

71 1 

2 1 

1 • 12 

3*0 

M bean .. ..1 

8 10 

0 17 

7 13 

()d ; 

2 4 

1-25 

19*7 

,, fish (white) ..1 

14 15 

2 2 

i-J 13 

59 

4 3 

2-28 

53 

,, Soya Bean (Ex- ; 





tracted) t . • | 

8 TO 

I 9 

7 I 

64 ; 

2 2 

I • 16 

38-3 

Maize, cooked, flaked . . I 

7 17 

0 7 

7 10 

84 ' 

I 9 

0*94 

9-2 

,, gluten feed ..1 

7 12 

0 13 

6 19 

76 j 

T 10 

0*98 

19*2 

Linseed cake — 




English, 12% oil 

10 2 

I 0 

9 2 

74 

2 6 

1*34 

24*6 

M 9 % .. 

9 10 

I 0 

8 10 

74 

2 4 

1*25 

24*6 

»* >» 

9 5 

I 0 

8 5 

74 

2 3 

I • 20 

24*6 

Cottonseed cake, 
English,Egyptian seed, 

4 i%oil .. .. 

5 17 

0 18 

4 i 9 

i 

4 ^ j 

2 4 

125 

17*3 

Cottonseed cake, 




Egyptian, 4i% oil , . 

5 5 

0 18 

4 7 

42 

2 1 

I -12 

17*3 

Cottonseed cake, 






decorticated, 7% oil. . . 

8 i 5 t 

I 8 

7 7 

68 

2 2 

I ‘16 

34*7 

Cottonseed meal, 





decorticated, 7% oil . . 

8 I 5 t 

I 8 

7 7 


2 I 

I-I 2 

36*8 


184 




PRICES OF FEEDING STUFFS (continued) 


Description 

Price 

per 

ton 

Manu- 
rial 
value 
per 
ton i 

Cost of 
food 
value 
per 
ton 

Starch 

equiv. 

per 

j 100 lb. 

Price 

per 

unit 

starch 

equiv. 

Price 

per 

lb. 

starch 

equiv. 

Pro- 

tein 

equiv. 


£ s. 

£ s- 

£ s. 


s. d. 

d. 

% 

Coconut cake, 6% oil . . 
Ground nut cake. 

1 5 

0 18 

6 7 

i 

77 

I 8 

1 

0*89 

16-4 

decorticated, 6-7% oil 
Ground nut cake, 
imported decorticated, 

8 2t 

I 8 

6 14 1 

1 

73 

I 10 

0*98 

41-3 

6-7% oil 

Palm-kernel meal, 

8 5 

I 8 

6 17 ! 

73 j 

I II 

1-03 

41*3 

1-2% oil 

7 0 

0 12 ! 

6 8 

71 i 

I 10 

0*98 

i6-5 

Feeding treacle . . 

5 0 

0 8 j 

i 4 iz 

i 51 

I 10 

0*98 

2-7 

Brewers’ grains, dried ale 

6 7 

0 11 1 

1 5 16 

1 48 

2 5 

1*29 

12-5 

,, ,, >. porter 

6 0 

0 11 

159 

1 48 

2 3 

1*20 

12-5 

Dried sugar-beet pulp . . 

From ys. 6d. to 17s. 6d. per ton ex-factory 

(according to factory). 


* At Bristol. § At Hull, f At Liverpool. 

I In these in.stanccs manunal value, starch equivalent and protein 
e(iuivalent are provisional. 

Note : The prices quoted above represent the av{;ragc prices at which 
actual wholesale transactions have taken place in London, unless other- 
wist* .stated, and refer to the price ex mill or store. The prices were current 
at the end of March, 1937, and are, as a rule, considerably lower than the 
jirices at local country markets, the difierence being due to carriage and 
dealers’ commission. Buyers can, however, easily compare the relative 
\ allies of the feeding stuffs on offer at their local market by the method of 
calculation used in tliese notes. Thus, if linseed cake is offered locally 
'dt £\i per ton, then since its manunal value is £i per ton as shown above, 
the cost of food value ])er ton is ;^io. Dividing this figure by 74, the 
starch equivalent of lin.seed cake as given in the table, the cost per unit 
of starch equivalent is is. ^d. Dividing this again by 22*4, the number 
of pounds of starch eciuivalent in one unit, the cost per lb. of starch 
eijuivalent is i*43<f. Similar calculations will show the relative cost 
per lb. of starch equivalent of t>thcr feeding stuffs on the same local 
market. From the results of such calculations a buyer can determine 
which feeding stuff gives him the best value at the prices quoted on his 
own markets. The figures given in the table under the heading manurial 
value per ton are calculated on the basis of the following unit prices : — 
N., 7s. 3</. ; PjOi, 2s. 3</. ; KjjO, 3s. 6(/. 


185 



FARM VALUES OF FEEDING STUFFS 


The prices in respect of the feeding stuffs used as bases of comparison 
for the purposes of this month’s calculations are as follow : — 



Starch 

Protein 

Per 


equivalent 

equivalent 

ton 


Per cent. 

Per cent 

£ «• 

Barley (imported) . . 


6*2 

8 12 

Maize 

78 

7*6 

7 0 

Decorticated ground-nut cake 

73 


« 3 

,, cotton-seed cake 

68 

34-7 

8 15 

(Add los. per ton, tn 

each instance, 

lor carriage.) 



The cost per unit starch equivalent works out at 2*16 shillings, and 
per unit protein equivalent o • 70 shillings. An explanation of the method 
of calculation employed is given in the Report of the Departmental 
Committee on Rationing of Dairy Cows.* 

The Table is issued as a guide to farmers respecting the feeding value of 
their crops in relation to current market prices. (The food values,** 
which it is recommended should be applied by Agricultural Organizers 
and other advisers in connexion with advisoiy schemes on the rationing 
of dairy cows, are given in the November, 1936, issiu‘ ol the Ministry *s 
Journal, p. 816.) 

Farm Values 



Starch 

Protein 

Food Value 

Crop 

equivalent 

equivalent 

per Ion, on 
farm 


Per cent. 

Per cent. 

£ s. 

Wheat 

72 

()‘6 

8 2 

Oats 

60 

7-6 

6 15 

Barley 

7 ^ 

0-2 

7 18 

Potatoes 

18 

0*8 

I 19 

Swedes 

7 

0*7 

0 16 

Mangolds 

7 

0-4 

« 15 

Beans . . 

66 

i iq *7 

7 i6 

Good meadow hay . . 

37 

4-6 

4 3 

Good oat straw 

20 

0-9 

2 4 

Good clover hay 

3 « 

7*0 

4 7 

Vetch and oat silage . . | 

I 13 

1*6 

I 0 

Barley straw . . 

23 

0-7 

2 10 

W’heat straw . , 

! ^3 

0*1 

I 8 

Bean straw 

1 OO 

f ^ 

1-7 

2 11 


* Obtainable from H.M. Stationery Office, Adastral House, Kingsway, 

W.C.2, price 6 d., post free yd. 


186 





MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 

The Agricultural Index Number 

The March index of the prices of agricultural produce at 
130 (base 1911-13 = 100) is i point higher than in February 
and 14 points above the figure recorded for March, 1936. 
(If allowance be made for payments under the Wheat Act, 
1932, and the Cattle Industry (Emergency Provisions) Act, 
1934, the revised index becomes 134.) During the month 
under review, average prices of fat cattle and sheep, butter, 
cheese, poultry, potatoes and hay moved upwards, whereas 
those of wheat, barley, oats, fat pigs and eggs declined. 


Monthly index numbers of prices of Agricultural Produce. (Corresponding 
months of 19 11-13 == ^00.) 


Month 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

January 

122 

107 

IT4 

117 

119 

130 

February . . 

117 

106 

I T 2 

115 

118 

129 

March 

113 

* ro2 

JO8 

112 

116 

130 

April 

117 

: 105 

111 

119 

123 


May . . 

115 

102 

1 12 

111 



June 

III 

' 100 

1 10 

III 

116 


July 

106 

101 

II4 

1 14 

117 


August 

105 

J05 

119 

i »3 

119 


September . , 

104 

! 107 

119 

120 

127 


October 

100 

, 107 

. 114 

113 

125 


November . . 

roi 

t 109 

1 14 

1^3 

125 


December . . 

, 103 

t no 

1 

I 

113 

114 

126 



Revised monthly index numbers of prices of Agricultural Produce, allowing 
for payments under the Wheat Act (a) and the Cattle Industry (Emergency 
Provisions) Act (b). 


Month 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

January 


1 1 1 

119 

124 

125 

J33 

February . . 


110 

117 

122 

123 

133 

March 


106 

112 

118 

122 

134 

April 


T09 

116 

126 

128 

May . . 


105 

116 

117 

120 


June 


104 

JI4 

117 

I 2 I 


Jniy 

. . 

104 

117 

120 

121 


August 

108 

108 1 

I 122 

120 

124 


September . . 

108 

IIT 

125 1 

128 

133 


October 

104 

112 

121 ! 

119 

129 


November . . 

105 

II3 

120 

119 

129 


December . . 



107 , 

1 

114 1 

120 

120 

130 



(a) Commenced August, 1932. (fc) Commenced September, 1934. 


187 







Miscellaneous Notes 


Grain. The monthly average price of wheat at Qs. per cwt. 
was id. below that of February and the index declines from 
122 to I2I. (If the deficiency payment under the Wheat Act, 
1932, is taken into account, &e index is 133.) Barley at 
gs. lod. and oats at 8s. 2d. per cwt. showed a reduction on the 
month of 2d. and id. per cwt. respectively; the index for the 
former at 124 remains unchanged, owing to a similar down- 
ward movement in the base price, but the index for oats falls 
by I point to 115. In March, 1936, wheat averaged 6s. 3ti., 
barley 7s. yd. and oats 5s. iid. per cwt., the relative indices 
being 84, 96, and 84. 

Livestock. Quotations for fat cattle, which had been rising 
since November last, showed a further advance, the average 
for second quality moving from 34s. y^d. in February to 36s. 
j)er live cwt. , and the index at 102 for March is higher by 3 
points. The addition of the subsidy under the Cattle Industry 
(Emergency Provisions) Act, 1934, brings the index up to 117. 
At IS. per lb. for second quality, the average price of fat 
sheep appreciated by id. and the index moves upwards from 
137 to 145 points. Baconers at 12s. y,d. and porkers at 13s. id. 
per score (20 lb.) were lower by id. and 2d. respectively than 
in February; the relative indices decline by 4 points to 122 
and I point to 124. 

Dairy cows were cheaper by 13s. per head, but owing to 
a fall of a somewhat similar amount in the base price, the 
index remains unaltered at iii. Quotations for store cattle 
and sheep were higher than in February, the index for the 
former appreciating from loi points to 105, and that for the 
latter from 115 points to 117. Store pigs were slightly 
reduced in price; the index at 129 shows a fall of 10 points by 
reason of the reverse price movement which took place during 
the corresponding months of 1911-13. 

Dairy and Poultry Produce. The regional contract price 
of liquid milk remained at last month’s level and the index 
of 171 is repeated. Butter rose by \d. to is. 2\d. per lb., the 
index at 100 being higher than in February by 3 points. Eggs 
averaged los. 2d. per 120, compared with 13s. id. in February, 
but as the reduction was less than that recorded during the 
base years, the index rises from 115 to 121. At £4 2s. 6d. 
per cwt., cheese realized 2s. 6d. per cwt. more than a month 
earlier, while at no the index is increased by 3 points. All 
descriptions of poultry were dearer and the combined index 
moves upwards from 121 to 123. 

188 



Miscellaneous Notes 


Other Commodities. Prices of potatoes advanced to a small 
extent, and the average rose by 2 s. to £y lys. per ton; owing, 
however, to a proportionately higher rise having occurred in 
the base prices, the index is reduced by i point to 200. Botli 
clover and meadow hay were a little firmer in price, the 
combined index now standing at loi as against q8 a month 
ago. At IS. 4fi. per lb. wool was unchanged, but a slight 
rise during the base period causes the index to fall from 131 
to 130. 


Monthly index numbers of prices of individual commodities (Correspond- 
ing months of 1911-13 = 100.) 


Commodity 

1935 

1936 


T937 


Mar. 

Mar. 

Dec. j 

|an. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Whecat 

62 

84 

118 1 

133 

122 

121 

Barle\ 

^>5 

96 


1^5 

T24 

124 

Oats. . 

06 

84 

101 

120 

116 

115 

Fat cattle . . 

88 

93 

91 

97 

99 

102 

sheep . . 

139 


128 

140 

137 

145 

Bacon pigs . . 

JH 

112 

124 , 

130 

126 

122 

F-’ork 

1 20 

117 

131 

131 

125 

124 



94 

109 

106 1 

95 

115 

I2I 

Poultry 

12.4 

120 

119 

120 

I 21 

123 

Milk 

161 

171 

171 

171 

T7I 

171 

Butter . . . i 

88 

95 

98 

b5 , 

97 

100 

Cheese . . | 

91 

97 ! 

1 103 

107 

107 

1 I 10 

J\^tatoes . . , ; 

108 

^93 i 

' 220 

-it)5 ! 

201 

200 

1 lay 

J03 

8t 

98 

i)H 1 

C)8 

JOT 

Wool . . I 

«3 

9b 1 

1 

118 

131 : 

131 

130 

Dairy cow.s . . . . 

lOT 

102 

III ! 

1 1 r 

II f 

Til 

Store cattle 

80 ! 

92 

98 . 

99 

lOT 

105 

, , sheep . . . , ! 

113 ! 

T02 


118 

115 

117 

.. pigs .. ,, j 

130 ; 

1^3 

t 

15& , 

152 

139 

129 


Revised index numbers due to payments under the Wheat Act and the 
Cattle Industry (Emergency Provisions) Act. 


Wheat .. .. 1 T17 

122* 

134 

134 

133 

133 

Fat cattle . . . . 1 102 

107 

105 

1 12 

114 

117 

General Index . . | 118 

122 

130 

133 

133 

134 


* Superseding figure previously published. 


Importation of Cherries 

With the object of preventing the introduction of the Cheny 
Fruit Fly, the Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries has made 
an Order under the Destructive Insects and Pests Acts, 1877 

189 











Miscellaneous Notes 


to 1927, regulating the importation of cherries into England 
and Wales during the 1937 season. 

Cherries grown in Spain will be admitted without restriction 
until May 18, after which date the importation of Spanish 
cherries is prohibited. 

Cherries grown in France will be admitted until May 27 if 
accompanied by a certificate of origin; after that date the 
importation of French cherries is prohibited with the exception 
of those certified to have been grown within a small district 
around Honfleur; details of this district arc given in the Order. 

Cherries grown in Italy will be admitted until June 12 if 
accompanied by a certificate of origin; after that date only 
those certified to have been grown within the Region of Emilia 
or the Province of Verona will be allowed to enter; after 
June 23 the importation of all Italian cherries is prohibited. 

Cherries grown in Germany will be admitted until June 26 if 
accompanied by a certificate of origin; after that date no 
German cherries will be admitted except those certified not to 
have been grown south of latitude 53” N. or in East Prussia. 

Cherries grown in Hungary will be admitted until June 17 if 
accompanied by a certificate of origin; after that date the 
importation of Hungarian cherries is prohibited. 

Certificates of origin must accompany cherries grown in 
any other European country, when imported after May 18. 

Copies of the Importation of Raw Cherries Order of 1937 
(S. R. and O. 1937, No. 292) may be obtained from H.M. 
Stationery Office, price 2d. net. 

Agricultural Research Scholarships and Studentships for 
Research in Animal Health 

Acting in consultation with the Agricultural Research 
Council, the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries and the 
Department of Agriculture for Scotland invite applications 
for the following post-graduate Agricultural Research Scholar- 
ships and Studentships for Research in Animal Health, tenable 
as from October i, 1937, for a period not exceeding three 
years : — 

(i) Not more than four Agricultural Research Scholarships, each of the 

value of £2.00 per annum, to which will be added, if necessary, a 
sum which will not normally exceed l$o per annum for fees and 
expenses. 

(ii) Not more than three Studentships for Research in Animal Health, 

each of an inclusive value not exceeding £y:>o per annum. A 
Veterinary Scholarship of the value of £200 per annum, with 

190 . 



Miscellaneous Notes 


allowances not exceeding per annum, and tenable for not 
more than four years, may be awarded instead of one of these 
Research Studentships to enable a graduate with Honours in 
Science to obtain a veterinary professional qualification with a 
view to undertaking research in animal health. 

Applications must be received not later than May 31, 1937. 
Nomination forms and further particulars may be obtained 
from the Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, 10 
Whitehall Place, S.W.i, or from the Secretary, Department 
of Agriculture for Scotland, 29 St. Andrew Square, Edinburgh 
2, according to the country in which the candidate resides. 

Travelling Scholarship in Agriculture 

The Governors of the College of Estate Management offer 
a Travelling Scholarship to the value of £300, tenable for one 
year, for the purpose of studying agricultural methods in this 
country and abroad. 

The Scholarship is open to British-born graduates of a 
British University, or those holding such qualifications as 
may be approved by the Board of Governors of the College. 

All applicants must be under thirty years of age on the date 
of application. 

The next award of the Scholarship will be made at the end 
of the year 1937, and application forms will tlien be obtainable 
from the Secretary of the College, 35 Lincoln’s Inn Fields, 
W.C.2. 


Coronation Day Bonfires 

A chain of large bonfires on high points throughout the 
country is being organized as part of Coronatiorr Day 
celebrations. Local Authorities and others proposing to erect 
a bonfire are requested to take the utmost care to ensure the 
avoidance of disturbance or damage to any Ordnance Survey 
triangulation pillar which may be in the vicinity. 

Large numbers of these concrete pillars have been erected 
by the Ordnance Survey on hills and mountains throughout 
the country to mark positions that have been established in 
connexion with the retriangulation of Great Britain. If a 
pillar, or its foundations, were disturbed or cracked by the 
heat of a bonfire or by onlookers, the accuracy of the triangula- 
tion position would be lost, and considerable delay and expense 
would be entailed in making the re-observations necessary to 
establish it again. 

191 



Miscellaneous Notes 


For this reason, no bonfire should be erected within 50 yards 
of any such pillar, and adequate steps should also be taken to 
prevent any damage to pillars by onlookers. 

Tithe Redemption Annuities 

The Tithe Redemption Commission draw the attention of 
owners of land which was subject to tithe rentcharge to the 
fact that, by the Tithe Act, 1936, tithe rentcharges (including 
Extraordinary tithe rentcharges) were extinguished on October 
2, 1936, and in place of each tithe rentcharge a redemption 
annuity, payable to the Commission, is charged for a pelriod 
of 60 years from that date. The annuities are payable half- 
yearly on April i and October i. The demands for the first 
half-yearly instalments, which became due on April i, 1937, 
will be issued shortly by the collectors for the Commission, 
who are not in all instances the former collectors of tithe 
rentcharge. 


Enforcement of Minimum Rates of Wages. During the month ending 
April 15, 1937, legal proceedings were taken against nineteen employers 
for failure to pay the minimum rates of wages fixed by the Orders of the 
Agricultural Wages Board. Particulars of the cases follow : — 


Committee i 
Area 1 

1 

Court 

1 

Fines 

Imposed 

Costs ; 
Allowed 

i 

Arrears ol | tNo. of 
Wages 1 workers 
ordered ^involved 

Buckingham- 


L d. 

£ d. ; 

i s. d \ 


shire 

Great 


1 




Missenden 

o lo o' 

2 12 0 i 

39 15 , 

2 

Cambridge- 



j 



shire 

March 

0 

0 

o 

100 

53 14 ! 


Cornwall . . 

Liskeard . . 

lo o o j 

1 

2 12 7 , 

2 

Dorsetshire 

Dorchester 

lo o o 

0 8 0 1 

20 0 0 , 

1 

Durham 

West 


i 

1 



Hartlepool 

1 lO o 


20 5 2 

3 

Essex 

Romford 

400 


24 If) 0 

1 

Gloucester- 






shire 

Chipping 






Campden 

0 

0 

0 9 6 

21 1 8 

I 

Herefordshire 

Ledbury . . 

15 0 0 

— 

18 10 0 

1 

Lines (Kest- 




1 

i ! 


even and 




1 1 


Lindsey) . . 

Grantham 

0 

0 

2 2 0 

j 20 0 0 

3 

Yorks (East 






Riding) . . 

Market 






Weighton 

100 

060 

9 12 9 

I 

Breconshire 

Builth Wells 

0 

0 

I 16 0 

25 0 0 

2 



91 0 0 

8 14 0 

255 8 II 

19 


192 





WIRELESS TALKS TO FARMERS, MAY, 1937 


Station and 
Date 

Time : 
p.m. 

Speakers 

Subject 

National : 




May 3 

6.20 

Mr. J. G, Ste%\art 

Beef 

M 17 

6.20 

t* ft 

Cornish Farming 

24 

6.20 

ft 

Dairy Cows 

.. 31 

6.20 

Mr. J. G. Stewart and an 
Australian Farmer 

Sheep Shearing 

West: 




May 0 

2.30 

Rt. Hon. W. S. Morrrson, 
M.I* , Minister of Agri- 
culture 

Cider Tasting at Ixing Ash- 
ton : Presentation of prizes 
and address. 

,, 20 

6.40 



For Western Farmers. 

North : 



May 7 

7-30 

Messrs J Hanley, N 

Me Vicar and \V B 
Mercer 

For Northern I'armers : 
Farming Fundamentals. 

,, 20 

j 


“ Sheep Fratch " (i.e. a dis- 
cussion about sheep), by 
three Keswick Flock- 
masters and Mr. R. H. 
Lamb, of Caldbeck, a 
farmer-journalist, who re- 
sides in llie farm adjoining 
that in which John Peel 
' lived, on the eve of Kes- 
' wick May Fair, with par- 
ticular reference to the 
blackfaced variety of sheep. 

Welsh : 




May 5 

5- 0 

Mr. A. W. Ling 

Children’s Hour : L)own on 
the harm. 

0 

5- 0 

Mr T. H Evans, who Avill 
bring an expert to the 
studio 

j Children's Hour : Sheep 

1 Dog Trials 

- 7 

1 

8. 40 ! 

1 

1 

j Messrs. W. H. Jones and 
11 Janies 

For Welsh Farmers : Rural 
Electrification and its 
h)evelopment. 

,, 21 


— 

For Welsh Farmers (from 
Aberystwyth). 

Scottish : 



i 

May (> 

6.50 

Mr. A 1 ). Buchanan 

Smith 

For Scottish Farmers 

,, 19 

6.15 

Mr. J. Ritchie 

Maggot Fly on Sheep 

25 

6.20 

Mr. R. L. Scarlett 

For Scottish Farmers. 

Northern 
Ireland : 




- 7 

8-30 

S. Shaw', Jean Fullerton, 
Marian Dickson and F. 
Patterson 

Young Farmers’ Clubs : A 
Discussion — That the 

Ulster Farmer of To-day 
is Not I’rogressive. 


193 




Notices of Books 


Foot>and-Mouth Disease. — No outbreak of Foot-ancl-Mouth Disease 
has been conJinnod since February 5. At the time this issue of the 
Journal went to press, no part of Great Britain was subject to any 
restriction in connexion wnth lliis disease. 


APPOINTMENTS 

county agricultural education STAFFS: ENGLAND 

Bucks : Miss M. McKenzie has been appointed Tnstnictress in Rural 
Domestic Fconomv. 

Cornwall: Mr. R. Gardner, N.D.H., has been appointed Lecturer in 
Horticulture for West Cornwall " 

Norfolk: Mr. R. Line, B.Sc.(Agric.), N.D.A., has been appointed Senior 
Agricultural Advisory Officer for West Norfolk, vice Mr. D. H. 
Findlay. B.Sc.(Agric.). N.D.A , N.D.D. 


NOTICES OF BOOKS 

The Second Report on the Corrosion of the Tinplate Container by 
Food Products. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research : 
Food Investigation, Special Report No. 44. By T. N. Morris, M.A., 
and J. M. Bryan, B.Sc., Ph.D. Pp. vi -} 5.1. (London : His 
Majesty's Stationery Office. 1936. Price 15) 

This publication reviews the work that has been done on the subject 
since 1931, when the first reprint appeared. It consists chiefly of descrip- 
tions of a large number of experiments. The details gn^en are mainly of 
interest to research workers, but for the benefit of canners and practical 
technicians, points of practical significance are brought out with brevity 
and clarity. The summary of the report is necessarily brief, since we are 
as yet only on the threshold of a successful attack on the problem of 
tinplate corrosion. The lines of the next advances, however, are now 
clear. The general introduction should be read by everyone in the 
canning industry, since the position is there stated with admirable clarity 
and succinctness. 


Up from Poverty in Rural India. By D. S])encer Hatch, B.Sc., M.Sc. 
in Agr., Ph.D. Preface by the Earl of Willingdon. 3rd edition. 
Pp. xix + 208, and 12 Figs. (Oxford University I^ess, 1936. 
l^icc 4s. 6 d.) 

Most of the readers t)l this Journal arc interested in the affairs of 
India, w^hile some have a practical interest in the rural problem that has 
long been one of the chief preoccupations of the administrations in that 
important part of the Empire, To either of these groups this survey 
should make a strong appeal, especially at a time when India looms so 
large in the public mind. In spite of the progress that has been achieved 
under the British Raj, the problem as stated in the opening chapters is 
certainly ^ave. Dr. Hatch writes from a long experience of various 
efforts to improve rural conditions, the guiding principle of which has 
been self-help with intimate expert counsel," and, although progress 
must necessarily be slow, there can be no doubt that the methods adopted 
are gradually bringing a fuller and happier life to some of the poorest 
people in the world. 

194. 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY 

Agriculture, General and Miscellaneous 

International Institute of Agriculture.— K Survey of Current Biblio- 
graphies on Agriculture and Allied Subjects (84 pp. ) Rome, 
1937, 

Board of Trade — Report on the Import Duties Act Inquiry (1934), 
Part J. Tlie Textile Trades, The Leather and Clothing Trades, 
The Food 'I'rades, The Chemical and Allied Trades, Miscellaneous 
Trades and a General Summaiy^ Statement, (xii + 386 pp.) 
London : H.M, Stationery Office, 1936, bs. 

British Commouivealih Scientific Conference, London, 1936. — Report of 
Proceedings. (74 pp.) (Cmd. 5341 ) London: H M. Stationerv 
Office, 1937, 3^* 

Watson, /. A. S., and Hobbs, May 7:.-— Great Farmers. (287 pp. -f- 23 
plates.) Lruidon : Selvvyn & Blount, 1937, bi/. 

Cm V.SO??, 7.).- 'f he Countryman’s Year (^7- pp.) London’ Hodder 
(Jt Stoughton, 1936, 5s. 

Jones, S. IL Knghsh Village Homes, (vii and 120 ]>p 09 plates.) 

London : B. T. Batsford, 1936, 7s. bd, 

Blyton, ll'. j. Country Airs. (227 j)p ; 8 plates.) London : 

Blackie, 1935, 75 bd. 

Cormsh, \\ -The Preservation of Our Sceneiy. (xiii -f 91 pp. 12 
plates.) Cambridge: at the l-mversity Press, J937, 75. bd. 

Blyton, ir. J The Rolling Year, (x -f- 278 pp. 8 plates.) 

London and Glasgo^v : Blackn; & Son, 1936, 75. bd, 

Goodwin, M E., and Morgan, Q. 1 . — Jh-actical Science of Living 
Things. Book II. (125 pp ) London: Gregg Publishing Co., 
193b, IS, bd. 

Mountjoy, T. W , H. -J\)ints of the Dog. (281 pp. -f 48 plates.) 
London : Kveleigh Nash Sc Grayson, 1930, 3s. bd. 

Wilson, H. F. — Columbia University Studies in the Hrstory ot 
American Agriculture — 111. The Hill Country of Northern New 
England, Its Social and Economic History, 1790-1930. (xv -f 
455 PP- P 4 plates.) New York : Columbia University ITess ; 
London : Humphrey Milford, 1936, 21s. 

Knowles, I\, and Watkin, J. E. —A Practical Course in Agricultural 
Chemistry for Senior Students of Agriculture, Daiiying, Horti- 
culture and Poultry Husbandly*. (ix -f 188 pp.) London : 
MacMillan & Co,, 1937, 105. 

Association oj Official Agricultural Chemists. — Olficial and Tentative 
Methods of Analysis. (4th Edition.) (xix -f 710 pp.) Washing- 
ton, 1935- 

Agricultural Economics 

Fay, C. R. — Co-opcration at Home and Abroad, \’ol. I. Pre-War. 
(4th Edition.) (xvi T 447 PP ) London : P. S. King, 1936, 155, 

Thomsen, F. L.- -Agricultural lYiccs. (x -f- 471 pp.) New York and 
London : McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., 1936, 246'. 

Institute oJ Pacific Relations, New Zealand Council. — Recent Economic 
Changes in New Zealand. W. B. Sutch. (164 pp.) Wellington, 
Melbourne, Sydney and London : Whitcombe & Tombs, 1936, 
7s. bd. 

International Institute of ylgncM/fior.— Studies of the lYincipal 
Agricultural I^oducts on the World Market. No. 2. Inttrnational 
Trade in Meat (xi + 424 pp.) Rome, 1936, 25 lire. 


195 



Additions to the Library 


Goodrich, C,, and Others — Migration and Economic Opportunity. The 
Report of the Study of Population Redistribution, (xvii -f 763 pp.) 
Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press ; London : 

Humphrey Milford, Oxford University l^ess, 193b, 225. bd. 

Agricultural Education 

Begtrup, //., Lund, H., and Manniche, P. — The Folk High Schools 
of Denmark and the Development of a Farming Community, 
with an Introduction by Sir Michael Sadler. (176 pp.) (Third 
and Popular Edition.) Copenhagen : Arnold Bu.sk ; London : 
Humphrey Milford, 1936, 45. 

Colonial Office. — (Colonial, No. 124.) A Survey of Vocational Agri- 
cultural Education in the Colonial Empire. (29 pp.) London : 
H.M. Stationery Office, 1937. (^d. 

Agricultural Machinery 

University of Oxford — 'J'hc Second Conference on Mechanized Farm- 
ing. Rhodes House, Oxlord, January 5 -8, 1937. Programme and 
Papers. (118 pji.) Oxford, 1937. Report of Discussions. 

(37 PP ) 

Imperial Economic Committee. — A Survey of the Trade in Motor 
Vehicles. (170 pp.) London : H.M. Stationery Offic(‘, 193^^* 
2s. 6d. 

United States Department of - -Farmers’ Bulletin No. 

1761 : — Harvesting witJi Combines. (36 pp.) Washington, i93h. 

Agricultural Marketing 

International Institute of Agriculture. — Studies of the Principal 
Agricultural Products on the World Market. No. i i—World 
Cotton Production and Trade, (xii -f 462 pp. -f xx charts.) 
Roni«‘, 1936, 30 lire. 

Agricultural Research 

Commonwealth of Australia, Council for Scientific and Industrial 
Research. — C.S.I.R. Ten Years of Progress, 1926-1936. (67 pp.) 

Melbourne, 1936. 

Medical Research Council of the Privy Council.-- Tho. use of the 
Developing h'gg in Virus Research. E. M. Burnet. (58 pp. -f 
List of Publications, xii pp.) I^ondon : H.M. Stationery Office, 
1936, IS. 

Love, II. /7.- -Application of Statistical Methods to Agricultural 
Rcsi^arch. (ix -1~ 501 pp ) Shanghai : The Commercial Press, 
193b, 15'?- 


Botany 

Imperial Bureau of Plant Genetics (For Crops Other Than Herbage ). — 
An Outline of Cytological Technique for Plant Breeders. (14 pp.) 
Cambridge : School of Agriculture, 1937, ^d. 


Crops 

Wallace, H. A., and Bressman, E. N . — Corn and Corn Growing. 
(43b pp.) (4th Edition.) New York : Wiley; London: Chapman 
& Hall, 1937, J^ 3 ^* ^d. 

196 



Selected Contents of Periodicals 


Dairying and Dairy Products 

Dixey, R. N. — Tuberculin-Tested Milk. A Study of Reorganization 
for its Production, (iii pp.) Oxford: The Agricultural 
Economics Research Institute, 1937, 2^- 

West of Scotland Agricultural College. — Bulletin No. 132 : The 
Variations in the Fat Content of Milk. (pp. 87-102.) Kilmarnock, 
1936. 

Diseases of Animals and Veterinary Science 

Miller, W. C., and Robertson, E. D. S. — Practical Animal Husbandry, 
(x ~f 432 pp. 16 plates.) (2nd Edition.) London : Oliver & 
Boyd, 1937, 155. 

Cawthron Institute, New Zealand ~~ Pasture and Soils Research Publi- 
cation No. 35 : The Importance of Cobalt in the Treatment of 
Certain Stock Ailments in the South Island, New Zealand. 
(92 })p.) Wellington, 1936. 

Food and Nutrition 

Filby, F. A . — A History of Food Adulteration and Analysis. (269 pp ) 
London : Allen & Unwin, 1934, 105. 

Medical Research Council of the Privy Council — Special Report 
Series No. 218 : A Dietai^^ Survey m Terms of the Actual Food.stuffs 
Consumed. E. P. Cathcart and Mrs. A M. T. Murray. (56 pp. + 
List of Publications, xii pp.) London : H.M. Stationery Office, 
193b. IS. 

Horticulture 

Smith, T . — The Profitable Culture of Vegetables. (Edited, revised 
and brought up)-to-date by W. E. Shewell-C ooper .) (334 pp.) 

London : Longmans, Green & Co., 1937, 1^' bd. 

Truffaut, G — Comment on soigne son jardm. (7th Edition.) 
(478 pp.) Versailles: Georges Truffaut, 1937, lo /r. 

Livestock 

Fraser, A. — Sheep Farming. (178 pp. -j- 14 plates.) I-ondoii : 
Crosby Lockwood & Son, 1937, 75. bd. 


SELECTED CONTENTS OF PERIODICALS 

Agriculture, General and Miscellaneous 

The Nation’s Food Supjdies in Relation to Defence. N. Rooke. 

(Trans. Chart. Surv. Instn. 69, 2 (Jan. 1937), PP- 80-116.) 
Resinous Plant Products. T. H. Barry. (Sci. Progr. 31, 123 (Jan. 
1937)* PP- 449-461.) 

Tithe Barns. J. D. U. Ward. (E.state Mag. 37, i (Jan. 1937) » 

pp. 1 7-2 1.) 

Ziele und Aufgaben der deutschen Landeskultur. R. Geith. (Der 
Forschungsdienst 2, 9 (Nov, 1936), pp. 429-431.) (Aims and 
Problems of German Agriculture.) 

Agricultural Economics 

The World Statistical Situation of Linseed. A. di Fulvio. (Int. 
Rev. Agric. Mon. Crop Rep. and Agric. Stats. 27, 12 (Dec. 193b). 
PP- 905’-9i2.) 


197 



Selected Contents of Periodicals 


study of the Results of Farm Accountancy in Scotland in 1932-33 
and 1933-34. /. Deslarzes, (Int. Rev. Agric. Mon. Bull. Agric. 
Econ. Soc. 27, 12 (Dec. 1936), pp. 3^9-381) 

Protection of Agricultural Production and of the Export of Agri- 
cultural Products in some South American Countries. Results 
of this I^olicy E, Martinez. (Int. Rev. Agric. Mon. Bull. Agric. 
Econ, Soc. 27, 12 (Dec. 1936), pp. 382-401.) 

'Phe Pig-Cycle in Great Britain. An Explanation. R. H. Coase and 
R. F. Fowler. (ICconomica 4, 13 (Feb. I937)i PP- 55-^2. ) 

Agricultural Machinery 

Contrast Between the International I'rade in Agricultural Machines 
and in the Technical Progress Made in Their Manufacture. H. J. 
Hapfen. (Int. Rev. Agric. Mon. Bull. Agric. Sci Prac. 27, T2 
(Dec. 193b), pp. 445-453.) 

Botany and Plant Physiology 

The Effects of Alternate I’eriods of Liglit and Darkness of Short 
Duration on the Grov\tli of the Cucumber. G. B. Portsmouth 
(Ann. Bot. 1, i (Jan. 1937). pp. 175-189.) 

Crops 

World Maize Pn>duction and Trade. V . Desmireanu. (Int. Rev. Agric. 
Mon. Crop. Rep. and Agric. Stats. 27, 12 (Dec. 193b), pp. 879-892.) 

Subterranean Clover. J. E. Harnson. (J. Dep. Agric. Viet. 34, 12 
(Dec. 1936), pp. (>09-614.) 

The World Wheat Situation, 1935-36. A Review of the Crop Year. 
(Wheat Stud. Stanford Univ. 13, 4 (Dec. 1936), pp. 141-232.) 

Die HagelversSicherung in der Welt. W. Rohrbeck. (Fier. ii Landw'. 
Sonderheft 127 (1937), pp. 1-244.) (Insurance Agaihst Hail 
Throughout the World.) 

Dairying and Dairy Products 

The Construction of Cow Houses. G. V. Charlton. (J. Land Agents’ 
Soc. 36, I (Jan. 1937), pp. 18-23 + I plate.) 

Breeding for Milk Yield and Uniformity. A. D. Buchanan Smith, 
(Scot. J. Agric. 20, I (Jail. 1937), PP- 26-30.) 

The Coagulation of Milk with Rennet. Some ICxperiments w ith Slow- 
Renneting and Soft-Curd Milks. F. H. McDowall, R. M. Dolby 
and K. R. McDowell, (J. Dairy Res. 8, i (Jan. 1937), pp. 31-52.) 

The Effect of Certain Metallic Contaminants on the Cheddar Cheese 
Making Process. C. R. Barnicoat. (J. Dfiiry Res. 8, i (Jan. 1937), 
PP- 53-bo.) 

Studies on the Chemistry of Cheddar Cheese Making. V. Factors 
Influencing the Acidity and Mineral Content of Cheese. R, M. 
Dolby, F. H. McDowall and A. K. R. McDowell. (J. Dairy Res. 
8, I (Jan. 1937), pp. 74-85.) 

Studies on the Chemistry of Cheddar Cheese Making. VI. Factors 
Affecting the Relation Betw^een Lactic Acid and Titratable Acidity 
in Wheys. R. M. Dolby, F. H. McDowall and A, K. R. McDowell, 
(J. Dairy Res. 8, i (Jan. I937)» PP- 86-91.) 

Studies in Cheddar Cheese. V. The Effect of Chemical Substances 
on the Ripening I’rocess. W, L. Davies, J. G. Davies, D. V. 
Dearden and A. T. R. Mattick, (J. Dairy Res. 8, i (Jan. 1937), 
pp. 92-104.) 

198 



Selected Contents of Periodicals 


Diseases of Animals and Veterinary Science 

The Combating of Animal Diseases and the Improvement of Stock 
in Enij)ire Countries. J^art I. The Combating of Animal Diseases. 
/. Smith. (Emp J. exp. Agric. 5, 17 (Jan. i 937 )> PP* 

Fertilizers 

Concentrated Fertilizers. li\ S Landis. (Chem. Ind. Rev. 56. i 
(Jan. 2, J937), pp. 3-0.) 

I'he Restoration and Maintimance of Fertility. Sir A. tLmiard. 
(J. Fmrs’ Cl. I-ond., Pt. 1 (Feb. 1937), ]>]). r-18.) 

Food, Nutrition and Preservation 

National Nutrition and British Agruiilture. I. Agriculture and 
Ihiblie Health, Str J. Orr IT. A National I Man for Agriculture, 
Sir D. Hall. 111. Increased Meat Production, J. A. Scott Watson. 
IV. Increased Production of Milk, H. D. Kav. (Scot. J. Agric. 
20, I (Jan. J937), pp. j-25.) 

Recent Advances in the Work on Refrigerated (xas-storage of Fruit. 

F. Kidd and C. West. (J. Pomol. 14, 4 (Jan. 1937), pp. -199-316.) 
E2ftect of IMx vious Cold Storage on the Respiration of Vegetables at 
Higher Temiitratures. C O. Apple man anu C L, Smith. (J. Agric. 
53. « (Oct. 15, 1936). pp. 557-580 ) 

Fruit Culture 

Storage Experiments with Pollen of Culti\ateil Fruit Trees. B. R, 
Nebel and M. L, IhUtle (J. Pomol. 14, 4 (Jan. 1937), PP- 347“359-) 
The Reinvigoratioii of Apple Trees by the Inarching of Vigorous 
Rootstocks. Joan Kearman, A. Beryl Beakbane, R. G. Hatton 
and W.A. Road. (J. Pomol. 14,4 (jan. 1937), PP* 37^>’390 + 4 
plates ) 

Horticulture 

The Potato in Its b'arly Home and Its Introduction into Europe. 
R. N. Salaman. (J. R. Hort. Soc. 62. 2 (Feb. 1037), PP- 77 + 7 
plates)-- (to be continued.) 

The Effect of I’henylacetic Acid and of Indolebiityric Acid on the 
Growth of Tomato Plants. H. L. Pcarse. (J. Pomol. i^, 4 
(Jan. 1937), pp. 365-375 -f 3 ]>lates.) 

Livestock, Breeding and Feeding 

Dual Purpose Cattle. T. B. Goiuher. (Estate Mag. 37, i (Jan. 

1937). pp- 30-34-) ^ ^ 

Entwdcklung und Stand der Milchleistungspruf ungen beim Schaf. 
Fr. Richter. (Der Forschungsdienst 2, 9 (Nov. 1936), pp. 474-487.) 
(Development and lYesent l\)sition of the Methods of Testing the 
Milk TM-oductivity of Sheep.) 

Grass and Money. J. Orr. (Scot. J. Agric 20, 1 (Jan. 1937). PP- 

31-40.) 

The Chemical Composition of Grass Silage. 5. J . Watson and W. S. 

Ferguson. (J. Agric. Sci. 27, 1 (Jan. 1937). PP- 1-42.) 

The Losses of Dry Matter and Digestible Nutrients m Low-Tempera- 
ture Silage, With and Without Added Molasses or Mineral Acids. 
5. J. Watson and W. S. Ferguson. (J. Agric. Sci. 27, i (Jan. i937). 
pp. 67-107.) 

Artificial Insemination of Sheep. 1, I^reliminary Investigation on 
Its Application to Sheep Breeding in Kenya. J. Anderson. (J. 
Agric. Sci. 27, i (Jan. 1937). PP- J43-150 ) 


199 



Selected Contents of Periodicals 

Plant Diseases and Pests 

A Mosaic Disease of Iris. P. Brierley and F. P. McWhorter. (J, 
Agric. Res. 53, 8 (Oct. 15, 1936), pp. 621-635.) 

Seed Disinfection. II. Large-Scale Field Trials on the Disinfection 
of Seed Corn with Mercury Dust Disinfectants. W. A, R. Dillon 
Weston, F. Hanley and /. R. Booer. (J. Agnc. Sci. 27, i (Jan. 
1937). PP* 43 - 5 ^ + I plate.) 

Seed Disinfection. III. Experiments on the Germination of Peas. Seed 
Protection by the Use of Disinfectant Dusts containing Mercur>’. 
C. C. Brett, W. A. R. Dillon Weston and ]. R. Booer. (J. Agnc. Sci. 
27, I (Jan. 1937), pp. 53-66 + I plate.) 

Poultry and Small Livestock 

Digestibility Trials with Poultry. VIII. The Digestibility of Dried 
Molassed Sugar-Beet Pulp. E. T. Hainan, (j. Agnc. Sci. 27, i 
(Jan. 1937). PP* T 37 -i 4 '*^*) 

Soybean Oil Meal Ihrepared at Different Temperatures as a Feed for 
Poultry. /. W. Haywood, J. G. Halpin and Others. (Poult. Sci. 
16, I (Jan. 1937), PP* 3-14*) 

Digestibility Trials with Poultiy\ VII. The Digestibility of Wheat 
Offals, with a note on the apparent discrepancy between the 
digestibility coefheients and nutritive values of these products. 
E. T. Hainan. (J. Agric. Sci. 27, i (Jan. 1937), pp. 126-136.) 
Scientific Problems of the Poultry Industry, i. Introductory, W. 
Hamnett. 2. Constitutional Vigour in Poultry, A. W. Greenwood. 
3. Some Aspects of Poultry Nutrition, E. T. Hainan. 4. The 
Economic and Disease Aspects of Parasitic Worm-Infestation m 
Poultry, E. L. Taylor (Emp. J. exp. Agnc. 5, 17 (Jan. 1937)» 
pp. 29-47.) 

Scientific Management in Rabbit-Breeding. E. Bertclli. (fnt. Rev. 
Agric. Mon. Bull. Agnc. Sci. Prac. 27, 12 (Dec 1936), pp. 453-488.) 


Soils 

Available Calcium a Factor in Salt Balance for Vegetable Crops. 
V, A. Tiedjens and L. G. Schermerhorn. (Soil Sci. 42, 6 (Dec. 1936), 
pp. 419-433) 

Soil Warming. E. Brooks. (Estate Mag. 37, i (Jan. 1937), pp. 
24-28.) 

The Character of Barley Grown on Soil Made Acid with Sulphate of 
Ammonia. H. H. Mann. (J. Agnc. Sci. 27, i (Jan. 1937), PP* 
18-122 -i- I plate.) 

Improved Technique in Grading of Coarse and Fine Sands During 
Mechanical Analysis of Soils. B. E. Beater. (J. Agric. Sci. 27, 1 
(Jan. 1937). PP- 123-125 ) 


Printed under the authority of His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 
By William Clowes & Sons, Ltd., Duke Street, Stamford Street, S.E.i. 



THE JOURNAL 

OF THE 

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE 

Vol. XLIV No. 3 June, 1937 

NOTES FOR THE MONTH 
Milk and Nutrition 

In December, IQ34, on the initiative of the Advisory 
Committee on Milk Publicity of the Milk Marketing Board 
for England and Wales, a Milk Nutrition Committee was set 
up under the chairmanship of Lord Astor to undertake investi- 
gations into the nutritive value of milk, with particular 
reference to the effect of pasteurization. The broad lines of 
the proposed investigations were settled by the Nutrition 
Committee, which set up an Expert Sub-Committee under the 
chairmanship of Sir John Orr to plan the details of the investi- 
gations and to supervise their carrying out. 

The principal research was carried out at certain elementary 
schools with the object of ascertaining the benefits of the 
consumption of milk made available in connexion with the 
arrangements under Section ii of the Milk Act, 1934, for 
increasing the demand for milk by the supply of milk at 
reduced rates. In addition, experiments on rats and on calves, 
as well as some purely chemical work, were undertaken by 
the National Institute for Research in Dairying, Reading, and 
by the Rowett Institute, Aberdeen. These two Institutes have 
prepared a report* that deals with the results of the work witli 
rats and that on the direct chemical estimations of vitamin 
potency. Further reports, dealing with the investigations in 
schools and with calves, will be published in the near future. 

The investigations dealt with in this report were designed 
to measure the effect of commercial pasteurization on the 
nutritive value of milk. The report gives full details of the 
experimental technique and of the data obtained. A statistical 

♦ Milk and Nutrition .* New Experiments Reported to the Milk Nutrition 
Cofnmittee. Part I, The Effect of Commercial Pasteurization on the 
Nutritive Value of Milk as Determined by Laboratory Experiment. 

^ 13 inset tables, and 8 Figs, (to be purchased directly from the 
National Institute for Research in Dairying, Shinfield, Reading. 1937- 
l^ce 25. 6d, net, by post 35.). 

A 


201 



Notes for the Month 


appendix shows how, in the analysis of the data, use has been 
made of recently devised methods applicable to small samples 
(in most of the experiments 6 pairs of rats were used). 

The conclusions drawn from the direct chemical estimations 
of vitamin potency are that neither vitamin A itself, nor the 
pro- vitamin, carotene, is affected by commercial pasteuriza- 
tion. Commercial pasteurization, however, was found to 
cause a loss of about 20 per cent, of the orginal vitamin C 
content of the milk but experiments recorded elsewhere have 
shown that this loss only occurs if the milk has been previously 
exposed to light. 

The conclusions drawn from the experiments on rats arc 
that the nutritional availability of the calcium and phosphorus 
in milk is unaffected by pasteurization. It also appears that 
the biological value and digestibility of the protein are not 
affected by pasteurization. It was found that when used for 
rats as an exclusive diet, pasteurized milk supplemented with 
iron, copper and manganese is not inferior to raw milk 
supplemented in the same way (in both cases the mineral 
supplements were necessary in order to avoid nutritional 
anaemia which would otherwise overshadow the point at issue). 
There was some loss, however, of vitamin B (undifferentiated). 

The report does not discuss the extent to which the findings 
obtained with the rat as the experimental animal are capable 
of application to the problems of human nutrition, and more 
particularly the bearing that the results recorded may have 
on the question of the advisability or otherwise of pasteuriza- 
tion of milk for human consumption. It is intended to deal 
with these points in due course, but to wait until the findings 
of the investigations on calves and on schoolchildren become 
available so as to permit of a wide basis of assessment. 

Marsh Spot in Pea Seeds 

The following note has been communicated by Dr. G. H. 
Pethybridge, O.B.E. : — 

In this Journal for December, 1934, and for April, 1936, 
articles on Marsh Spot in Pea Seeds were published. In the 
latter, evidence was given that supported the idea that this 
trouble — the cause of which has for so long remained a mystery 
— might be due to manganese deficiency in the soil; and, in 
this connexion, trials recently carried out in Holland are of 
particular interest. The March number of the Dutch 
Tijdschrifl over Planlenziekten has two articles on the 


202 



Notes for the Month 


subject by Mr, A. Ovinge and Mr. C. Koopman respectively. 
The trials carried out by the former in 1935 and 1936 show 
clearly that some varieties of peas, e.g., Zelka and Mansholts, 
are much less susceptible to Marsh Spot than others, like 
Jumboka. The application of a solution of manganese 
sulphate to the soil between the rows at the time of flowering 
resulted in a very definite reduction of the percentage of Marsh 
Spot in the harvested seeds. Those from the untreated crop 
showed 26 per cent, of attack, whereas when sulphate of 
manganese was applied at the rate of 100 kg. per ha. 
(about J cwt. p>er acre) the figure was 8 per cent., and 
with double this quantity only 2 per cent. Mr. Koopman’s 
trials are of special interest because he sprayed his plants 
with a 01 per cent, solution of sulphate of manganese, 
first just after they had finished flowering and a second 
time about three weeks later. Jumboka and Zelka were 
the two varieties used and the percentage of Marsh Spot 
was reduced from 33 to 10 in the former and ii to 0 5 in the 
latter. In Jumboka, too, the peas from the sprayed crop were 
larger than those from the unsprayed. Mr. Koopman considers 
the results so promising that he recommends growers to carry 
out spraying trials on a large scale during the present season. 
The amount to apply, the best times for application, and 
whether the manganese salt can be used effectively as a powder 
strewed between the rows are matters well deserving of in- 
vestigation. Indications at present are that a fairly late appli- 
cation gives better results than early treatment of the crop. 

Reduction of Charges for certain Poultry Disease 

Services at the Veterinary Laboratory, Weybridge 

The Ministry wishes to notify poultry fanners that as from 
May 15, 1937, the charges for blood agglutination tests for 
bacillary white diarrhoea have been reduced from zd. per 
bird to ijd. per bird, with no discount for quantities. The 
charges for fowl pox vaccine have also been reduced by 30 
per cent, to is. gd. for 30 doses (minimum quantity supplied), 
and thereafter 6d. for 10 or part of 10 doses, e.g., 5s. 3d. for 
100 doses and £2 los. for r,ooo doses. The minimum charge 
of IS. gd. covers a supply of 30 doses, together with a scarifier 
and brush for applying the vaccine, and full instructions for 
use. 

Payment must accompany all specimens and orders for 
vaccine. Cheques, postal and money orders should be made 

A 2 203 



Notes for the Month 


payable to " The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries ” and 
crossed “ Bank of England.” Postage stamps cannot be 
accepted. 

Communications relating to blood testing and the supply 
of vaccine should be addressed to the Director, Ministry of 
Agriculture and Fisheries, Veterinary Laboratory, New Haw, 
Weybridge, Surrey. 

Interesting Birds: (4) The Blackbird 

The Blackbird, one of the commonest of all our birds, is 
too well known to need description. It is one of our finest 
songsters — ^in the opinion of many people the best of them all. 

The Blackbird is especially subject to albinism. It is by 
no means uncommon to see specimens that are prettily pied 
with black and white, and pure white ones are sometimes seen. 

The Blackbird’s nest is built in a variety of situations, with 
little or no attempt at concealment. Large numbers of nests 
are destroyed annually by various means, but the species 
seems to be as common as ever it was. Two or even three 
broods of young are raised by one pair of birds in a single 
season. This fact no doubt offsets the high rate of mortality, 
and is an important factor in the maintenance of a steady 
Blackbird population. 

It must be admitted that the Blackbird does a great deal 
of damage in the fruit season. It is very partial to cherries, 
and also to currants, gooseberries and other bush fruit. In 
many districts it is a decided nuisance in the fruit season, 
and, naturally, most gardeners and fruit growers dislike it. 
On the beneficial side, the Blackbird destroys numbers of 
noxious insects, slugs, and other pests. The Blackbird is, 
therefore, an example of a species that throughout most of 
the year is highly beneficial; but, for a limited period, and 
in certain circumstances, may do a good deal of harm. 
Where fruit crop>s can be protected by such means as netting 
or alarm guns, these methods are preferable to wholesale 
slaughter. 


Tuberculosis (Attested Herds) Scheme 
(England and Wales). 

As foreshadowed in the Statement of Agricultural Policy 
made by the Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries in the 
House of Commons on May 27 (see p. 210) the Minister has 
204 




To face page 204. 


Bl.Jt'Kbinl and Mcst 


lPh(>rnp,uiph iolmnju . U K. >(’Ufo. 



Notes for the Month 


amended the Tuberculosis (Attested Herds) Scheme (England 
and Wales) dated January, 1935, by the issue of a revised 
Scheme which supersedes it as from June i, 1937. The 
purpose of the new Scheme, which adheres to the principles 
on which the earlier Scheme was based, is to encourage the 
addition of increased numbers of herds to the Register of 
herds officially certified to be tuberculosis free, by the offer 
of additional financial inducements to owners of cattle herds 
qualifying for a Certificate of Attestation. 

The conditions which a herd must satisfy before a Certifi- 
cate of Attestation will be issued and the herd entered in the 
Register of Attested Herds, kept and published by the 
Ministry, remain as heretofore, viz., the herd must pass an 
official test, and this test in turn will be applied only if the 
herd has passed the two preceding herd tests carried out by 
the owner’s veterinary surgeon at the stipulated intervals 
without any reactors being found. The principal amendments 
contained in the new Scheme are as follows: — 

(1) Any owner having a herd of cattle which has been 
tested with tuberculin and has been found to contain not 
more than a certain specified proportion of reactors (about 
ten per cent.) may, if the reactors have been disposed of, 
apply to the Ministry for financial assistance towards the 
cost of further tests (up to a maximum of four complete 
herd tests) with a view to completing the eradi- 
cation of tuberculosis from his herd and applying for a 
Certificate of Attestation. The contribution payable by 
the Ministry in respect of each of these “ assisted ” herd 
tests will be at the maximum rate of 2s. 6d. per head of 
cattle tested plus a sum of £i is. od. per herd, but the 
contribution will in no case exceed the amount of the 
charges made by the veterinary surgeon who carries out 
the tests. It is intended that ftese assisted tests shall be 
carried out by a veterinary surgeon employed by the 
owner of the herd, but the arrangements for the tests must 
be submitted to the Ministry beforehand for approval. 

(2) In any case in which a herd fails to pass the official 
test required before a Certificate of Attestation can be 
issued, the owner, instead of having his application rejected 
as at present, will have the opportunity of appl3dng for 
further official tests at the expense of tiie Ministry up to 
a maximum of three complete herd tests (making four 

205 



Notes for the Month 

official tests in all). When the whole herd passes one of 
these tests a Certificate of Attestation will be issued. 

(3) Herds which have been accepted for “ assisted 
tests or for additional official tests mentioned in the two 
preceding paragraphs will be known as “Supervised 
herds and their owners will be required to observe the 
Rules set out in the 2nd Schedule to the Scheme, dispose 
of reactors, and disinfect the premises. These Rules vary 
somewhat from those applicable to Attested Herds but are 
designed with the same object, viz., to protect the herd 
from the risk of infection by contact with cattle which are on 
adjoining premises or which may be added to the herd. 

(4) The interval required to elapse between any of the 
qualifying tests for attestation has been shortened to one 
of from ^ to 90 days, thus enabling herd owners to achieve 
attestation in a shorter time than formerly. 

(5) Provision is made whereby official tests (other than 
those for the purpose of deciding whether a Certificate of 
Attestation may be granted in the first instance) may be 
carried out by the veterinaiy practitioners nominated by 
the Ministry. These are the tests required at certain 
intervals to satisfy the Ministry of the continued freedom 
of the herd from tuberculosis before a Certificate of 
Attestation is renewed. All official tests will be at the 
expense of the Ministry. 

The direct advantages to herd owners of entering the 
Scheme of Attestation lie in the provision by the Ministry of 
free tests, together with a bonus of id. per gallon on all milk 
from the herd sold through the Milk Marketing Scheme. 
The advantages of owning a tubercle-free herd do not by 
any means end here. The wastage of cattle due to the 
ravages of tuberculosis is considerable and the Attested 
Herds Scheme affords a means of protection against such 
wastage. As proved at recent sales, animals coming from 
known tubercle-free herds command substantially higher 
prices than animals from herds in respect of which there is 
no such guarantee. 

Applications for further information in regard to the 
Scheme should be addressed to the Secretary of ffie Ministry 
Whitehall Place, London, S.W.i. 

206 



Notes for the Month 


Single-handed Hay Making 

The following note has been contributed by Mr. T. S. Pick : 

At the beginning of March last year, I was greatly worried 
as to how to collect hay single-handed from about 15 acres 
of land. I had recently purchased some more land, bringing 
my total up to 40 acres, and had failed to obtain assistance 
for the single man I employed who had come to me from a 
different part of the country. Much less did I anticipate being 
able to obtain temporary help in the hayfield, being a stranger 
in the district. I should add that I myself travel into town 
each day, and could at the most only give a little assistance 
in the evenings and on Saturday afternoons. 

The “ Preservation of Grass and other Fodder Crops ” and 
other books had been studied in an attempt to solve the 
problem, but it seemed that all the schemes mentioned were 
unwarranted for so small an area. There was a short 
reference to baling, and I thought that if I could get a single- 
handed baling machine, I could arrange to bale, cart and 
stack the hay without assistance. I might also add that some 
helpful correspondence with the Institute for Research in 
Agricultural Engineering, Oxford, confirmed my impression 
that baling would be a good thing, without the extra induce- 
ment of single-handed operation. 

I was extremely lucky, because one evening I happened 
to notice in a showroom window a small waste-paper baler, 
and, although it had a label on it warning the operator not 
to use it for straw or other fibrous material, I decided to 
purchase one as the price (;^I7) was well within that justified 
by 40 acres of land. 

As it turned out, help in the hayfield was forthcoming, 
but I decided to use the baler myself, largely because I was 
of small value in the normal hayfield work, having had little 
previous experience. I found that, even with my inexperience 
and somewhat indifferent physical ability, I could bale 
continuously without effort at the rate of 5 bales per hour, 
including the time for carting the hay over a mile and 
stacking it in a Dutch bam. 

Each bale measured 24 x 21 x 15 in. and contained 
between 45 and 60 lb. of hay, depending on its quality, with 
an average for moderately good meadow hay of 56 lb. per 
bale (6'5 cu. yd. per ton). 




207 



Notes for the Month 


The method of procedure was to hitch the baler, which 
was mounted on skids, behind a car and trailer, and move 
up between the windrows. Usually, 3 bales were made 
between each movement, and as the bales were made they 
were piled on to the trailer, which took a maximum load of 
10 bales, after which the baler was unhitched and the load 
taken to the bam. 

Towards the close of a day's work, the hay remaining on 
die field was collected into a pike to be baled at leisure at 
a later date. Probably an ideal method would be to use a 
tripod drying system, and bale from each tripod in turn. 

In many instances baling was carried out on hay that was 
still too damp to stack in the normal way, as well as on one 
or two occasions when slight rain was falling. All the bales 
have turned out in good condition, slight mould occasionally 
occurring in the strata or layers between successive pressings 
in the baler. 

There is no need to emphasize the savings. Units of 56 lb. 
of hay in bundles half the size of a normal truss have been 
fed to the cows in the field, without the chaff associated with 
cutting hay out of a stack, so that the whole of it is cleared, 
leaving little or no trace as to where they were fed. There 
is the immediate economy of storage space, allowing for 
ventilating spaces, 8 cu. yd. only were needed per ton 
without having to wait for the pile to settle. 

Working in all 43 hours on odd evenings and Saturdays, 
I had cleared and stacked over 5 tons of hay, and I would 
suggest that anyone more used to manual labour could have 
cleared this amount at least in 30 hours, so that an acre per 
day of average meadow could be dealt with single-handed, 
which is comparable with the time occupied per man in the 
normal method of carting and stacking. This, coupled with 
tile ease of rationing and the ultimate saving of waste, storage 
space and labour during the winter months, might be attractive 
to other small-holders who do not feel justified in spending 
large sums in mechanical equipment. 

One last word. The baler need not be idle in the other 
months of the year, because straw and other general litter 
can be squeezed into an extraordinarily small space for easy 
handling. As an example of tiie baler’s general usefulness, 
I might add that it has recently been used on firewood, 
reducing 6 faggots of normal pea-stick size to a compact bundle 
of 3 cu. ft. 

208 



To face page 208 . 






Notes for the Month 


World’s Dairy Cong:re8S 

The offidal programme of the nth World's Dairy Congress 
to be held in Berlin during &e period August 22-28, 1937, has 
now been issued. It contains full information concerning the 
daily programmes and Congress rules, and also includes 
particulars of travelling facilities and accommodationinBerlin. 
Copies of the English edition, together with full information 
regarding the Congress, may be obtained on application to the 
Secretary, British Dairy Farmers’ Association, 28 Russell 
Square, London, W.C.i. 

At the daily sessions of the Congress, papers submitted by 
experts from all countries will be read and discussed, and 
opportunity will be provided for the exchange of views on 
scientific and practical experiences in the whole field of the 
dairying industry. 

In connexion with the Congress an International Dairy 
Exhibition has been arranged, in which Great Britain will 
participate with a photographic display illustrating various 
aspects of the dairying industry in this country, including 
modem marketing features and educational and research 
activities. 

During the Congress, excursions will be made to centres of 
interest in the neighbourhood of Berlin, and afterwards tours 
of inspection of the important German milk-producing areas 
will be arranged, including visits to dairy research institutes, 
prominent milk processing establishments and dairy equipment 
factories. 

17th International Congress of Agriculture at the Hague 

On the recommendation of the Agricultural Research 
Council, His Majesty’s Government has appointed Sir Daniel 
Hall, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., and Mr. E. J. Butler, C.M.G., 
C.I.E., D.Sc., F.R.S., Secretary to the Council, as official 
delegates from the United Kingdom to the above Congress. 
As recorded in the Journal for February last, this Congress 
is being held from June 17 to June 21 at the Hague, under 
the patronage of H.M. the Queen of the Netherlands. 

Further information may be obtained from the Secretariat, 
Rue de Bellechasse. 18, Paris (Vile). 


209 



STATEMENT ON AGRICULTURAL POLICY 

In reply to a question by Mr. Attlee in the House of 
Commons on May 27, 1937, Mr. Morrison (Minister of 
Agriculture) said he was glad of this opportunity to make a 
statement. Proceeding, Mr. Morrison said: — 

The Government have very carefully considered the 
position of agriculture from the points of view of the welfare 
of agriculture itself, national defence, and the importance of 
maintaining continuity in our agricultural policy that is 
designed to ensure maximum supplies for the consumer con- 
sistent with reasonable remuneration for the producer. The 
Government have in the past initiated proposals for dealing 
with particular agricultural products. This side of the 
Government's policy will continue and I hope shortly to 
announce proposals for the future of the milk and pig 
industries. There are, however, certain fundamental matters 
with which I wish to deal in the following statement. 

In regard to defence, I should like at the outset to stress 
the following considerations. The two objectives — of pro- 
ducing the maximum quantity of food to meet our re- 
quirements in time of war, on the one hand, and of the 
efficient development of our agriculture in time of peace, on 
the offier — ^not only demand very different methods but, to 
a material extent, are opposed to each other. In particular, 
a drastic policy of food production for war purposes would 
entail the ploughing up of an extensive area of our grass- 
land for the purpose of growing cereals and other crops for 
human consumption. In peace time, however, livestock 
husbandry, which is the foundation of our agriculture, is 
naturally based on a grassland system on account of the 
physical and climatic advantages which favour it. The 
Government have had to determine where, between these two 
objectives, the path lies which, on balance, it would be 
wise to follow. 

In the opinion of the Government, to put agriculture on 
a war-time footing with all the regulations, the regimentation 
of the farming community, and the heavy costs that it would 
unavoidably involve, would not be practicable at the present 
time; nor in their opinion is the situation such as to require 
the adoption of this course in time of peace. The Govern- 
ment are equally satisfied that considerations of national 
defence would not justify a policy in peace time of stimulat- 
ing agricultural production to such a pitch that the country 

210 



Statement on Agricultural Policy 

would be faced with a highly artificial situation which would, 
sooner or later, have to be liquidated if the emergency did 
not arise. Such a pohcy would be costly to build up and 
costly to close down. Moreover, farmers themselves will 
have a vivid recollection of the disorganization and un- 
certainties which followed the repeal of the Com Production 
Acts in 1921, and the Government have no wish to put them 
in such a position again. 

Having regard to these considerations, the Government are 
satisfied that the best course in the general national interest 
is to continue their efforts to improve the general prosperity 
and efficiency of home agriculture, and in particular to 
promote an increase in the fertility and productivity of our 
soil. The proposals which I shall now outline are so designed 
that should an emergency arise we should be in a position 
immediately to take advantage of improved fertility but, 
should it not arise, we should be increasing the productivity 
of our land and stock by means which are consistent with, 
and not opposed to, the normal development of our agri- 
culture on economic lines in time of peace. 

To achieve this object, the Government propose that the 
following measures should be taken : — 

Liming. One of the most serious deficiencies of the 
land of this country arises from failure to maintain the 
old practice of applying lime to the soil. Due to the 
long depression, farmers have been unable to bear the cost. 
The result has been felt not only in diminished fertility, but 
also in the lack of elements essential to healthy plant and 
animal life. The Government propose to assist farmers in 
raising the fertility of the soil by increased use of lime. They 
also consider it desirable to secure increased application par- 
ticularly to grasslands, of basic slag which, like lime, is 
available from home sources and has an enduring effect 
upon the soil. They propose that for a limited period of 
years the cost to the farmer of lime and basic slag should be 
reduced by approximately 50 per cent, and 25 per cent, 
respectively. The object of these proposals is not only to 
make good past exhaustion of soil fertility in many parts of 
the country, but to build up reserves of fertility, valuable 
in peace time, and immediately available to meet the heavy 
demands upon it which might be made in time of war. 

Wheat. It is proposed to raise the limit of the “anticipated 
supply ’’ under the Wheat Act, 1932, from 6,000,000 to 

2II 



Statement on Agricultural Policy 


8,000,000 quarters and tlicreby to stimulate an increase in the 
wheat acreage. In jjresent cireuinstances this involves no 
cost blit will give valuable additional insurance to wheat 
growers in the United Kingdom. 

Oats and Barley. The Government propose also to 
introduce a scheme in respect of oats and barley which will 
be in the nature of an insurance against low prices. It will 
apply only to those growers of oats and barley in the United 
Kingdom not receiving benefit under the Wheat Act. For 
the purpose of the Oats Scheme there will be a standard price 
of 8s. per cwt., and a national standard acreage will be 
determined. A payment will be made to the grower in respect 
of each eligible acre. This payment will be calculated on the 
basis that, on the average, about 6 cwt per acre are sold 
off farms. The payment will therefore be equal to six times 
the difference between the standard price of 8s. per cwt. 
and the average market price over a period. If the total 
acreage eligible for subsidy exceeds the national standard 
acreage, the rate of payment will be reduced proportionately. 
In the case of barley the principle of a national standard 
acreage will also apply, and it is proposed that payment will 
be at the same rate per acre as that for oats. At the prices 
prevailing for oats at the present time no payment would be 
made, but it is estimated that if prices were to fall to the 
lowest level of recent years the Exchequer liability in any 
year, in respect of both oats and barley, would not exceed 
£1,750,000. In no case will the payment exceed £i per acre. 

Drainage. It is proposed to extend the system of 
Exchequer grants for land drainage. In England and Wales 
grants will be given for works to be carried out by the lesser 
Drainage Authorities concerned. In Scotland the rate of 
grant for drainage under the scheme administered by the 
Department of Agriculture for Scotland will be increased. 
It is hoped that with the aid of these grants it will be pos- 
sible, in any one year, without interfering with the labour 
required for agriculture, to undertake essential works costing 
up to £450,000. 

Grassland Improvement. In a policy aimed at raising 
the fertility and productivity of our soil the improvement of 
our grassland must be an objective of fundamental impor- 
tance. ^ Grass forms one of our greatest natural resources 
and it is in the national interests that it should be more fully 
and profitably utilized in time of peace and be a reservoir 
212 



Statement on Agricultural Policy 


of fertility for an emergency. By the Livestock Industry 
Bill at present before Parliament and the arrangements for 
regulating supplies of livestock and meat to this market the 
Government are seeking to promote the prosperity and 
efficiency of the livestock industry. The Government believe 
that this measure and those now proposed for drainage and 
for the increased use of lime and basic slag will lead to a 
marked improvement in the grassland of this country. The 
Government are also alive to the potentialities of dried grass 
as a possible addition to home-grown supplies of feeding 
stuffs. They are accordingly encouraging further experiments 
in grass drying. 

Eradication of Animal Diseases. The Government also 
propose to initiate a large-scale and more comprehensive 
campaign for the eradication of animal diseases in Great 
Britain. Our object is to improve the health of our livestock 
and increase agricultural productivity by seeking to eliminate 
what is perhaps the worst of all forms of wastage and eco- 
nomic loss in agriculture. In the first instance, efforts will 
mainly be directed to the eradication of diseases among 
cattle. The scheme will involve an additional charge on the 
Exchequer of about £600,000 per annum for the first four 
years. It will, however, involve centralization of public 
veterinary services and as against the increased cost to the 
Exchequer, the expenditure by Local Authorities will be 
reduced by about £170,000. Parliamentary authority will 
be required for these proposals. The Government are 
anxious, however, to lose no time in developing the existing 
schemes of control of disease and accordingly, I am arrang- 
ing at once to amend the Attested Herds Scheme under the 
Milk Act, 1934, by providing additional assistance in 
England and Wales, as has already been done in Scotland, 
to owners of dairy stock who are desirous of eradicating 
tuberculosis from their herds. This revised scheme will 
become op>erative on June i next. 

In the opinion of the Government, the proposals which I 
have outlined, by increasing the productivity of our agri- 
culture, not only will enable it better to meet the situation 
in the event of war, but will be a substantial aid towards 
raising efficiency, lowering costs and establishing the industry 
on a sounder economic foundation in time of peace. 

The necessary legislation to give effect to these proposals 
will be introduced at the eariiest possible moment. 


213 



COUNTY COUNCIL SMALL-HOLDINGS IN DORSET 
AND HAMPSHIRE*: 

III. MARKET-GARDEN AND FRUIT SMALL- 
HOLDINGS 

Edgar Thomas, B.Litt., B.Sc., 

Agricultural Economics Department, Reading University. 

The Sample. This section is based on information obtained 
from 8i smallholders, 78 in Hampshire and 3 in Dorset. With 
a few isolated exceptions the majority of the small-holdings 
were concentrated in groups situated within easy access of the 
large towns on the south coast of Hampshire. The largest 
group was situated between Southampton and Fareham, 
around Titchfield, Botley and Fareham. The second largest 
group was on the outskirts of Bournemouth. 

These small-holdings can be divided into three classes 
according to the type of production carried on; 40 can best 
be described as market-garden holdings, 21 as strawberry 
holdings and 20 as a mixture of market-garden and straw- 
berry holdings. 

Type of Production. The total area of the 40 market- 
garden holdings was 386 acres. Of this, 309 acres were under 
market-garden crops, 29 acres under fodder crops, 18 acres 
under fruit and 30 acres either taken up by buildings and roads, 
or utilized as poultry runs or as grazing ground for a horse. 
On only a few holdings was any fixed rotation of crop)S 
practised, although in nearly all instances care was taken to 
avoid growing the same crop on the same piece of land twice 
in succession. The land was cropped as many times as 
possible, though intercropping was not general. Altogether, 
17 different sale crops were grown on these 40 holdings. In 
order of importance they were as follows : — 

Spring and winter cabbage, early potatoes, sprouts, savoys, brocoli, 
cauliflowers, peas, broad beans, runner beans, lettuces, carrots, parsnips, 
beetroot, radishes, onions, rhubarb, strawberries. 

Only 4 holdings had fewer than 5 different crops per holding, 
23 had 5-9 crops, and 13 had 10 or more types of crops. In 
addition to these crops, ii smallholders kept pigs, 5 kept 
poultry, and 8 kept pigs and poultry. 

♦ The first of these articles appeared in the issue of this Journal for 
April, 1937, nnd the secf)nd in that for May. 

214 



County Council Small-Holdings 


The total area of the 20 mixed fruit and market-garden 
holdings was 147 acres. Every holding had roughly half its 
acreage under market-garden crops and half under fruit, 
mostly strawberries. Thus, of the total 139 acres of crops 
grown, 67 acres were under fruit, 62 acres under market- 
garden crops and 10 acres under fodder crops. The market- 
garden crops grown showed the same diversity of type as 
those mentioned above. In addition to strawberries, currants 
and raspberries were also grown. Only 7 holdings had fewer 
than 5 types of product, ii holdings had 6-g types, and 5 
had 10 or more types. In addition, 3 smallholders kept 
poultry, 2 kept pigs, and 5 kept both pigs and poultry. 

The total area of the 21 strawberry holdings was no acres, 
of which 79 were under strawberries, 15 under market-garden 
crops, 10 under fodder crops, and 6 under roads, buildings 
and grass. Many of these smallholders, especially the smaller 
ones, cropped the land continuously with strawberries. 
Others gave the land periodic rests, growing either potatoes or 
cabbage in between. In some instances a crop of mustard 
was grown and ploughed in as green manure. Only very 
rarely was any land left fallow. Besides strawberries, the 
following crops were also grown : currants, raspberries, goose- 
berries, apples, potatoes and cabbage. Several of the 
smallholders stated that they were inclined to increase their 
acreage of market-garden crops at the expense of the straw- 
berry area. In this group, 7 smallholders had nothing besides 
the strawberry crop, ii had from 2-4 different crops, and only 
3 had 5 or more crops. In addition, 5 smallholders kept 
pigs, and i kept poultry. 

On all 81 holdings livestock were of minor imp>ortance, and, 
as indicated above, 28 holdings kept no livestock at all. The 
total numbers of livestock on the remaining 53 holdings at the 
time of the survey were 41 horses, 61 sows, 415 other pigs, 
and 3,196 poultry. On 52 holdings horses were not kept, the 
smallholders hiring horses and implements for the heavier 
cultivations cither from neighbouring farmers or from the 
larger smallholders. Sometimes the horses and implements 
only were hired, the smallholder himself supplying the 
manual labour. Pigs were kept on 31 holdings, and they 
were valued as much for the manure they produced as for 
the revenue they brought in; they also provided a useful 
means of turning waste produce to profitable use. Poultry 
were kept on 29 holdings but only on 22 of them were they 

215 



County Council Small-Holdings 

really regarded as conunerdal enterprises deserving of special 
attention. 

Many of the smallholders expressed the view that they 
would keep more livestock if they had larger acreages and 
suitable accommodation, mostly because of their importance 
as a source of much needed farmyard manure. At the time 
of the survey, 52 smallholders used dung, and 32 of these 
relied entirely on purchased supplies. The others stated that 
they could not alford to buy dung, partly because of its high 
price and partly because of the inferior quality of the available 
supply. It was found that on 35 holdings both dung and 
artificial manures were used, 18 holdings used artificials only, 
17 holdings used dung only and ii holdings used no manures 
of any kind. 

Disposal of Produce. Information about the disposal of 
market-garden crops was obtained from 50 smallholders. 
Retailing was practised by 19, and 31 sold their produce 
wholesale. Of the latter, ii sold direct to retail shops and 
20 sold in the open market, 9 doing the selling themselves and 
II selling through salesmen working on a commission basis. 
The towns in which the produce was sold and the numbers 
sending to each town were as follows : — 

16 to Portsmouth. 3 to Fareham. 

13 to Southampton. i each to Poole, Basingstoke, 

10 to Bournemouth. Bishops Waltham, Titchfield, 

3 to Gosport. Wimborne. 

The strawberry growers disposed of their crops either by 
selling direct to wholesalers or by selling through commission 
agents. The destination was very varied and far flung, but the 
most important market was Covent Garden. 

Capital Invested. Complete financial data were obtained 
from 51 holdings only, and the data apply to the growing and 
sale of the 1935 crops. It will be convenient to divide these 
51 holdings into the following three groups: — 

No. of 
holdings 

Group 1. Market-garden holdings with livestock . . 19 
Group II. Market-garden holdings with no livestock 13 
Group III. Fruit holdings . . . . . . . . 19 

51 

The average capital invested per acre on each of the three 
groups of holdings is shown in Table VI. The figures do 
216 



County Council Small-Holdings 


not show the total investment, for nothing has been included 
for tenant right and cultivations on growing crops. 

TABLE VI 


Capital Invested per Acre on 51 Market-garden and 
Fruit Holdings 



Group 1 

Group 11 

Group III 

All Groups 


£ s. d. 

£ 5. d. 

£ i. d. 

£ 

Implements 

340 

z 12 6 

I 16 0 

2 7 10 

Horses 

126 

100 

6 6 

! 17 4 

Other livestock . . 

3 16 10 

— i 

I 14 6 

'256 

Total 

00 

, 3 12 6 

3 ’7 0 

1 5 10 8 


Further, capital invested in motor vehicles has also been 
excluded, for it applied to only a few holdings and its inclusion 
would not give such a representative picture. Thus the 
inclusion of 4 motor vehicles owned by 3 smallholders in 
Group I and by 3 smallholders in Group II would raise the 
average investment for these two groups by £i 12s. and 
i8s. gd. per acre respectively. Again, the inclusion of glass- 
houses owned by i smallholder in Group I and by 3 small- 
holders in Group II would have raised ttie average investment 
of these two groups by £z 7s. ^d. and ;^io 6s. 3d. per acre 
respectively. 

Expenses. The expenses per acre and per cent, for each 
of the three groups are shown in Table VII. 

The average expenditure of £45 iis. 2d. per acre illustrates 
the much greater intensity of cultivation on these small- 
holdings compared with that of the dairy small-holdings 
already described. As with the dairy holdings it includes an 
estimated figure for family labour assessed at current wages 
rates. The rental figure shown also includes file rent of 
houses in order to make the statement comparable with that 
already given for the dairy small-holdings. There is consider- 
able variation between the three groups, both as regards total 
expenditure, and the relative importance of the various items. 

The most important single item of expense on all three 
groups, however, is labour, accounting as it does for 53 per 
cent, of the total expenditure. The total labour cost was 
highest for fee fruit holdings, and lowest for Group II holdings. 
In all instances family labour was more important than hired 
labour. 


217 






County Council Small-Holdings 

TABLE VII 


Expenses per Acre and per cent, on 51 Market-garden 
AND Fruit Small-holdings 


Expenses 

Group I 

Group 11 

Group III 

J verage, 
all Groups 


L rf- 

£ 

s . 

d. 

i 

.V. 

d. 

/ 5 

d. 

Rent and rates 

5 9 

b 

*3 

10 

b 

Tb 

() 

b b 

2 

,, ,, per cent. 

1 >-8 


ibM) 



13*9 


13*8 


Family labour . . 

19 3 

14 


9 

ib 

1 

3 

14 5 

8 

,, ,, per cent. 

Hired labour . . 

27*6 

37*3 



32*8 


31*4 


11 lb 0 

<> 

7 

9 

10 

9 

2 

10 I 

8 

,, ,, per cent. 



16*2 


- 21*3 


22' I 


Feeding stuffs . . 

639 

1 

1 

4 

2 

b 

8 

3 16 

I 

,, ,, per cent. 



2*7 



4*8 


8*4 


Livestock 

lo 5 


— 



12 

8 

9 

0 

,, per cent. 

I • I 


— 



1*3 


1*0 


Artificial manures 

166 

I 

lO 

2 

I 

13 

0 

1 9 

4 

,, ,, per cent. 

2-8 


3-8 



3*4 


3**2 


Dung 

16 1 

I 

H 

0 

I 

0 

4 

I 1 

9 

,, per cent. 

1*7 


4*3 



2 • I 


-^*4 


Plants and seeds 

1 - 19 10 

r 

t8 

5 


17 

9 

2 1 

5 

,, ,, per cent. 

Straw . . 

1 6-4 


4*9 



1*8 


4*5 


1 13 ^ 


7 

0 

I 

I 

6 

14 

3 

„ per cent. 

Hire of machinery and 



0-9 



2*2 


I - b 


hired cultivations . . 

3 


T 7 

t 


10 

b 

13 

6 

,, ,, per cent. 

1-4 


2 ' 2 



I * 1 


1*5 


Implements — upkeep . . ' 

3 10 


4 

2 


4 

() 

4 

2 

,, per cent , 

0*4 


0*5 



0*4 




Transport . , , . 

3 



4 

3 

3 

to 

i 1 

2 

,, per cent. 

0*2 


0*5 



b *7 


* 2*3 


Packages 

JI 9 


8 

6 

2 

lb 

8 

1 3 J 

10 

„ per cent. 

1*3 


I • I 



5-8 


2*6 


Other expenses 

2 I 4 

3 

9 

0 

I 

3 10 

^ 3 

2 

„ „ per cent. 

4*4 


8.7 



2*4 


4*7 


Total 

46 17 8 

39 

10 

7 

49 

0 

2 

45 11 

2 

,, per cent. 

100 -o 

100 -o 


100*0 


100*0 



In Group II and Group III the second most important 
item of cost was rent and rates, but in Group I the second 
place is taken by the cost of purchased foods. The figure for 
purchased food in Group II was incurred in buying horse-feed, 
while the corresponding figure in Group III was incurred 
almost entirely by 3 smallholders who kept pigs. (These 3 
smallholders also account for the relatively high item for 
livestock purchased in this group.) 

The other expenses show considerable variation from group 
to group, and this is explained by the difference in the 

2X8 




County Council Small-Holdings 


nature of the production. Thus the presence of livestock in 
Group I partly explains its lower expenditure on manures. 
Expenditure on plants and seeds is higher for the market- 
garden holdings, but expenditure on straw is highest for the 
fruit holdings. The high expenditure for transport and 
containers shown for the fruit-growing group indicates the 
much higher marketing costs involved. 

Receipts. The receipts per acre and per cent, for each of 
the three groups are set out in Table VIII. 


TABLE VTIl 

Receipts per Acre and per cent, on 51 Market-garden 
AND Fruit Small-holdings 


Receipts 

Group 1 

- . 

Group 11 

Group III 

Average, 
all Groups 


i s 

£ s. d. 

£ s. d 

£ s- d,. 

Market -garden crop.s . . 

33 ’9 4 

34 3 9 

2 15 9 

25 1 3 

per cent. 

64*2 

8 q *8 

5*5 

51*5 

Fruit crops 

4 15 

i 15 

45 5 6 

10 3 6 

,, ,, per cent. 

iJ’Q 

9 '9 

00 

6 

33*3 

Pigs 

6 0 


289 

503 

per cent. 

, 17-0 


4*8 

! 10*3 

Eggs and Poultry 

' 3 A-i 4 

2 0 

^ 4 

; I 14 6 

M .. IH'i* cent. 

1 6-8 

0*3 i 

0*1 

' 3-5 

Miscellaneous . . 

’160 

1 

6 0 

1 13 3 

,, ,, per cent. 

-•4 

1 

0*0 

1 ^ 

Total . . . . . . 

; 52 18 10 

38 1 <> 

50 17 4 

48 12 9 

,, ])er cent 

1 

100*0 

1 

100*0 j 

1 00 * 0 

100*0 


The average figure of I2.s-. c)d. per acre is inclusive of 
the value of livestock products consumed by the family. This 
figure was, however, very small, amounting to only 6s. 3d. 
per acre for all the holdings. In Group I, 15 holdings 
produced their own eggs and poultry supplies, while in Group 
II, 3 holdings, and in Group III, 2 holdings kept a few head 
of poultry to supply home needs. Unfortunately, it was 
impossible to put a figure for the value of the vegetables and 
other crops consumed by the families of the smallholders. 
Most of the smallholders stated that they produced their own 
vegetables and potatoes but were unable to give any 
quantitative data of supplies. 

The Table illustrates well the greater diversity of receipts 
in the first group of holdings, and there is little doubt that 

219 





County Council Small-Holdings 


this diversity was an important factor, not only in increasing 
the total receipts, but in spreading the receipts over the year. 
In most of the holdings in the third group the great bulk of 
the receipts was derived from the strawberry crop and was, 
therefore, obtained during the very short period of some 3 
weeks in the summer. This dependence on one crop and the 
concentration of the receipts to such a restricted period is 
undoubtedly a very serious matter for the smallholders 
concerned. 

The figure for miscellaneous receipts shown for Group I 
and Group III is explained by the fact that some of the small- 
holders in these groups did some outside work. Thus, in 
Group I, 2 smallholders did some haulage, 2 hired out horses 
and I hired out implements. Again, in Group III, 3 small- 
holders did a little outside labour, although they were mostly 
employed on their own holdings. 

Profits and Losses. The average profit, calculated in the 
usual way, per acre and per holding for each group was as 
follows : — 


j Profit per Holding 

Profit per Acre 

Group I . . 

Group II 

Group III 

/ .s. d, 

41 10 0 

— (> lO 0 

9 0 4 

i s. d. 
563 

— I II 0 

I 18 0 

1 

All Groups . . 

16 19 8 

2 12 0 


The above figures illustrate the superior position of the 
more diversified holdings in Group I. As in the corresponding 
table for the dairy holdings, however, they tend to exaggerate 
the position. The size and distribution of profits and losses 
for each group is shown in Table IX, which provides a better 
indication of the actual position. 

When family labour was charged at current wages rates, 
only 51 per cent, of the holdings showed a surplus income, 
but when no such charge was made, all except 9 of the 
holdings (i.e. , 90 per cent.) showed a surplus. Table X shows 
the average “ family income ” per holding and the average 
" income ” per person employed for each of the three 
groups. 

220 




County Council Small-Holdings 


TABL 1 -: IX 

Profits and Losses on 51 Market-garden and Fruit 
Small-holdings 



Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

All Groups 

Profit per holding : 

No. 

No 

No. 

No. 

Over ;£ioo 

3 

— 

2 

5 

51-0 

From £^o to £j 00 

3 


I 

6 

From £25 to /50 

3 

I 

3 

7 

per 

cent. 

Less than £2^ . , 

2 

3 

3 

8 

Loss per holding : 


i 




Less than £2$ 

2 

I 

4 

7 

49-0 

From £2$ to £^o 

3 

4 

5 

' 

per 

Over £^o 

3 


1 

1 

' 6] 

cent. 


TABLE X 

Average “ Income " per Family and per Person on 51 
Market-garden and Fruit Small-holdings 



j Average Family 
\ Income 

Average Income 
per Person 


£ 

£ 

Group 1 . . 

143 

98 

Group 11 . . 

80 

70 

Group III . . 

88 

80 

All groups , . 

. . , 10(1 

8 b 


The figures in Table X again help to emphasize the 
comparative superiority of the diversified group of holdings. 
While it is not possible to ascribe success to any one factor, 
the evidence does suggest that there is a greater chance of 
success for those smallholders who do not depend too 
exclusively on the production of only one or two commodities. 
In particular, the introduction of small livestock into the 
farming system has undoubtedly improved the financial 
position of the smallholders concerned during the period 
under review. 

{To he concluded.) 


221 






SHEEP BLOWFLY INVESTIGATIONS 

The late W. Maldwyn Davies, B.Sc., Ph.D., 
and 

R. P. Hobson, B.Sc., Ph.D., 

University College oj North Wales, Bangor. 

Introduction. The importance of the sheep blowfly 
problem needs no emphasis ; all owners of sheep in this 
country are only too familiar with the ravages of this pest. 
It is no new problem, as is sometimes believed, for the 
writings of Fitzhcrbert** (1534) and Tusser® (1557-1585) show 
that the symptoms of attack by maggots were well known 
at that period. Although in many districts the actual annual 
loss by death is usually small, this is due only to the care 
and vigilance of the owner or shepherd, whose time may be 
almost fully occupied in examining and dressing sheep that have 
been struck. To the loss of time thus caused must be added 
the continued disturbance and irritation to which the sheep 
are subjected. Since, in an abnormal season, such as 1936, 
up to 30 or 40 per cent, of the sheep may be struck, the 
actual loss in live weight becomes considerable, and \s 
witnessed by the number of attacked lambs still in poor 
condition at the end of the autumn. On rough grazings, 
particularly if infested with bracken, actual deaths may be 
numerous, as the sheep when struck seek the shade and it is 
often impossible to find them. 

During recent years, the problem has received the attention 
of research workers in Australia,® South Africa,^ and Great 
Britain.®’ ® In all instances the work has been commenced 
by entomologists, but soon, as it proved in North Wales, it 
has become apparent that a solution to this complex problem 
cannot be found by approaching it from one angle alone. It 
is true that it is the insect that has to be controlled, and that 
a detailed knowedge of its structure, life-history and habits 
must be obtained. When, however, we ask the questions 
'* Why does the sheep blowfly — which is normally a carrion 
feeder — attack live sheep? What conditions produce the 
attraction, and how can these be counteracted? ” we soon 
find the problem extending into the fields of biochemistry. 


222 


* For references see p. 230. 




Sheep Blowfly Investigations 


animal husbandry, and even bacteriology. The sheep blowfly 
problem, therefore, must be added to the growing list of 
investigations where joint study by a team of research workers 
from the different branches of science is essential if progress 
towards a satisfactory solution is to be expected. 

As the result of financial assistance from the Agricultural 
Research Council, which has permitted addition to the 
laboratory facilities and the establishment of an experimental 
flock of sheep for these studies, it has been possible to develop 
the investigations along these lines. 

Since, at the onset, the investigation of a complex problem 
like sheep blowfly attack must be directed to give information 
mainly of a fundamental character, it cannot be expected 
that results having immediate practical application will be 
rapidly forthcoming. Thus, this article is not intended to 
give an account of a final efficient treatment for the pest, but 
aims, at this stage, at giving certain results which it is believed 
have a real bearing on the problem and should be known to 
sheep farmers generally. 

Species of Fly. There is a general impression among sheep 
farmers that at least two species of flies are involved, viz., 
those having small maggots which tend to burrow down into 
the skin, and the larger maggots which wander away more 
readily. This impression has not been substantiated, for, 
both by a survey of the species involved when farmers were 
invited to send in maggots from live sheep, and by numerous 
instances of maggot attack since the survey of 1928, it has 
been established that, with very rare exceptions, only one 
species— the grecnbottle fly (Lucilia sericata Meig.) — ^is 
involved. The belief that two species attack sheep has 
probably arisen from the change in the habits of the maggots 
of Lucilia sericata at different stages. The smaller young 
maggots are ravenous feeders and tend to pass down to their 
food: the larger, older maggots arc preparing to pupate in 
the soil, and, therefore, move away from the fleece more 
readily. The exceptional cases mentioned include the 
common bluebottle fly {Calliphora erythrocephala) , the 
maggots of which have been taken in two advanced cases of 
attack where it was present with maggots of the greenbottle 
fly. Maggots of the bluebottle have not been taken alone on 
sheep. Another female fly, believed to be the species Lucilia 
caesar. was found last summer egg-laying on an already 

223 



Sheep Blowfly Investigations 


attacked sheep. Recently, too, Macleod^ has found another 
species, Pkormia ierrae-novae, attacking sheep in a single 
district in the West of Scotland. 

Development of Maggot Attack. The life-histoiy of 
Lucilia sericata on carrion has been studied by many workers, 
but, in order to present a complete stoiy in this paper, a 
summaiy is given of the development on sheep. 

(i) Egg-laying , — The gravid blowflies do not lay eggs indiscriminately 
on any sheep, or even on any part of the sheep, but the flies are definitely 
attracted to a particular sheep, and select a particular spot on the sheep 
in which to lay eggs. (The nature of the attraction will be discussed 
later.) The fly, on arrival, usually spends a few minutes selecting the 
site in which to lay. It walks around pushing out its proboscis or mouth, 
tasting and feeding on any liquid material near. Should it encounter 
anything distasteful, as, for instance, an arsenical poison bait, it will 
fly away and will not lay eggs. If it finds conditions favourable, it 
projects its ovipositor or egg-laying tube deep into the wool, and lays a 
batch of about loo to 150 eggs. As many as 30 egg-laying females have 
been counted on a single .sheep that had a small batch of maggots feeding 
and supplying the attraction. Often when a favourable site is found the 
fly is so persistent in its effort that even pushing away by hand will not 
prevent its return for egg-laying. 

(ii) Hatching , — ^Whether or not eggs thus laid in the fleece will hatch, 
depends almost entirely on the humidity around them. The site must 
be practically saturated with moisture if the eggs are to develop and 
hatch. In a moist situation on the sheep the eggs hatch in about 9 hours. 
Quite commonly, however, eggs laid on sheep fail to hatch, or, if ^hey 
hatch, the young maggots soon dry up. For instance, when the ewes 
of the experimental flock were examined on May 26, 1936, it was found 
that eggs were present on 12 out of 68 sheep, but, owing to the dry 
conditions, maggot attack only developed in 2 instances. Thus, during 
a spell of dry weather, when very few sheep are attacked by maggots, it 
does not follow that the blowflies are absent, or even that the sheep have 
not been blown ; the eggs may have dried up. 

(iii) Feeding and Growth of the Maggots , — ^The newly-hatched maggots 
tend to congregate in a small, moist cluster, and, as such, pass down the 
wool fibres to the skin. They can only grow slowly on excretory products 
in the wool, but, normally, their rapid movements on the skin surface 
causes inflammation and exudation of serum from the skin, this exudate 
providing ample food for the yoUng maggots. Growth is slower when 
feeding on serum compared with carrion. The maggots can continue to 
feed on serum without actually penetrating the skin, and this often 
happens under wet conditions, when they can wander over the lx>dy. 

Thus, the period of development of maggots on the sheep may vary 
from about 70 hours, when the flesh is quickly penetrated, to 83 hours, 
when the maggots feed mainly on serous exudation. 

It is seldom that a severe attack of maggots originates from a single 
batch of eggs. The usual procedure is for the young maggots of the 
first batch to start feeding, and then the excreta from these, which is 
particularly attractive to gravid females, attracts more blow^es to lay 
masses of eggs near the feeding maggots. Under the moist conditions, 
and with favourable food alre^y present, the newly-hatched maggots 
from these later eggs soon aggravate the situation, causing the attack to 

224 



Sheep Blowfly Investigations 


spread ami l>ecomo acute, I'liis difference in apje results in small and 
large maggots being present on the same sheep. 

The maggots keep close to the skin while feeding, but when fully fed 
they wander about in preparation for passing f)ut of the fleece and falling 
to the ground to pupate. 

(iv) Pupal Stage , — Once on the ground, the maggots rapidly tunnel 
into the soil, where during the summer months they pass Into a stationary, 
reddish-brown, barrel-shaped, pupal stage about i in. long. The duration 
of the pupal stage varies with soil temperature, but, in the summer months 
lasts about 15 to 21 days, after which the flics emerge. In the autumn, the 
maggots that fall from the sheep do not pupate at once, but remain as 
maggots in the soil until March, when they come to the surface to pupate. 
It is mainly in the maggot stage in the soil that this pest spends the \\dnter, 
and hibernating maggots have been collected in frozen soil, which, on 
thawing, has yielded live maggots. 

(v) Adult Stage . — The flies, when they emerge from the pupal case, 
need water, and will soon die under dry conditions. Provided with a small 
quantity of water, such as droplets of dew, they can soon search for 
nutritive liquid food found in sugary products of flowers and carrion. 
There is evidence that the males may search for a different source of food 
from that sought by the females. The .stink-horn fungus, for instance, is 
often found in woods smothered with blowflies feeding on its slimy surface, 
but in one instance all proved to be males. It has been shown that the 
female must have a meal on carrion or animal focxl before it can lay eggs.* 

The life of the adult fly under caged conditions, ranged from 28 to 89 
days, and in this country’' there are 4 generations each year. 

Destruction of Maggots. It is quite a common practice 
for shepherds when attending to sheep to rub out the maggots 
with the shears before applying any treatment, believing that 
maggots thus rubbed out die of starvation away from the 
sheep. Unfortunately, this does not happen, for when such 
maggots were collected and put in soil with no further supply 
of food, over 90 per cent, proved to have had sufficient food 
before being nibbed out to be able to develop into flies. 
(Any shepherd can test this for himself by placing some 
maggots rubbed out into a tin containing soil or sand and 
keeping them in a warm place for about a fortnight.) Since 
all these maggots will be those of the sheep blowfly {Lucilia 
sericata), and since they are likely to be rubbed out in a field 
where the flock is grazing, it is clear that such maggots will 
provide an important source of blowflies, which will be ready 
to attack the sheep within less than a month’s time. It is, 
therefore, most important that shepherds should realize this 
and apply any treatment before rubbing out the maggots. 
or make sure that the maggots are killed. (Method of 
treatment is dealt with later.) 

Nature of Attraction. We must now turn to the question 
" What attracts the sheep blowfly, normally a carrion fly, to 
the lim sheep?” The answer that suggests itself, owing to 

235 



Sheep Blowfly Investigations 


the frequency of attacks on the hind quarters, is that sheep- 
dung is the attraction. On further inquiry, and also by 
experiment, it is found that sheep-dung lying on the field, or 
in experimental cages, offers no attraction for the egg-laying 
flies. Further, there are many cases of attack that take 
place on the shoulder or back, away from wool contaminated 
with dung. Such observations led to a careful investigation 
of the nature of the attraction. It has now been 
established®- that the nature of the attraction is two-fold. 
Firstly, there must be present “ products of putrefaction ”. 
For instance, when a 2 per cent, solution of ammonium 
carbonate, or 002 per cent, of indole is placed on a healthy 
sheep, female blowflies, ready to lay eggs, have arrived on 
the treated part at the rate of 30 in half an hour. Strangely 
enough, however, these materials are not attractive when placed 
away front the sheep. Thus, it is clear that a second factor, 
which at present we can only describe as the ‘ ‘ sheep factor, 
plays an essential part in this dual attraction. The exact 
nature of this “ sheep factor ” is the subject of further 
research. Since the factor termed “ products of putrefac- 
tion ” can undoubtedly be supplied by dung, all methods of 
cleaning up the hind quarters of the sheep must form an 
important part of any method of combating this pest. 
Crutching, which involves the shearing of the wool from 
above the tail, and around the hind legs of the sheep — a 
method commonly used in Australia — is seldom practised 
extensively in this country and could be developed with 
advantage. 

As already indicated, dung is not the only source of the 
factor “ products of putrefaction ”. The nature of the 
attacks on apparently clean parts of the body is more 
complicated. There is evidence that in Welsh sheep, at least, 
a certain " wool condition ” predisposes to attack. In 
Australia, this condition has been referred to as “ wool rot ”, 
and various grades have been described in Merino sheep.® 
The nature of the origin of this condition is being investigated, 
but a brief description is given here so that farmers may 
examine their sheep to see to what extent such conditions are 
common in their flocks. Normally, the wool grease and 
products of excretion of the skin are distributed uniformly 
through the wool, so that, if the wool is parted, there is no 
indication of colouring or accumulation of waxy products. 
When this wool condition is present, however, these products 
226 



SHEasp Blowfly Investigations 


appear to remain in the form of a crusty layer at the base 
of the wool. As the wool grows, this crusty layer passes up 
with the wool and ultimately appears on the outside of the 
fleece. There is usually a matting of the wool when this 
condition exists, with the result that moisture penetrates easily. 
We have observed that blowflies will select such a site for 
egg-laying and will thrust the eggs actually into the crust. 
It is of interest to record that one Welsh ewe and one 
Southdown cross ewe purchased in September, 1935, were, 
because of this wool condition, the first to be attacked by 
maggots in 1936, and the flies had blown the particular area 
where the wool condition existed. It should be recorded that 
the ram lamb of the Southdown cross ewe also showed this 
wool condition. 

That such wool condition is not uncommon among flocks 
is seen from th(; following figures : — 

Experimental flock (April) of 68 (‘wes . . • • 4 severe, ii slight. 

Welsh Mountain ewes, Aber (June), of 121 (*wes . . o ,, 22 

The Problem of Control. A solution to the problem of 
the control of sheep maggot attack is being sought along the 
following lines : — 

I. Humidity in the Fleece. It has been mentioned 
frequently in this article that both eggs and young maggots 
are particularly susceptible to dry conditions. In fact, it is 
probable that, owing to the ease with which eggs dry up, 
there are at least as many instances of unsuccessful develop- 
ment of eggs following egg-laying on sheep as there are of 
successful development of maggot attack. It has been shown 
that, at the temperature of the sheep’s body, eggs and young 
maggots require over 90 per cent, relative humidity if they 
are to develop. It was shown also that the humidity at the 
base of the fleece of healthy sheep is surprisingly low, about 
40-70 p>er cent, even under showery conditions. We can, 
then, picture the normal sheep as possessing a dry area in the 
wool near the skin, in which eggs and young maggots cannot 
develop. This dry region must be penetrated by moisture 
before there can be any attack by maggots. Dung and 
urine will cause penetration to the skin by moisture in the 
hind quarters. In other regions of the body some condition, 
such as the wool condition mentioned, is necessary before a high 
humidity can be maintained near the skin and so permit 
development of eggs or maggots. 


227 



Sheep Blowfly Investigations 


Any method, therefore, that maintains or promotes dry 
conditions near the skin will greatly assist in preventing an 
attack. The effect of different dips on the humidity in the 
fleece is being studied. 

Dry conditions in the fleece may result from the physical 
nature of the wool that will permit rapid drying out. For 
example, the fact that the Wiltshire breed and its crosses are 
rarely attacked is probably due to the hairy nature of the fleece 
and the absence of any thick wool. Some farmers in this 
district buy in Wiltshire cross lambs in order to avoid trouble 
from this p>est. It has also been noticed that certain types 
of Welsh sheep, which have a hairy region around the breech 
and under the tail, are less subject to attack. 

In order to test the effect of the drying out of the fleece as 
a control for maggot attack, 35 lambs were shorn over the 
entire body and grazed with another 35 unshorn lambs at the 
College farm in 1934. During the period of observation the 
maggot attack was only slight, but it was interesting to note 
that all 4 cases of attack were on unshorn lambs and that 
not one of the shorn lambs was attacked, although instances 
of bad scouring were found among these lambs. It has been 
learnt that in parts of mid-Wales and in the Romney Marsh, 
it is the practice of some farmers to shear the lambs along 
with the ewes in the early summer solely to reduce blowfly 
attack. 

2. Counteracting Attraction of the Sheep for 
Blowflies. The ideal method of control would be to prevent 
the sheep from attracting blowflies. With the knowledge 
gained on the nature of the attraction, it has now been possible 
to test systematically a wide range of chemicals as repellents 
to blowflies on sheep. 

Various proprietary dips, used primarily for the control 
of sheep scab, were tested first to find out if any acted as 
repellents to the flies. The dips included arsenical, sulphur, 
carbolic, sulphur-arsenic, nicotine, derris, pyrethrum and 
spirits of tar. At varying periods after dipping, a small 
quantity of the standard attractant solution (2 per cent, 
ammonium carbonate) was placed on a piece of cotton wool 
which was tied in the fleece of the dipped sheep. With all 
the dips mentioned, flies arrived and laid eggs in a very few 
days after dipping, showhig that there was no marked 
repellent effect by any of the dips. A search for an efficient 
repellent among other chemicals not used at present in dips 

aafl 



Sheep Blowfly Investigations 


has, therefore, been commenced. Since the wool condition 
referred to is known to attract blowflies, its nature and 
treatment are being studied. 

3. Destruction of Newly-hatched Maggots on Sheep. 
The alternative method of control by destroying newly-hatched 
maggots before they cause damage is also being investigated. 
The value of the previously-mentioned dips as poisons and 
the duration of their toxicity in the fleece were tested by 
taking samples of the wool of dipped sheep at weekly intervals 
after dipping and feeding young maggots on serum added 
to this wool. Details of the experiments will be published 
elsewhere, but the results of these tests can be summarized 
as follows: — 

Samples of wool from the sulphur, derris powder, 
py rethrum dips were not toxic after r week; wool from 
carbolic-dipped sheep ceased to be toxic after 2 weeks; 
whereas the fleece of sheep dipped in arsenical dips remained 
toxic for 3-6 weeks. There is no doubt, therefore, that of the 
existing proprietary dips those containing arsenical compounds 
are the most efficient and that these act mainly as stomach 
poisons and not as repellents. There is evidence, however, 
that most of the arsenical dips, even when used at the half- 
strength for sheep scab dipping, do damage the skin, causing 
a special type of wool condition, and a search, therefore, 
is being made for a dip of equal larvicidal value, which is 
harmless to the skin. 

Dressings for Maggot Attack. There is a real need 
for an efficient dressing for maggots on sheep. The ideal 
dressing should destroy maggots quickly before they fall to 
the ground, should act as an antiseptic in healing the wound, 
and should prevent reblowing by flies. 

The usual dressings in this country are carbolic solutions. 
Most of these are successful in killing the maggots, but they 
are particularly harmful to the skin and do not prevent 
reblowing. It has not yet been possible to make a systematic 
study of chemicals to find an efficient larvicide, but, owing 
to the number of attacks during 1936, an emergency dressing 
of paraffin was added to reduce the proportion of cresol in 
order to minimize the harmful effects of carbolic solutions. 
This was used with success as a dressing for most of the 
attacks in the experimental flock, but it is hoped in 1937 to 
prepare a more efficient larvicide that will have all the 
properties of an ideal dressing for maggot attacks. 


229 



Sheep Blowfly Investigations 


Recentiy/* the Australian workers recommended glycero- 
boric preparations as dressings for maggots. These were 
tried on the experimental flock in 1936, but, unfortunately 
they are expensive and in several instances did not succeed 
in destroying the maggots or preventing further attacks; they 
were eflicient in cases of slight attack. 

It is intended to develop the most promising lines of control 
as rapidly as possible during the season of attack, and a 
technique has been elaborated for continuing the study of 
certain aspects of the problem during the winter session. 
Since there is evidence that sheep maggot attack may vary 
somewhat among different breeds, the junior writer will 
always welcome any observations made by sheep owners 
whose flocks are subject to frequent attack. 


REFERENCES 

* Fitzherbert, J. ; The Book of Husbandry. London, 1534. 

* Tusser, T. : Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry, London, 1573. 
•*’ Joint Blowfly C ommittee : Res. Coun. Sci. Indust. Res. Australia, 

1933. 37 , 1^136. 

Smit, B. : Union of S. Africa Dept. Agric., Bull. No. 47 , 1929. 

® Davies, W. M. : Ann. App. Biol., 1934, 267-282. 

•Ritchie, J. : Scot. Jour. Agric., 1934, ^ 7 , 249-260. 

’ MacLeod, j : Nature, 1936, 138 , 467. 

• Mackerras, M. J., and Freney, M. B. : Jour. Exp. Biol., 1933, 10 , 

237-246. 

• Hobson, R. P. : Ann. App. Biol., 1935, 22, 294-300. 

Hobson, R. P. : Ann. App. Biol., 1936, 23 , 845-851. 

Davies, W. M., and Hobson, R. P. : Ann. App. Biol., 1935, 22, 
^ 79 - 293 - 

Freney, M. B. et al : Jour. Coun. Sci. Indus. Res., 1935, 8, i6i-i68. 


230 



WHITEHEADS OR TAKE-ALL IN WHEAT 

Geoffrey Samuel. M.Sc., 

Rothamsted Experimental Station 

In recent years the disease of wheat known as Whiteheads, 
or Take-all, has been more prevalent than formerly, especially 
on some farms on the lighter soils of Norfolk, Hampshire, and 
the Yorkshire Wolds. The disease is mainly troublesome 
when several white-straw cereal crops arc taken in 
succession on light land. With the tendency towards greater 
mechanization of farm work there is often a larger proportion 
of cereal crops on the farm at any one time than in former 
years, and under these conditions it becomes very difficult 
sometimes to keep the trouble under control. Knowledge of 
the disease has increased considerably during the past few 
years, and a brief account of what is now known about it 
should be of interest at the present time. 

Empty ears in wheat may be the result of one or other of 
a number of different causes, including both fungus root-rots, 
and insects such as the Stem Sawfly and the Hessian Fly. 
It is considered by some w'orkers that severe attacks of 
Whiteheads are often due to a complex of several of these 
troubles, since all tend to multiply if land is cropped too 
frequently with wheat. This may sometimes be true, but 
there is no doubt that the disease here discussed, namely, 
the root-rot due to the fungus Ophiobolus graminis, is the 
most .serious and the commonest cause of Whiteheads on light 
ijoils, and is responsible for by far the greatest losses. On 
farms where it has been allowed to multiply, it may cause 
trouble not only when two or more crops of wheat are taken 
successively, but also on land that has been fallowed or under 
some other crop, which might therefore have been considered 
likely to be free from the disease. 

Name of the Disease. Take-all was the veiy' expressive 
name given to the disease by the farmers of Australia, who 
suffered severely from it in the latter half of last century. 
After the introduction of improved fallowing methods and the 
use of superphosphate, the disease became less serious there, 
but it is still an important factor to be considered on light, 
alkaline soils. The disease is known both in a severe, early 
form, in which the plants die before heading, and in a less 

231 



Whiteheads or Take-all in Wheat 


severe, later form, in which the plants come into ear, but 
bleach off before ripening, and fail to produce grain. 
Originally, the former stage was known as Take-all and the 
latter as Whiteheads or “ dead heads,” but after MacAlpine 
proved in 1900 that the two forms were caused by one and 
the same fungus, the name Take-all has come to be the one 
generally used for all stages of the disease. 

In England, the early stage, in which the plants die before 
heading, does hot occur very frequently, and it is the 
bleaching of the ears just before harvest that is the more 
familiar form of the disease. Consequently, names such as 
” blight,” “ whiteheads,” and ” night ripening ” have come 
to be those most generally used in England, the name White- 
heads being the one at present recommended in the List of 
Common Names of British Plant Diseases. Nevertheless, 
some English farmers who have experienced trouble with 
the disease recently, and who have read something of its 
occurrence overseas, have been employing the name Take- 
all as used in published accounts of the disease from 
Australia, Canada and the United States. Since frequent 
reference will be made here to the occurrence of the disease 
in these countries the name Take-all will be used in this 
article. 

Symptoms. When infection is very severe, the plants may 
begin to look yellowish and stunted in spring, and may fail 
to come into ear. More commonly the crop comes into ear 
normally, and diseased plants become visible as a result of 
premature ripening, or rather, bleaching. The plants become 
almost white instead of the normal golden colour of ripe corn, 
and the cars are found to be empty, or to contain only 
shrivelled grains. In damp summers these whitened, dead 
ears usually become spotted with a greenish-black growth 
of moulds. 

The old distinction between the Take-all and the Whiteheads 
stages of the disease has been somewhat over-emphasized in 
the past, since all intermediate stages between the two 
conditions are found. It is quite common, for instance, to 
find dead plants with the ears formed but still enclosed within 
the sheaths, and others in which the ears had only partially 
emerged at the time of death. The severity of tiie disease 
depends upon the extent to which the root system is destroyed 
by the fungus. If conditions greatly favour the fungus, the 

332 



Whiteheads or Take-all in Wheat 

wheat plant dies before heading. If conditions favour the 
wheat, grain may mature in spite of the presence of some of 
the fungus on the roots. Usually, however, there is an inter- 
mediate state of affairs, and the wheat plant is able to grow 
to the stage of heading, the growth of the fungus on the roots 
being by that time so far advanced that death and bleaching 
of affected plants occurs shortly before the normal ripening 
of the crop. 

It is usually not until this stage is reached that the farmer 
is able to see the extent of his losses. The prematurely 
whitened plants are then easily distinguishable scattered 
among the normal green plants. The most important con- 
firming evidence that the disease is Take-all is the blackening 
of the roots and the base of the stem (Figs, i and 2). The 
blackening on the base of the stem can usually be seen better 
when the basal leaf-sheaths arc pulled away (Fig. i). There 
is often a thin black coating of fungus, called “ plate 
mycelium,” between the leaf-sheaths and the stem, which 
may be pushed off in fine flakes with the thumbnail. 

If weather conditions have been dry, and the growth of 
the fungus slow, it sometimes happens that blackening may 
not be visible on the stem-base. It may still be possible, 
however, to find blackening on the roots, particularly if they 
are first washed in water. W'hen the weather has been moist, 
the blackening on the base of the stem may become very 
pronounced. It is due to the mycelium of the fungus growing 
up from the roots. In advanced cases of the disease it is 
sometimes possible to see with the naked eye the spore-cases 
of the fungus, as small black bodies, embedded in the 
blackened portions of the leaf-sheaths. 

Cause of the Disease. The fungus that causes the disease, 
Ophiobolus graminis, acts as a parasite on the roots of living 
cereals and grasses, and does not multiply in nature except 
on these hosts. Its life-history is briefly as follows : Infective 
material of the fungus, capable of attacking healthy plants, 
may be of two kinds : a, mycelium in pieces of root or straw- 
left in the soil from a previous cereal or grass crop on which 
the fungus had developed, and b, spores that may have been 
carried some distance by wind and rain from spore-cases 
developed on infected stubble or on a wild grass in the 
neighbourhood. When either material, be it a fragment of 
infected straw or spores wind-borne from some distance away, 

B 233 



Whiteheads or Take-all in Wheat 


comes in contact with the roots of a healthy wheat jdant, other 
conditions being favourable, it causes infection. The fungus 
grows in a characteristic way as long, dark, runner 
h3^hae down the outside of the roots, side-branches then 
penetrating towards the centre of the root and absorbing the 
food material. As far as is known, the mycelium of the 
fungus will not grow in soil alone, so that spread of the disease 
from plant to plant through the soil does not occur until the 
roots of neighbouring plants come into contact, when it grows 
from root to root. The rate of growth of the fungus along 
the roots depends very much on soil conditions, discussed • 
in further detail below. Under favourable soil conditions, 
however, the fungus soon reaches the crown of the plant, 
whence it can spread to all the roots and seriously interfere 
with the nourishment of the developing wheat. Under moist 
conditions, the fungus grows up the base of the haulms 
forming the black “ plate mycelium,” previously mentioned, 
and finally produces minute spore-cases embedded in the leaf- 
sheaths (Figs. I and 2). Each spore-case (Fig. 3) contains 
some hundreds of spores, too small to be visible to the naked 
eye. 

From this stage the life-cycle begins again. The infected 
roots and straw from the diseased crop may either be 
ploughed in, or be left for some months as stubble, perhaps 
sown with a seeds mixture. In both practices the infected 
material remains in the soil, a source of danger for some time 
to any further cereal or grass crop sown there. In the second, 
however, when the infected stubble is not ploughed in, there 
is an additional source of danger, namely, the development of 
further spore-cases on the diseased stem-bases as autumn 
advances, and the discharge of spores, which may be blown 
over healthy crops in the neighbourhood. These two sources 
of infection may now be considered in somewhat more detail. 

Persistence of Mycelium in the Soil. Many of the worst 
outbreaks of Take-all come from ploughing up a stubble that 
may have been only slightly diseased, and then sowing 
another crop of wheat within the space of a few weeks. In 
such circumstances there is not time for infected material to 
rot away before the new roots of the young crop are growing 
down amongst it. Naturally, the roots become infected at 
an early stage, and if a warm, moist spring follows, the disease 
may develop rapidly and seriously damage the crop. 

234 



\ u. 1 llu- 1)1. kt mill; .it tlu* liasi's ot tlu* li.uiliU'' 

<)l <1 wIitMl pkmt all(‘i tfil with \\ hiti'luMds oi 1 aki'-.ill Latr 
sl.i;;r, in w huh the iiri Us ot llic spoir-i.iscs ol Liu' tiinj;us .ir* 
V iMl>h .I'! iiiiiiiili’ black pojiitx (tJi ni tho blai konnl ])arts ol thi* 
U'al-.sluMlhs riu‘ hwf-sluMth h.is hrm pulUnl awa\ to show 
tlu' (lark i oloiiR'd tkikes ot “ pkitr iiU LcImm ” (f?) on llu' 
base ol the stem itselt. 


Vo fiut’ pdi^c j:34 





]*iu. z Showing (.IS in log i) the blackening .it llu* b.isc ol 
the haulm, vvitli the net ks of the spore-cases jirotnicling, 
as at [a). 




J i(, 3 \ ^pon -i .iM <>t th< l.iki-cill fun.LiU'', Op'h}><h<>lit^ i:i iHtii I'l (.‘inlKHldcd in a "iition of Icat-slR'ath 

^\ltil lU v k prolmdini; , mutdi in i,miiln*d ( int pa< ot (Mirht '^poro'^ oO jiwt from lilt* n(_‘ck 

anotln r \h\ }mv ju-st bur^t in tin air ainl a Iru --poio^ I, Irom tin* pn‘\ lou^ packt'l ot onj^ht an. still tloatinu 
in tin an in ai I in* -.imn*'. ait t-vi >tiudl to bo M^iblt* to tin. nakotl ow 





Whiteheads or Take-all in Wheat 


A similar result may follow the ploughing in of grass. The 
Take-all fungus is frequently present in grass fields, main- 
taining itself from year to year by slow growtii in the mat of 
roots, the grass apparently healthy. If a grass field is 
ploughed up and sown to wheat after too short an interval, 
a serious attack of the disease may develop. 

It is important, therefore, to know how long the fungus can 
remain viable in the soil in the absence of its host plants. In 
the past it has sometimes been recommended that, after an 
attack of the disease, land should not be sown with wheat 
for two or three years, or even longer. It is very doubtful 
whether such long periods are necessary. Unfortunately, in 
spite of the practical importance of the point, very little reliable 
information about the rate of disappearance of the Take-all 
fungus from different soils is available. There is no doubt 
that the rate of disappearance will vary in different circum- 
stances. In soils of different acidity or alkalinity, different 
moisture content, and different organic matter content, it 
would not be expected that the fungus would always rot away 
at the same rate, but the qiustion remains whether the period 
is likely to be one month, three months, six months, twelve 
months, or more. A systematic investigation of this point 
is now being carried out by Mr. S. D. Garrett at the 
Rothamsted Expfjrimental Station, and it may, perhaps, be 
said at this stage that, under the moisture conditions prevailing 
in English soils, it is very unlikely that the fungus would last 
as long as a year, provided the stubble has been j)loughed 
under. 

The safest way to ensure that there shall be no danger of 
infection from mycelium in the soil is, of course, to adopt a 
rotation in which wheat or barley is not sown immediately 
following a previous cereal or grass crop. Soil can be freed 
from the Take-all fungus by means of fallows of several 
months’ duration, or by the growth of non-cereal crops such 
as beans, sugar-beet, etc. , provided these are kept clean from 
grass weeds. If it is specially desired to follow wheat with 
wheat, then the sooner the stubble of the first crop is ploughed 
in, and the longer the field is left before sowing Ae next crop, 
the less likely will be loss from the disease. In other words, 
wheat may be sown early on land that has been fallow for 
several months or has carried some non-cereal crop, but after 
a previous wheat crop, stubble should be ploughed in early 
and seed sown late. Wheat should never sown following 

B 2 235 



Whiteheads or Take-all in Wheat 


a previous wheat crop in which the Whiteheads or Take-all 
disease was known to be present. 

The Australian practice of burning stubble helps greatly 
in reducing the amount of fungus present before fallowing 
begins. This is not often possible in England, however, 
because of the shortness of the stubble left by English reapers. 
Frequent working of the lighter soils, to stir them up, compact 
the lower layers and check the growth of weeds, has also 
been found in Australia to aid in more quickly eliminating 
the fungus. 

Dissemination by Spores. The second source of infection, 
namely, wind-bome spores, may now be considered in more 
detail. This danger arises when a stubble infected with Take- 
all is not ploughed in, but is left untouched while the new 
season's crops are sown, or because a seeds mixture was sown 
with the wheat. In these circumstances the fungus is able 
to mature its spore-cases slowly on the old diseased stem-bases, 
and the spores ripen about October and November. When 
the spore-cases are wetted by rain after periods of slow drying, 
the spores are ejected into the air at the rate of up to several 
hundred per minute from a single diseased stem-base. When 
the rain ceases the spore-cases gradually dry, maturing further 
spores, and when later rains come, still more spores may be 
discharged from the same spore-cases. 

Although these facts in the life-cycle are known, and it is 
known that ascospores can infect young wheat plants, it is 
unfortunate that practically no studies have been made on 
the field side of this problem. Since the spores are ejected 
only during or immediately after periods of rain, and since 
the rain would usually tend to carry them down from the air 
into the soil, it is unlikely that large numbers of spores would 
travel much more than a few hundred yards. A few might 
easily travel greater distances, but the numbers would be fewer 
and fewer the farther from the source of discharge. Most 
of the spores, however, would not succeed in reaching growing 
roots that they could infect. In light, sandy soils, it might 
be possible for them to be washed down into contact with 
roots, but the heavier the soil the less would this be likely to 
occur. Further studies on spore infection in different t3q)es 
of soil are therefore very desirable. 

At present, it seems possible that if the prevailing winds 
carried spores over young cereal crops growing on light soils, 

236 



Whiteheads or Take-all in Wheat 


there might well be many spores that would be washed down 
into the soil into contact with roots. Fortunately the delicate 
spores of the Take-all fungus have a very short life, probably 
about a week only, under the most favourable conditions,®* 
so that unless they were actually carried over cereal or grass 
crops they would not be likely to be a source of danger. 

It is possible that in some districts infected grasses in 
headlands or fields might be another source of spores, but 
if this is so, it is likely to be to a small extent only. This is 
another of the points upon which further information is needed 
for English conditions. 

Determining the Source of Infection. When a wheat crop 
has been affected by Take-all, it is of interest to endeavour 
to determine the source of infection, as an aid to guarding 
against a future recurrence. From what has been said above 
it is evident that infection must have come from one of two 
sources — either it was in the soil when the crop was sown, 
remaining from a previous cereal or grass crop, or it was 
carried as spores over the growing crop at times of winter 
or spring rains. Very often a knowledge of what was in the 
field, and also in adjacent fields, the previous season, will 
be sufficient to decide the question of the source. There 
are, however, certain general characteristics of the two t5q)es 
of infection that may be of assistance in reaching a decision. 
As a rule, infection resulting from mycelium left in the soil 
tends to result in more or less definite patches of disease in 
the crop, as compared with the occurrence of individual plants 
showing Whiteheads scattered promiscuously among the 
healthy plants, which is likely to be more characteristic of 
spore infections. The former type of infection may also be 
more or less evenly distributed over the whole field, whereas 
the latter is usually more severe on one side — the side from 
which the spores came — ^gradually getting less and less across 
the field. There are so many modifying factors that may 
obscure these characteristics, however, particularly differences 
in soil conditions, that too much reliance should not be placed 
upon them. 

The Influence of Soil Conditions on the Development of 
the Disease. It is well known from field experience that the 
development of the Take-all fungus is very much influenced 
by soil conditions. It is more to be feared on light than on 


• Seepage 241. 


«37 



Whiteheads or Take-all in Wheat 


heavy soils; it is more serious on alkaline than on acid soils; 
and it is more serious on soils poor in organic matter than 
on those well supplied with this. Satisfactory scientific 
explanations for all these types of behaviour are not, as yet, 
known, but research work now being carried out is increasing 
our knowledge considerably. Workers in Canada and the 
United States have shown that the presence of organic matter 
exercises an inhibitory effect on the fungus, and they attribute 
this to the antagonistic effect of certain of the soil micro- 
organisms present. It seems possible that the periodic 
dressings of dung given to many English fields may have some 
beneficial effect in minimizing the amount of Take-all and 
other cereal root-rots. In Canada and Australia, wheat fields 
are not manured with dung. In England S. D. Garrett* has 
made a study of the effect of certain soil conditions, 
particularly soil reaction, on the development of the disease, 
and suggestions have been advanced to account for its greater 
prevalence on alkaline soils. Slowly but surely this work is 
increasing our understanding of the often apparently erratic 
field occurrence of the disease. 

In the meantime, some lessons may perhaps be drawn from 
field experience of the disease in countries where it is prevalent. 
In Australia a loose seed-bed has been found to be favourable 
to it, and light soils are ploughed only 2 or 3 in. deep. 
Sometimes, rolling, or grazing off with sheep, is adopted with 
the object of compacting the soil. It will be noticed that in 
doing everything possible to consolidate light soils and 
discourage Take-all, these operations at the same time improve 
the soils for the growth of wheat, and this is undoubtedly 
partly the basis of their good effect. 


Manuring. Manuring may also be of importance. The 
requirements of different soils are so varied that it is not 
possible to make statements that will apply for all. Since 
the disease is favoured by alkaline conditions, however, 
preference should be given to sulphate of ammonia as a 
nitrogenous manure rather than to the more alkaline nitrate 
of soda, or nitro-chalk, unless the soil is definitely acid in 
reaction. In Australia, superphosphate has a very beneficial 
effect, mainly because Australian soils are very deficient in 
phosphate; the supply of this substance promotes the produc- 
tion of a more vigorous root-S5retem, thus favouring the 

338 



Whiteheads or Take-all in Wheat 

wheat plant as opposed to the fungus. It may be said in 
general that liberal manuring, according to the requirements 
of the particular soil in question, will have a beneficial effect 
in minimizing tiie effect of the Take-all fungus if it is present. 

Plants Attacked. A variety of wheat has not yet been 
found that is immune from this disease, but red wheats, as 
a class, are considered to be somewhat more resistant than 
white wheats. A reasonably good crop of Little Joss has 
been seen alongside a crop of a white wheat that was a total 
failure from Take-all. Under some circumstances, however, 
even red wheats such as Little Joss may be badly attacked. 
When tested by inoculation in the seedling stage, red wheats 
are found to be just as susceptible as white wheats, so that 
differences in resistance observed in the field depend perhaps 
upon differences in the amount of lignification or woodiness 
that develops in the roots with maturity, or some other such 
factor. Of the other commonly grown cereals, barley is 
fairly susceptible, and it is dangerous to grow wheat after 
barley, or barley after wheat if there has been any sign of 
Take-all in the first crop. Rye is considerably less susceptible, 
and oats still less so. In Australia, oats are considered to be 
practically immune, and they can be sown with safety 
following a diseased wheat crop. Under the wetter conditions 
in England, however, especially in the west, there have been 
a number of instances of oats having been affected by the 
disease. 

Many grasses are susceptible, and Kirby® has listed nearly 
100 species that became diseased in greenhouse tests. Some 
species are so susceptible that affected plants bleach white in 
summer, have blackened stem-bases and develop spore-cases 
of the fungus, in a similar manner to wheat. On others, 
the fungus maintains itself in the mat of roots without causing 
appreciable harm to the grass, as was mentioned above. 
Some others appear to be immune. Fortunately, most of the 
rye-grasses {Lolium spp.) appear to be very resistant under 
field conditions. Practical advantage is taken of this on some 
farms in Australia. The prevalent wild grass in certain 
districts there is barley grass {Hordeutn tnurinum), which is 
veiy susceptible to Take-all. In these districts it is always 
dangerous to plough up a grass field and sow to wheat after 
too short an interval. A little of the Australian rye-grass 
known as Wimmera Rye Grass is put in with the wheat. 

239 



Whiteheads or Take-all in Wheat 


This seeds under the wheat crop and produces a fairly good 
rye-grass pasture on the stubble the following year, largely 
keeping out the worthless and dangerous barley-grass. Farms 
that have adopted this practice have often been freer from 
Take-all than their neighbours. In England, however, it 
would be much more difficult to suppress a susceptible grass, 
such as black bent {Alopecurus agresUs), in a similar way, 
owing to its perennial rhizomes. More knowledge about the 
susceptibility of English grasses is still required. 

Influence of Weather. Finally, a few words should be 
said about the influence of weather, although unfortunately 
not nearly enough is known on this subject. In England, 
Take-all was more prevalent in 1935 than in 1936, and this 
must have been in some way connected with the weather. The 
suggestion has been made that the disease is worse after mild 
than after cold winters; and this seems reasonable, for the 
Take-all fungus is not able to grow so well under cold 
conditions as is the wheat plant. 

Kirby,® in America, considered that a warm, wet spring 
favoured Take-all, while Russell,^ in Canada, and Garrett,* 
in Australia, also considered that a wet spring favoured the 
disease. There is no doubt that the disease is worse under 
wet conditions. There are, however, several distinct questions 
involved that are apt to be confused because they overlap to 
some extent. One is the effect of weather on the dispersal 
of spores of the fungus; another is its effect on the survival 
of mycelium in the soil; while still another is its effect on the 
course and severity of the disease in plants already infected. 
A proper understanding of the climatic factor will not be 
obtained until each of these questions has been studied 
separately. 

Recommendations for Control. From the above it will 
be evident fliat the measure of primary importance in the 
control of Take-all is the elimination of the two sources of 
infection, namely, the mycelium left in the soil from a previous 
cereal or grass crop, and the spores developing on diseased 
stubble. If the disease has appeared in a crop, the following 
measures for future control should therefore be adopted : 

(i) Ploughing in the stubble as early as possible. This 
prevents it from being a source of infection to neighbouring 

240 



Whiteheads or Take-all in Wheat 


crops by means of wind-blown spores, and it also starts the 
process of decomposition of the fungus in the soil. 

(2) Rotation of crops. Wheat should preferably be 
followed by some non-cereal crop, such as sugar-beet, 
mustard, flax, turnips, beans, clover, etc. The Take-all 
fungus soon disappears from the soil under these crops, 
provided grasses are not allowed to grow in them. If it is 
desired to sow a grass with clover, rye-grass is probably the 
best to use; other grasses may favour the fungus. 

If it is particularly desired to grow a cereal crop again, 
oats is the safest, although this may also be affected under 
wet conditions. It is too dangerous to grow a further crop 
of wheat following one that has had the disease. When 
considering whether another crop of wheat or barley could 
be taken following a crop in which practically no disease could 
be seen, it should be remembered that the practice of early 
ploughing of the stubble, and late sowing of the following cereal 
crop, gives a longer period for decomposition of any slight 
amount of disease there may have been, and thus provides the 
safest conditions. The growing of successive croj)s of wheat or 
barley on light land must always be dangerous, however. Of 
the wheats, red wheats are safer than white wheats. 

(3) Manuring. On alkaline soils sulphate of ammonia 
should be used as a source of nitrogen in place of nitrate of 
soda or nitro-chalk, while superphosphate should be used 
liberally if required by the soil. 

(4) On light soils fallows should be kept well worked to 
destroy grasses and to make a firm seed-bed. 

REFERENCES 

^ Garrett, S. D. : Factors affecting the severity of Take-all: 111 . Jour. 
Agric. S. Australia, 1934, 97^^3* 

2 ; Soil conditions and the Take-all disease of wheat. Ann. Appl. 

Biol., 1936, 23 , 667-99. 

* Kirby, R. S. : The Take-all disease of cereals and grasses caused by 
Ophidbolus cariceti. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Mem. 88, 1925. 

* Russell, R. C. : Field studies of Take-all in Saskatchew’an. Scient. 
Agric., 1930, 10, 654-66. 

* Samuel, G., and Garrett, S. D. : Ascospore discharge in Ophiobolus 
graminis and its probable relation to the development of whiteheads in 
wheat. Phytopath., i933i ^ 3 , 721-28. 


241 



A POISON BAIT FOR SLUGS 

C. T. Gimingham, O.B.E., B.Sc., F.I.C., 

Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. 
and 

H. C. F. Newton, B.Sc., A.R.C.S., 

Harper Adams Agricultural College. 

In the course of the past year, several letters have appeared 
in the horticultural Press* stating that good results have been 
obtained by the use of a new type of poison bait for destroying 
slugs and snails. This consists of a mixture of bran and 
“ Meta,” a solid fuel sold for heating small domestic 
appliances and for similar purposes. It is known that the 
chief constituent of “Meta ” fuel is the compound metalde- 
hyde,t a pol3mierized form of acetaldehyde. 

Slugs and snails are among the most troublesome pests on 
farms and in gardens and greenhouses alike ; they are 
notoriously difficult to control, and though a poison bait 
containing the arsenical compound, Paris green, has long been 
recommended, and in many instances has given good results, 
it has obvious disadvantages. It has therefore seemed 
desirable to give a brief account of some preliminary trials 
with bran baits containing “ Meta ” and metaldehyde, in 
order to draw attention to the possibilities of the method. 

The bait is prepared in the same manner as a Paris green 
bait. Sufficient water is added to the bran to make it moist 
without causing the flakes to stick together, the powdered 
" Meta ” or metaldehyde is added, and the whole very 
thoroughly mixed. The mixture may be made up diy, if 
preferred, and can be used without addition of water if the 
ground is moist. Various proportions have been tried. 
“ Meta ” is sold in the form of small sticks, each weighing 
about 4 grm., and a convenient amount to use on a small scale 
is one stick (4 grm.) to about i quart of bran. The ” Meta ” 
is easily ground to a fine powder : metaldehyde is obtainable 
as a fine crystalline powder. The bait may be broadcast, but 

♦ Gardening Illustrated, May 2, 1936, and Gardeners* Chronicle, Dec. 19, 
1936, Jan. 23 and 30, 1937. 

t Thorpe's Dictionary of Applied Chemistry, Supplement Vol. i, 1934, 
P* 7- 



A Poison Bait for Slugs 

is perhaps most effective if placed in little heaps about i ft. 
apart. 

The notes that follow give details of some trials with these 
baits. Counts were made of the numbers of slugs poisoned, 
but it should be emphasized that no particular significance 
can be attached to the comparative figures, since information 
was not available as to the total population of slugs in the 
area on which the baits were placed, nor is anything known 
as to the distance from which slugs may be attracted. It is 
probable that the variations in the numbers are due rather to 
differences in the slug populations than to real differences in 
the efficacy of the baits. The initial action of the poison 
seems to be rapid, but affected slugs may remain alive in an 
apparently moribund condition for some time. 

I. Harpenden. On plots of swedes and young wheat in 
garden. 

T. “ Meta ” : 4 grin, to i .J jiints of bran. 

2 Metaldehyde : 4 grni to l i pints of bran. 


Small heaps placed at intervals of about I 2 

in. between 

alternate rows 

of 

swedes and wheat 

on the 

evening of 

January 12. 


Slugs CoLLKCTm 





Wheat Plot 

Swede Plot 

' * 

Meta 

” Metaldehyde 

" Meta " 

Metaldehyde 

Jan J3 . . 

17 

20 


51 

Jan. 1.^.. 

I 2 

..14 

1 1 

^5 


2 ^ 

43 


06 


A few more were found on subsequent dates. 

Slugs were not very numerous on these plots and little 
noticeable damage had been done to the plants. Only two 
sj>ecies were represented, 64 i)er cent, of the total number 
being Agriolimax agrestis (Grey Field Slug) and 36 per cent. 
Anon hortensis (Garden Slug). 

II. Harpenden. Swede plot in garden. 

Small heaps placed as in I. on the evening of January 23; 
there was a slight frost at night. 

Slugs Collected 
Jan. 26 

Row I. Metaldehyde : 4 grm. to i.] pints of bran . . . . 28 

Row 2. ,, 2 .. . • • . 13 

III. Bournville. Private garden. 

Four small heaps of the two mixtures given below were 

343 



A Poison Bait for Slugs 


placed out and covered with tiles on the afternoon of 
February 4. 


Slugs Collected 
Feb. 5 

1. " Meta ” 4 gnn. to 2 pints of bran 253 

2. Metaldehyde : 3 „ „ „ 149 


The difference in the figures was largely accounted for by 
about 60 more slugs round one of the “ Meta ” heaps. The 
majority of the slugs here were Milax sp. (Keeled Slug), the 
figures being Milax sp. 79 per cent., Arion hortensis 20 per 
cent., and Agriolimax agrestis i per cent. 

The following night there was frost and no slugs were seen, 
but observations were continued by Mr. Wakeman, the owner 
of the garden, to whom the writers are much indebted, and 
by Feb. 22 totals of approximately 850 had been counted 
on Plot I and approximately 550 on Plot 2. Slugs continued 
to be caught on these heaps up to the time these notes were 
written (March 21). 

IV. Harper Adams Agricultural College Garden. On 
plot of cabbage damaged by slugs. 

la, Meta '' . . . . 4 grm. to 2 pints of bran. 

ih. „ .. .. 8 „ ,, „ 

2, Metaldehyde . . . . 4 ,, ,, 


The baits were put out on the night of February 4, arranged 
as below. 



244 





A Poison Bait for Slugs 


The area concerned was about 45 sq. yards, and each 
lot of bran-bait was scattered over about i sq. yard with a 
small covered heap in the centre. The figures in brackets 
show the numbers of poisoned slugs counted on each area on 
the following morning. They were mostly near the edges of 
the patches and very few were at the central heaps. The 
following night was frosty and no slugs were found, but the 
central covered heaps remained attractive and many more slugs 
were caught on each of the few warm nights that occurred 
during the following 6 weeks. Owing to the very wet condition 
of the ground, these were not regularly counted, but about 150 
were collected at about the middle of this period, and there 
were many on the heaps on March 21. No significant 
differences in the numbers were noted on the different areas. 
Here 80 per cent, of the slugs collected were Milax sp., and 
20 per cent. Arion hortensis. 

Subsequent further trials on these lines were unsuccessful 
owing to low temperatures and flooding. 

The figures quoted may serve to show the kind of results 
obtainable with these baits in the winter and under unfavour- 
able weather conditions. The chief catches were made on 
comparatively warm nights, and many instances are known 
to the writers where evidently much larger numbers (not 
counted) have been poisoned in private gardens during the 
warmer weather in the autumn, when slugs were more 
abundant and active. 

In a large-scale field experiment in April, over more than an 
acre, on which the “ Meta ''-bran bait was broadcast in the 
manner recommended for Paris Green bait, coxmts on 64 
separate sq. ft. areas across the middle of the field gave an 
estimated “ kill " of slugs of some 50,000 per acre, and of 
some 70,000 per acre from counts on 44 sq. ft. areas nearer 
the hedges. Similar figures were obtained on another 
smaller-scale field trial. 

The bait seems to be attractive to all the common and 
destructive species of slugs, and snails also are reported to 
take it readily. No evidence has, however, been obtained 
that other soil pests are affected. In a recent experiment, for 
example, " Meta "-bran bait was compared with Paris Green 
and bran on a field of wheat infested with leather jackets: 
on the area treated with Paris Green bait, numbers of dead 
leaffier jackets were found (a rough count indicated a figure 
in the neighbourhood of 100,000 per acre), whereas, on the 

245 



A Poison Bait for Slugs 

area to which the “ Meta ” bait was applied, the kill was 
negligible. ^ 

As will be seen from sortie 6f the figures given, the bait 
remains attractive to slugs for a considerable time if protected 
from heavy rain, and it is worth while arranging some simple 
form of covering. As far as the writers' observations go, 
wild bird's do not eat it, though on one occasion poultry did 
so, without harm resulting. “ Meta " and metaldehyde are, 
however, dangerous to the health of human beings if eaten, 
and it is essential to take all reasonable precautions in 
preparing the bait and using it. 

It has already been mentioned that no special significance 
can be attached to the figures given above for the numbers 
of slugs killed under different conditions, and they cannot 
be taken as indicating any real differences between the 
efficiency of the various strengths used. More detailed 
experiments on these points are required, and it is hoped that 
they will be undertaken; the object of the present note is 
merely to draw attention to this bait as a possible means of 
reducing the numbers of slugs. In the meantime, it is 
suggested that those who wish to try the method should make 
up the bait in the proportion of 4 grm. of the poison (one 
stick of “ Meta ”) to 2 pints (about 8 oz.) of bran. Judging 
by the results of the trials it is probable that pure metaldehyde 
and “ Meta ” are about equally efficient, but the former is 
at present considerably more expensive than “ Meta ”. 

Inquiries have been made as to the origin of the discovery 
that metaldehyde is attractive and poisonous to slugs and snails, 
since it seems likely to be of considerable importance. As 
far as can be ascertained, the suggestion came from South 
Africa, but the person to whom it was due has not at present 
been traced. 


246 



THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MEADOW HAY 

S. J. Watson and W. S. Ferguson, 

Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., 

Jealott’s Hill Research Station, Bracknell, Berks. 

The stock farmer rightly considers the hay crop to be one 
of the most important on the farm, and, given a good yield 
gathered under favourable weather conditions, he faces the 
winter months with a comfortable feeling that the greater part 
of the winter food of the stock has been safely put by. 

Unfortunately, the hay crop is extremely variable as regards 
feeding value, and too few farmers take the trouble to obtain 
some analysis of the material so as to be able to feed it in the 
most economical way. In “ Rations for Livestock 
meadow hays are classified as poor, good and very good, and 
we have felt that a farmer often calls his average hay a good 
sample in rather an optimistic way. The chief discrepancy is 
to be found in the protein content, and the low value for this 
constituent in average hay is a shortcoming that is not often 
realized. Knox and Prowsc*, at Wye, examined a large 
number of hay samples, and it is of interest to reproduce two 
extracts from their paper, the first of which they give in 
italics : — 

** It has become increasingly apparent that this assignation of samples 
of hay to arbitrary standards, having only one analytical interpretation, 
is not entirely satisfactory.'’ 

“ An important feature of the results (of their senes of analyses of 
samples of hay) is the generally low protein content. Of the thirty-one 
samples, only five had a protein content approximating that given for 
‘ good * meadow hay in the published figures (9*7 per cent.)." 

The average crude protein content of the samples was 818 
per cent, and the fibre was 28 27 per cent. 

We have also noticed this as a result of our examination of 
a large number of samples, and in an earlier publication® 
reference was made to a series of samples of hay that gave crude 
protein contents varying from 6 54 to 8-31 per cent, of the dry 
matter. These were all made under carefully-controlled 
conditions in good weatiier from grass in full flower, in mid- 
June, the stage at which hay is most frequently cut. 

* References arc given on p. 260. 


347 



The Nutritive Value of Meadow Hay 


To clinch the question, various samples of hay were collected 
from as many counties as possible during the winter of 1935. 
They were to be selected as t3qjical of average hay made in feat 
district in 1935, and a questionnaire was issued to obtain fee 
farmer's opinion of the hay and particulars of fee crop, its 
stage of maturity and fee weather conditions during hay- 
making. These have been summarized in Table i for fee 
twenly-two samples collected, all of which were harvested 
during the period from late June to mid-July, varying wife 
fee district. In eleven instances the dates of cutting and 
carting were given accurately, and the average time fee hay, 
was " out ” was 7 days, with a range of 3 to 15 da57s. In only 
two instances was rain reported during the ha3unaking period, 
and fee weather conditions were, generally speaking, favour- 
able for haymaking. Several of the farmers cut fee grass when 
it was in full flower, at a stage variously called by fee farmers 
mature, ripe, or fully ripe. Seven were cut at this stage, five 
earlier than this at the early flowering stage, and five were over- 
ripe. Of fee remaining five, the two from Lancashire were 
specially selected for us by Mr. R. Stewart, Advisory Chemist, 
Manchester University, as typical of average and good hays 
for fee district. 

The samples were obtained from fifteen counties, and, wife 
two exceptions, they were made from permanent grziss land. 

The farmers’ opinions are interesting. Out of 21 samples, 
five were described as very good, nine as good, four as fairly 
good, one as average, and two as fair — ^i.e., in fee fanners’ 
opinion, the average quality of the twenty-two samples was 
good. 

Chemical Composition. The chemical composition of fee 
hays is given in Table 2. There is no correlation between fee 
stage of growth of the crop when cut and any particular 
constituent, but this is not very surprising. Of fee four hays 
described as over-ripe or over-grown, numbers 7, 9, 13 and 16, 
two had crude protein contents above fee average, and one had 
a crude fibre content below fee average. 

The fat or ether extract contents vary from 1-09 to 2 22 per 
cent., and, in general, a high fat content is associated wife a 
low crude fibre content and vice versa. 

The crude fibre contents vary between 30 and 36 per cent, 
with the exception of hay No. 10, which contained about 41 
per cent, of this constituent, 

248 



The Nutritive Value or Meadow Hay 

TABLE I 

Particulars of Hay Samples Collected in 1935 




The Notritive Valde of Meadow Hay 


TABLE II 

Chemical Composition of Hay Samples 
(Stated as percentages of the Dry Matter) 


No. 

X 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

Average 

Ether extract . . 

1-55 

1'38 

1 77 

.•59 

x*8o 

1 77 

1*86 

1*96 

2-99 

1 16 

2*10 


Crude fibre 

.'14 -54 

35-57 

32 77 

32-38 

35-57 

3b 25 

.34 47 

30 oO 

32 25 

40 9b 

30*82 


Crude protein . . 

10' X4 

11 69 

10*49 

5-92 

8*52 

8 49 

8* 19 

9 7b 

8 95 

.V59 

10 76 

1 

Ash 

7*02 

10*00 

7-47 

7 28 

7*56 

7*1H 

b*94 

8 21 

7-39 

5 51 

7 76 

N-fiw 

extractives 

46 

4136 

47 50 

52*83 

46*55 

4b 31 

48 54 

49*81 

50 42 

46 78 

48*56 

1 

3 

8 

1 ' 

Organic matter 

92 '98 

90*00 

92 53 

92 72 

92*44 

92*82 

93 '06 

91*79 

92 61 

94 49 

92*24 

True protein .. 

8*23 

io*6o 

8*95 

5*52 

7*68 

7 40 

7 37 

8*20 

7*71 

5-24 

9 42 j 

Drjr matter in 
original material 

[ 

8i*8o 

! 83*80 

84*30 

1 

85*70 

84*00 

83*80 

85*80 

85-50 

1 

86*30 

' 84 70 

83*60 



No. 

” ! 

13 

24 

15 

16 

i 

ih 

19 

20 

21 

22 

Average 

Ether extract . . 

2-75 ' 

I 09 

209 

2 22 

1*78 

1*64 , 

1 85 

2 18 

I *76 

1 bs 

J 64 

I 75 

Crude fibre 

1 

32*03 

34-61 

33 92 

31-13 

35 46 

.34 32 

31 10 

30-98 

.34 71 

35 64 

34 34 

.33-78 

Crude protein . . 

9-27 1 

4 81 

9 96 

12 90 

9 07 

7 51 

7-82 

9-07 

10 26 

b 40 

10*79 

8 92 

Ash .. 

8 38 ' 

5 62 

7 22 

8 68 

8 28 

8 57 

8 

7 59 

8 J9 

6 75 

(>•48 

7 58 

N-frre 

extractives 

i 

48-67 

53-87 

1 

1 46 8a 

45 07 

' 45 ti 

47-96 , 

.50 57 

50 18 1 

1 44 78 

49 56 

46 75 

47 96 

Organic matter 

92*62 i 

94-38 

I 92 78 

91 32 

1 92 72 

91-43 ' 

91 04 

92 41 , 

j 9» 51 

93 25 

93 52 

92-42 

True protein . 

8 04 1 

4 38 

' 6 76 

ll*o6 

7-83 

b-37 , 

6 98 

8 35 1 

1 

1 9 63 

5 88 

9-96 

7 92 

Dry matter in 
onpnal material 

1 

83 «o I 83 80 

84*80 

82 80 

85 10 

84*30 1 

84 80 

89*90 ! 

80 40 

80 80 

84 60 

84 30 


There is a wide variation in the crude and true protein 
contents— the ranges being 4-81 to iz-go per cent, and 4 38 to 
ii'06 per cent, respectively. The hays Nos. 4, 10 and 13 gave 
crude protein contents below 6 per cent. 

It is generally accepted that an inverse correlation exists 
lietween the crude protein and fibre contents of fresh herbage, 
and, to a less extent, hays,, but ttiis is not evident in the present 
series of analyses. The hays examined, however, were, with 
few exceptions, low in crude protein, and it is probable that 
had some of the hays been cut earlier with a higher protein 
content, the correlation would have held good. 

Smaller differences are seen in the ash contents, but ha3rs 
Nos. 10 and 13 are again noticeable in their low content of this 
constituent. The N-free extractives or soluble carbohydrates, , 
being, calculated values, naturally show differences depending, 
on the amounts of the other constituents present. The values 
vary from 4136 to 53 87 per cent. The values for the dry 

950 






The Nutritive Value of Meadow Hay 


matter contents of the hays do not present a true idea of the 
material leaving the stack, since changes would have occurred 
during the periods of transit to Jealott’s Hill. 

A comparison of the average compositions of the hays with 
those published in “ Rations for Livestock ” is given in Table 
3, all the values being based on a moisture content of 15 per 
cent. 

TABLE 111 

Chemical Composition of Hays as Compared with 
Standard Values 

(Stated as percentage of hay containing 15 per cent, moisiun) 

As published in 
*' Rations for Livestock " 


Ether extract 

Present 

Investigation 

Poor 

Good 

Very Good 

1*49 

I *49 

2*48 

304 

Crude fibre . . 

28*71 

33-23 

26 08 

19*53 

Crude protein 

7-58 

7-43 

9 62 

13*66 

Ash . . 

6-44 

4 96 

6*15 

7*79 

N-free extractives . . 

40-78 

37-89 

40-67 

40*98 


According to these figures, if the crude protein content is used 
as a basis for comparison, the average quality of the hay would 
be poor. The low fibre content and high content of ash and 
N-free extractives, however, suggest that the value should be 
intermediate between poor and good. From the composition 
data, therefore, it would seem that the farmers had slightly 
over-estimated the values of the hays. 

Digestibility. The digestibility of the hays was determined 
by using sheep as the experimental animals, and the digesti- 
bility coefficients are given in Table 4. 

Some wide variations are seen in the digestibility coefficients 
of the ether extract or fat, the range being from 27 to 59 per 
cent. In the fibre, the values fluctuate less, and whilst the 
values are fairly high, there appears to be no inverse correla- 
tion betwen the crude fibre content and the digestibility 
coefficients, as might have been expected. For example, the 
digestibility of the fibre of hay No. lo, which from the chemical 
analysis would have been classed as a very mature hay owing 
to its high fibre content of nearly 41 per cent. , is slightly higher 
than that of hays Nos. 18 and 19, which have low fibre 
contents. 

The digestibiUty coefficients of the crude protein show some 
striking differences. The extremely low figure of 37 per cent, 
digestibility is given by hay No. 13, which contained only 4 8 per 
cent, of crude protein. Also hay No. 10, containing only 5 59 

25J 



The Nutritive Value of Meadow Hay 

TABLE IV 

Digestibility Coefficients of Hay Samples 


No. 

I 

2 

3 

♦ 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

II 

Average 

Ether extract . , 

50 00 

27-89 

51-40 

56-90 

37-93 

48-98 

44-45 

44-37 

50-64 

46-59 

52-30 


Fibre . . 

6.0, 

61-29 

64 47 

67 60 

54-27 

62 67 

55-82 

61-87 

66-41 

60-99 

64-73 


Crude protein . 

41-30 

50 11 

49 92 

37-20 

38-39 

41-62 

38-13 

48-86 

51-80 

7-98 

51-46 

1 

True protein . 

38 18 

1 

49-88 

47 70 

1 31 70 1 

34-69 

1 35-99 ! 

0 

OO 

42-54 

47-91 

11-22 

49 29 


N*frec 




1 








1 

extractives 

55-30 

5 *! 90 

59-12 

! 68-20 

59*90 

57-86 

51-76 

63 89 

65-95 

57-12 

63-65 

0 

Organic matter 

55-87 

55 47 

59 85 

1 , 

65-50 

55*31 

58-09 

51-92 

1 61 -20 

64-41 

55-75 

62-33 

1 

Dry matter 

54-79 

54-32 

58-63 

1 

63-30 

1 53-40 

56 10 

50-88 

1 59 83 

62-62 

54-01 

61 35 



No. 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 i 

20 

21 

22 

. 

Average 

Ether extract . . 

53*78 

53-33 

51-88 

59 39 

54 41 

50-40 

48-23 

44-89 1 

55-12 

41-67 

40-80 

48-43 

Fibre . . 

64*97 

63 41 

64-10 

65-65 

68-90 

63-03 

59-84 

59 59 i 

61-04 

62-60 

59*86 

62-46 

Crude protein 

54-09 

3-75 

48 83 

57- 65 

49-78 

40-18 

42 04 

37-61 i 

50-54 

30 65 

53-72 

42-07 

True protein .. 

50-74 

3-03 1 

49-33 j 

56 92 

50-17 

37-81 

38-65 

! 36-84 ^ 

49-43 

29-24 

54-62 

1 40 03 

N-free 




1 



1 

' 





extractives 

64*24 

65*29 

57 51 i 

59-87 

62-75 

1 60-47 ; 

1 61-65 

j 

61-58 , 

5398 

59-36 

54-13 

1 59-84 

Organic matter | 

63-29 

61-35 1 

58-86 

61-51 1 

63 67 j 

j 59*58 1 

, 59-09 

58-17 

56-30 1 

1 58 30 i 

' 55-95 

I 59-17 

Dry matter .. 

61-86 

59*30 

57-11 

59-66 1 

61-87 

j 57-42 

57*36 

55-S8 1 

55*45 

: 56*59 

55*15 

1 

! 57-56 


per cent, crude protein, gave a value of about 8 per cent. The 
remaining values varied between 306 and jyb per cent., and 
there is a distinct tendency for the digestibility to increase with 
increase of the crude protein content. The digestibility of the 
true protein follows closely that of the crude protein. 

The digestibility coefficients of the N-free extractives, 
organic matter and dry matter show minor fluctuations, and 
generally speaking, the values are somewhat lower than those 
given by the fibre. 

Digestible Nutrients. The digestible nutrient contents of 
the hays, calculated from the data in Tables 2 and 4, are given 
in Table 5. Those of the various ha5rs show some rather wide 
differences, and the greatest fluctuations are seen in the 
contents of digestible true protein. 

The nutritive value of the ha}^ is judged on their starch and 
protein equivalent contents, and here considerable variations 
are to be seen. No relationship seems to exist between these 
two series of values, and in some samples high starch 
equivalent contents are accompanied by high protein 
equivalent contents, whilst in others the reverse holds. No 
252 





The Nutritive Value of Meadow Hay 


TABLE V 

Digestible Nutrient Contents of Hay Samples 


No. 


2 

3 

4 

T 

B 


8 

9 

— 

IX 

Average 

Ether extract . . 

0-78 

0-38 

0-91 

01 

0*90 

I DRY 

0-68 

MAra 

0-87 

R BAS 
0-83 

IS 

0-87 

l-OX 

0-54 

X-IO 


Fibre . . 

2X*10 

21 *80 

ax-13 

21-89 

19-30 

22-72 

19-24 

x8-6o 

20-75 

24-98 

29-95 


Crude protein . . 

4* 19 

5-86 

5-24 

2*20 

3-27 

3-53 

3-12 

4-77 

4-64 

0-45 

5*54 


True protein .. 

3-14 

5-29 

4-27 

1-75 

2-66 

2-66 

2-56 

3-49 

3-69 

0-58 

4-64 


N-free 

extractives 

25-85 

21 <88 

28 08 

36-03 

27-88 

26-79 

25-12 

31-82 

33-25 

26*72 

30-91 

1 

Organic matter 

51-95 

49-92 

55-38 

60-73 

' 5X‘i3 ^ 

53-92 

48-32 

56-05 1 

59-65 

52-68 

57-49 

I 

Starch 

equivalent 

31-36 

28 75 

35-95 i 

42-50 : 

30-40 1 32 64 

28 37 

38 00 

41-30 

29-50 

39-40 

8 

Protein j 

equivalent I 

3-67 1 

5 58 ' 

4-76 

i 

1.98 

2 97 

J..0 

2-84 , 

4-13 

4-16 

0-52 

5-09 1 

Starch 

equivalent i 

26-70 

1 

24-40 , 

ON FRESH lUY BASIS (ASSUMING 15% MOISTURE) 

30-60 36-10 1 25-80 1 27-70 1 24*10 1 32-30 ' 35-10 i 25-10 

33-50 


Protem 

equivalent | 

3 12 

4-74 1 

4-05 

x-68 

2-52 

2-64 

a 41 

3-51 

3-54 

0-44 

4-33 



No. 

i » 

13 

24 

1 

! 

I 

. 17 

1 x8 

1 *9 

1 

1 20 

21 

22 

Average 





' ' 1 

ON DRY MATTER 

BASIS 

j 



j 


Ether extract . . 

0-94 

0 58 

X 08 

1 32 

0-97 

0 83 ) 0-89 

0 98 

0-97 

0-69 

0 67 

0-85 

Fibre . . 

20-81 

21-95 

31-74 

20-44 

24-43 

21-63 

18-79 

28-46 

21-19 

22-31 

20*56 

2X'08 

Crude protein . . 

4-96 

o-x8 

4-86 

7-44 

4-52 

3. 02 

3-29 

j 3-42 

5-19 

1-96 

5-80 

3-97 

True protein . . 

4-08 

0-13 

4-32 

6-30 

3-93 

2*60 

2-70 

1 308 

4-76 

1-72 

3*44 

3*35 

N-free 

extractives 

31-27 

35-17 

26 93 

26-98 

28-49 

29-00 

31-18 

j 30 90 

24-17 

29 -42 

25*32 

28-78 

Organic matter 

57-99 

37-90 

54-61 

1 

56-17 

58-40 

54-47 

54-15 

j 53-75 

51-52 

54*36 

52-32 

54*68 

Starch 

equivalent 

39-23 

38-2S i 

35«a 

37-80 

37.90 

34-80 

36-00 

36-27 j 

! 

31-60 

34-00 

32 34 

35*10 

Protein 

equivalent j 

4-32 

1 1 

t 

o-x6 

4-59 

687 

1 

4-^3 

2-8x 

3. 00 

i 

4-98 

1-84 

5-62 

3-66 

Starch 

equivalent 


ON FRESH HAY BASIS 

(ASSUMING 1 

5% MOISTURE) 




33-30 

32-50 

29 90 

32X 

32-20 

1 

29-60 j 30-60 

30-70 

26-90 

28-90 

27*30 

29-80 

Protein 

equivalent 

3 84 

0-.4 

3 90 

5-84 

3-60 

2-39 

a-55 

2 76 ! 

1 

4-23 

1-56 

1 

4*78 

3*12 


correlation can be found between the starch equivalent values 
and the state of the crop. For example, the two hays giving 
the highest starch equivalent values were described as “ fairly 
mature " and " over-ripe ”, whilst the two hays giving the 
lowest values were described as ” mature ” and ” over-ripe 


253 




The Nutritive Value of Meadow Hay 


The starch equivalent values have been calculated according 
to Kellner's* method, and a deduction of 0-58 starch equivalent 
has been made for each per cent, of crude fibre, in preference 
to the use of a " value number In " Rations for 
Livestock ” it is considered that the starch equivalents of hays 
calculated by this method are too low, and in the published 
Tables the values have been increased by one-fifth. This has 
been done with the average value for the hay examined here, 
and the value is given in Table 6, together with the digestible 
nutrient content of the hay and the figures quoted in “ Rations 
for Livestock ” and Kellner's " Scientific Feeding of 
Animals.” 

TABLE VI 

Digestible Nutrient Content of Hays 


[Stated as percentage of hay containing 15 per cent, moisture) 




“ Rations 


" Kellner " 


Hay—^ 

for Livestock ** 



Very 


Present 

Poor 

Good 

Poor 

Good 

Good 

Investigation 

Hay 

Hay 

Hay 

Hay 

Hay 

Dige.stible ether extract . . 

0*7 

0*5 

1*0 

05 

1*0 

1*3 

Digestible crude protein . . 

3*4 

3*4 

5*4 

3*4 

5*4 

7*4 

Digestible true protein 

2*8 

2*5 

3*8 

2*5 

3*8 

5*0 

Digestible fibre 

17*9 

15*5 

14*9 

15*5 

14*9 

13*8 

Digestible N-free extractive.s 

24*5 

19- 1 

25*5 

19*1 

25*5 

27*9 

Starch equivalent . . 

35*8* 

2 I * 8 » 

36 - 7 * 

i 8*9 

31-0 

36*2 

Protein equivalent 

3*1 

2*9 

4-6 

3*0 

4-6 

6*2 


* Starch equivalents, as calculated by Kellner's method, increased by one-fifth. 

The figures given for the digestible nutrients in ‘‘ Rations 
for Livestock ” are the same as those quoted by Kellner, and 
it is only in the starch equivalent values that differences 
are seen. 

Under the conditions obtaining in 1935, the average quality 
of the twenty-two samples of hay was good when file starch 
equivalent content alone is considered, but the protein 
equivalent content is about the same as the poor quality hay. 
It was expected that the hay would be above average quality, 
but it apparently was not if the description good is synonymous 
with average. 

The results are disappointingly low, since owing to the 
generally favourable weather conditions, the losses of 
digestible nutrients during drying in the field were probably 
relatively small. 

If the investigation had been continued in a year, such 
as 1936, when the weather conditions were inclement, the 
nutritive value of the hays would undoubtedly have been still 
lower. 

254 



Tite Nutritive Value of Meadow Hay 

Considering the starch equivalent contents of the individual 
ha3^, eight lie about half-way between the poor and good 
class, twelve are in the good class and two could be called 
very good. 

On the protein equivalent contents, eleven hays are poor 
(four of these might be classed as very poor), six lie inter- 
mediate between poor and good, and only five are good. 

It is of interest to compare the farmers' estimates of the 
values of their hays with those of the approximate averages 
of the values based on the starch and protein equivdent 
contents. This has been done in Table 7, for 21 estimates, 
and the rough approximations show that only one farmer 
under-estimated the value of his hay, nine over-estimated and 
eleven gave fairly correct judgments. 

TABLE VII 


Quality of the Individual Hays 


No. 

1 Farmers’ 

1 Estimate 

1 

Quality Based On 

Remarks 

Starch 

Equivalent 

Protein 

Equivalent 

I 

G. 

F.G. 

P. 

1 Over-estimated. 

2 

i G. 

F.G. 

G. 

1 Correct estimate. 

3 

1 V.G. 

G. 

F.G. 

Over-estimated. 

4 

1 F.G. 

V.G. 

V.P. 

i Correct estimate. 

5 

' F. 

F.G. 

P. 

r * >1 

Over-estimated . 

6 

1 G. 

F.G. 

P. 

7 

G. 

F.G. 

P. 


« 

G. 

G. 

F.G. 

Correct estimate. 

9 

G. 

V.G. 

F.G. 

»» f« 

10 

V.G. 

F.G. 

V.P. 

Over-estimated. 

II 

1 P- i 

G. 

G. 

! Under-e.stimated. 


F.G ; 

G. 

V.P. 

1 Correct estimate. 

14 

1 A. ! 

G. 

F.G. 

i »• >> 

15 

1 1 

G. ; 

G. 


16 

! F.G. ! 

G. 

F.G. 

Over-estimated. 

17 

■ V.G. ' 

G. 

P. 

18 .. 

1 V.G. 

G. 

F. 

if §9 

ig 

1 V.G. 

G. 

F. 1 

• 9 

20 

G. 

F.G. 

G. 

Correct estimate. 

21 

F.G. 

G. 1 

V.P. 

Over-estimated. 

22 

1 I 

F.G. 

G. 

1 

Correct estimate. 

V.P. = 

Very poor. P. 

r= Poor. F. 

— Fair. F.G. = Fairly good. I 


A. — Average. 

G. = Good. V.G. *= Very good. 


It is evident that the farmers’ opinion can be inisleading, 
and that some more accurate estimate of the nutritive value 

«55 




Tte Nutritive Value of Meadow Hay 

of the hay should be made if it is to be used to the greatest 
advantage. Unfortunately, the experimental determination 
of digestibility is a somewhat costly and lengthy business, 
and could not economically be adopted to meet general 
requirements. In consequence, attempts have been made to 
determine the approximate feeding value of hays from their 
chemical composition. One of the authors* has published 
curves whereby the protein and starch equivalents of leafy 
types of ha}^ can be calculated from their crude protein 
contents. The protein equivalent values can be determined 
thus with some accuracy, but fairly large errors may arise 
in the calculation of the starch equivalents. The curves 
quoted, when applied to the hays in the present investigation, 
give rise to some quite large discrepancies, probably owing 
to the different nature of the hays in the two series. It was 
decided, therefore, to modify &e curves, using tiie values 
obtained on the twenty-two samples examined here, which 
^ould represent approximately the average types of ha5rs 
produced in this country. 

A search was made to see if any constituent or mixture of 
constituents of the hay was correlated with the starch 
equivalent value’ and it was found that if the starch equivalent 
was plotted against the sum of 2 parts of crude fibre and i part 
of crude protein, a fairly straight line resulted. 

The linear regression equations were therefore calculated 
for starch equivalent (S) on this sum (x) of 2 parts crude fibre 
and I part of crude protein, and also for flie protein equivalent 
(P) on the crude protein (y) . The equations are as follows : — 

Starch equivalent (S) = 87*645 ~ o-SSy^x. 

Protein equivalent (P) = o*7844>^ ■— 3*331. 

It is perhaps advisable to illustrate the method of using the 
equations. As an example, a hay may be taken with 15 per 
cent, of moisture containing 2871 per cent, of fibre and 7-58 
per cent, of crude protein. These must first be calculated to 
a dry matter basis, e.g. 3378 per cent, fibre and 892 per 
cent, crude protein in the diy matter. 

To calculate the starch equivalent, multiply the fibre 
content by two (33 78 x 2 = 67-56) and add the crude protein 
(8-92), which gives a value of 76-48. This is then substituted 
in the equation; — 

S = 87*645 — o*6875X. 

=• 87*645 - 0*6875 (76’48). 

= 35 - 06 * 

256 



The Nutritive Value of Meadow Hay 


To calculate the protein equivalent substitute 8 92 in tiie 
second equation: — 

p = 0-78443/ - 3-331. 

= 0-7844 (8-92) - 3-331. 

• 3-67- 

The starch equivalent is 35 06 lb. of dry matter, and the 
protein equivalent is 367 per cent. These must now be 
corrected for the 15 per cent, of moisture in the hay which, 
therefore, contains 29-8 lb. starch equivalent per 100 lb. and 
3'i2 per cent, of protein equivalent in the hay as it is fed. (It 
is essential to calculate the values to a dry matter basis before 
substituting in the equations.) 

In Table 8 a comparison is made between the starch and 
protein equivalent values of the hays as determined by 
experiment and as calculated from the equations given above. 


TABLE VIII 

Starch and Protein Equivalent Values as Determined by 
Experiment and as Calculated from Equations 


Hay 

No. 

Kellner Starch Equivalent 

Protein Equivalent 

Determined 

Calculated 

Difierence | Determined 

Calculated 

I 

8 


(«) 

w 

(a)- 

-(*) 

(a) 

w 

(a)-(6) 

I 


33*1 

— • 

1*7 

3-67 

4-62 

- 0*95 

2 

28*8 

30*7 


1*9 

5-58 

5-84 

— 0*26 

3 

36-0 

35*3 

4 * 

0-7 

4-76 

4-90 

- 0-14 

4 

425 

39*0 

+ 

3*5 

1*98 

1*31 

+ 0-67 

5 

30*4 

32-8 



2*4 

2*97 

3*35 

— 0-38 

6 

32'b 

31*9 

+ 

0‘7 

3*10 

3*33 

— 0*23 

7 

28-4 

34*6 


6-2 

2*84 

3*09 

— 0*25 

8 

38*0 

39.6 

— 

1*6 

4*13 

4*33 

— 0‘20 

9 

41-3 

38*5 

-f 

2-8 

4-x6 

3-69 

+ 0-47 

10 

29-5 

274 


2'I 

0*52 

1-05 

- 0-53 

XX 

39*4 

37'8 

+ 

x*6 

509 

5*11 

— 0-02 

X 2 

39-1 

37*3 

-h 

x-8 

4*52 

3*86 

+ 0*66 

13 

38-3 

36*7 


1-6 

o* 16 

0-44 

— 0*28 

14 

35*1 

34 - 1 


1*0 

4*59 

4-48 

4- o*xx 

15 

37-8 

35*9 

-h 

1*9 

6*87 

6-79 

4“ o*o8 

x6 

37-9 

32*6 

4 - 

5*3 

4*23 

3-78 

-h 0*45 

17 

34-8 

35*2 

— 

0*4 

2»8i 

2 - 5 <> 

+ 0*25 

x8 

36*0 

39*0 

— 

3*0 

3*00 

2*80 

4-0*20 

X 9 

I 36*2 

38-8 

— 

2-6 

3*25 

3*78 

- 0*53 

20 

31-6 

32*8 

— 

1*2 

4*98 

4*72 1 

-f- 0*26 

2X 

34*0 

34*2 

— 

0*2 

I ‘84 

1*79 

4 - 0*05 

22 

32*3 

1 33*0 

— 

0-7 

5 ’62 

5*13 ! 

4 - 0*49 


Standan 

i Error 

2*62 

— 

- 1 0.43 


257 






The Nutritive Value of Meadow Hay 


It will be seen that generally there is very good agreement 
between the determined and calculated values. In the starch 
equivalent values only two hays, Nos. 7 and 16, show any 
relatively large differences, but even errors of such magnitude 
are not likely to be serious in ordinary fe.eding practice. 

The equations given will not find general application. They 
are applicable only to meadow hay, and will not be suitable 
for “ seeds ” hays or for material of high crude protein 
content cut at an early stage of growth. For meadow hay 
as usually cut on the farm, i.e. at an advanced stage of growth, 
the use of these equations will give values for starch equivalent 
and protein equivalent which are a closer approximation to 
their true feeding value than is ever possible by visual 
examination. 

This can be tested by applying the equations to the data 
given by Kellner* for different types of hay and based on a 
large number of digestibility trials and covering widely 
differing conditions. There are five types of hay quoted by 
Kellner, and the starch equivalent and protein equivalent 
values given below are contrasted with the values calculated 
by using the equations. 


Table IX 

The Calculated and Determined Values for Starch EguiVALENT 
AND Protein Equivalent of Hays examined by Kellner 

{Stated as percentages of the Dry Matter) 


Quality 

Crude 

Crude 

Starch Equivalent 

Protein Equivalent 

of Hay 

1 _ 

Protein 

Fibre 

Deternuned 

Calculated 

Difiorence 

Detenniiied 

Calculated 

Difference 

Poor . . 

8 - 7.1 

39 f >9 

(«) 

22 05 

(fc) 

27 88 

(a)-(ft) 

- 5*83 

(«) 

3 44 

m 

3-53 

(a)--(6) 

- 0 09 

Mrflium 

10-73 

34 07 

27 61 

33 42 

~ 5*77 

4 51 

5’ 08 

- 0 53 

Good 

n 32 

30 6q 

36 17 

37 

- 2 49 

5 36 

5 55 

- 0 19 

Very jjood 

13-76 

21 7 b 

43 19 

42 76 

- 0 17 

7 29 

7 46 

- 0-17 

Excellent 

16 07 

2 .- 

48 33 

4500 

+ 3'33 

9 34 

9 27 

+ 007 


The agreement between the calculated and the determined 
values is fairly close, particularly the protein equivalent. It 
is clear that the equations developed fit the standard values 
of Kellner, even for hays of high protein content, and since 
these values are usually accepted, the calculation of starch 
equivalent and protein equivalent values from the crude 
protein and fibre values is possible. The series of hays made 

258 




The NuTRiTivE Value of Meadow Hay 


at Jealott’s Hill and described elsewhere® have not been 
included in calculating the equations, since they were all made 
in Berkshire, and it was considered more desirable not to use 
them, as they would have given too heavy a local bias. There 
were ten samples, ranging in crude protein content from 6 to 
10 per cent, of the dry matter, and the determined values were 
higher by 2 80 lb. of starch equivalent than the calculated 
values (range - 2 42 to + 7 67) and 0 65 per cent, of protein 
equivalent (range + 007 to + i'27). The agreement is fair, 
but one or two values showed wide discrepancies. Five 
samples of early-cut hay, varying in protein content from 10 0 
to 15-5, showed an average determined value for starch 
equivalent which was 7 99 lb. higher than the calculated value, 
but the protein equivalent was only o 29 per cent, higher in 
the determined values. This last-named series shows the 
poorest agreement, but this was to be expected as the material 
was leafy and low’ in fibre, and made under excellent 
conditions. 

The use of the equations will give a fair idea of the nutritive 
value of a sample of hay, though they would have been more 
satisfactory if they could have included some values for hay 
made under really poor weather conditions. 


Summary. Twenty-two samples of hays, collected from 
fifteen counties in Great Britain, have been examined for 
chemical composition and nutritive value. 

All the hays were harvested in 1935, when the weather 
conditions were almost universally favourable for hay- 
making. 

The content of crude protein in the hays was low, varying 
from 4-81 to 12-90 per cent. , average 8 92 per cent, of the dry 
matter, and of all the constituents the cnide and tnie protein 
had the lowest digestibility. 

Based on the starch equivalent values, only two samples 
could be classed as very good, twelve as good, and eight inter- 
mediate between good and poor. On protein equivalent 
content, only five could be classed as good, six intermediate 
between good and poor, and eleven as poor. 

Equations are given whereby the protein equivalent value 
can be calculated from the crude protein content, and the 
starch equivalent calculated from the sum of 2 parts of fibre 
and I part of crude protein. 


259 



The Nutritive Value of Meadow Hay 

Acknowledgments. — ^We arc indebted to Messrs. E. A. Horton and 
O. Neave for assistance with the analytical work, and to many others, 
too numerous to mention, who were kind enough to obtain samples of 
hay for us and collect the relevant details. We thank Imperial Chemical 
Industries, Ltd., for permission to publish this paper. 

REFERENCES. 

(1) Rations for Livestock : Bull. No. 48, Min. of Agric. & Fisheries. 

(2) Knox, M. A., and Prowse, I. B. : jT. S.£. Agric, Coll., Wye, 1934, 
No. 34. 

(3) Watson, S. J., and Horton, E. A. : J. Agric. Sci., 1936, 26, 142. 

(4) Kellner : Scientific Feeding of Animals, London, Duckworth, 1915. 


260 



MARKETING NOTES 


Milk Marketing Scheme. Pool prices and rates of 
producer-retailers’ contributions for April, 1937, are given 
below, with comparative figures for March, 1937, and April, 
1936. The monthly wholesale liquid milk price was is. ^d. 
per gal., a reduction of id. per gal. on that for the previous 
month, and the same as in April, 1936, 

Region Pool Prices Producer -Retailers* 

Contributions 



Apr. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

Apr, 

Mar, 

Apr, 


1937 

^937 

1930 

1937 

1937 

i 93 <> 


d. 

d. 

d. 

d. 

d. 

d. 

Northern 

J 2 i 

J 3 i 

Hi 

3 i 


4 

North-Western 

I2J 

I 3 i 

111 

3 i 


4 

Eastern 

12 iV 

14 

iii 

2 « 


3 ii 

East Midland . . 


M 

Hi 

3 i 

2 # 

4 

West Midland . . 

12 i 

i 3 i 

Hi 

3* 

3 iV 

4 A 

North Wales . . 

I 2 i 

i 3 i 

III 

3 i^ 

3 At 

4* 

South Wales . . 

I 2 i 

i 3 i 

111 

3 l 

2 i 

4 

Southern 

I2I 

Mi 

iij 

2 « 

2 i 

3 « 

Mid-Western . . 

12 

Mi 

111 

3 l 

3 A 

4 * 

Far-Western . . 

12 

Mi 

111 

3 l 

3 A 

4 * 

South-Eastern . . 

13 

Mi 

14 

2 i 

2 A 

3 * 

Unweighted Average . . 

12-45 

M-82 

11-52 

3 -i 6 

2-82 

398 


These prices are exclusive of any premiums for special 
services and level deliveries, and also of the Accredited 
Producers' premium of id. per gal. The sum required for 
the payment of the latter premium was equivalent to a levy 
of •348</. per gal. on pool sales. 

The inter-regional compensation levy was fixed at 2d. per 
gal. , compared with 2 \d. per gal. in April, 1936. 

Sales on wholesale contracts were as follows : — 



April, 1937 
{estimated) 

April, 1936 


Gal, 

Gal. 

Liquid . . 

• 47*7641718 

45 * 435 * 4*9 

Manufacturing 

• 25,043,243 

31*593*504 


72,807,961 

77,028,923 

Percentage liquid sales 

65-60 

58-98 

Percentage manufacturing sales 

34.40 

41*02 


The average realization price of manufacturing milk during 
April was 5-29^. per gal. compared with 4-95<^. per gal. for 
April, 1936. The quantity of milk manufactured into cheese 

261 



Marketing Notes 


on farms was 1,323449 gal. compared with 547,080 gal. in the 
previous month and 1,342,723 gal. in April, 1936. 

Hops Marketing Scheme. The Annual General Meeting 
of registered producers was held on Ma,y 7, and the four 
retiring special members of the Board were re-elected for a 
further year. 

Total consignments to the Board, of 1936 hops, amounted 
to 229,030 cwt., of which 215,167 cwt. were sold up to March 
3r, 1937. As sales are less by nearly 10,000 cwt. than the 
estimated demand of 225,000 cwt., the call on the levy fund,^ 
to make up an average price of £q per cwt. on the estimated 
demand, will be approximately ;£83,ooo. It has been agreed 
that the cost of storing the unsold hops shall be borne by the 
levy fund up to October 31, 1937. Advances representing 96 
per cent, of the valuation of quota hops have already been 
made to producers, and a final payment of 4 jxir cent, will 
be made on settlement of the claim against the levy fund. 

Potato Marketing Scheme. Sale of “ Seconds.” During 
the period November i, 1936, to April 30, 1937, permits for 
the sale of “ Seconds ” — potatoes which pass through a 
riddle of in. but stand on a riddle of in. — have been 
issued by the Potato Marketing Board for a total quantity 
of approximately 23,000 tons. 

Consumers’ Committees. Miss D. S. Tomkinson, O.B.E., 
M.A., J.P., who has been appointed a member of the Food 
Council, has also tx-en ap^winted a member of the Consumers’ 
Committees for Great Britain and for England. 

Milk Acts, 1934 and 1936: Manufacturing Milk. No 
advances have been made by the Ministry in respect of 
manufacturing milk since April 15, 1937: there is therefore 
no alteration in th(' figures given in last month’s issue of this 
Journal. 

Milk-in-Schools Scheme. No further claims have been paid 
between April 15 and May 15. 1937, in respect of milk 
supplied to school children at reduced rates. The figures 
shown last month also remain unaltered. 

Cheese-Milk Price. For the purpose of payments under 
the Milk Acts (whether by the Exchequer to Milk Marketing 
Boards or by Boards to the Exchequer) in respect of milk 
used for manufacture, the cheese-milk price has been certified 
by the Minister and the Secretary of State for Scotland to 

262 



Marketing Notes 


be 592 pence per lb. for the month of May, 1937. No 
advances are, therefore, payable in respect of milk manu- 
factured in Great Britain during May. 

Nutrition Survey. A summary of the first report presented 
to the Milk Nutrition Committee will be found on page 201 of 
this issue of the Journal. 

Wheat Act, 1932: Sales of Home-Grown Wheat, Cereal 
Year, 1936-37. Certificates lodged with the Wheat Commis- 
sion by registered growers during the period August l, 1936, to 
April 30, 1937, cover sales of 19,114,638 cwt. of millable wheat 
as compared with 28,851,559 cwt. in the corresponding period 
(to May I,) in the last cereal year. 


Sugar Industry (Reorganization) Act, 1936: Results of 
the 1936-37 Campaign in Great Britain. A comparative 
smnmary of the beet sugar manufacturing campaigns 1935-36 
and 1936-37 is given below. 


Total acreage under sugar beet 
Less acreage grown lor seed 

'lotal net acreage grown under contract for 
delivery to factories («) • • 

Tonnage of beet delivered to factories 
Average yield of beet per acre (tons) 
Average sugar content of beet (per cent ) . . 
Average farm output of sucrose per acre of 
beet (lb.) 

Average price paid jier ton of beet delivered 
to factories 

d otal sum, including co.st of transport paid 
by factories to growers . . 

Number of beet growers 
Av'erage acreage per grower 
Number of factories . . 

Average number of days w orked at factories 
Average number of w orkers employed in the 
factories during the campaign . . 
Production of sugar : 

(i) of all polarizations (tons) 

(ii) in white equivalent (tons) . . 
Average extraction of sugar expressed as a 

percentage of the beet delivered to 
factories 

(i) all polarizations 
pi) white equivalent . . 

Average factory output of manufactured 
sugar per acre of beet : 

(i) all polarizations (lb.) 

(ii) white cquiv^alent (lb.) 




3.55.421 

374.753 

5 IJ 

6 ot> 


334>9io 374.H7 


3,448,008 

3, 403, 984 

<>•7 

9-1 

* 7*3 

16 *4 

3 . 7 b 5 

3.342 

yfs . i )(/. 

38s. TO(f. 

/b, 853, 000 

{,0,609,000 

40.303 

44.S19 

8-8 

8-3 

tS 

j8 

^>7 

98 

o.boo 

0.500 

537 . 3 bb 

4^7.325 

521,044 

17 *. 704 


15*6 

U*3 

AST 

*3*9 

3.392 

2,918 

3>294 

2,824 


263 



Marketing Notes 


Average extractions of sugar expressed as a 
percentage of the total sucrose in the beet: 


t 9 J 5 ~jO. 

(i) all polarizations 

00 • I 

87-1 

(ii) white equivalent . . 

Production of by-products : 

« 7'5 

84'5 

Molasses (tons) 

1 10,641 

123.786 

Pulp ; Dry (tons) . . 

-578, 57 « 

276,739 

Wet (tons) . . 

Average extraction of molasses expressed as 
a percentage of the beet delivered to 

83.967 

116,324 

factories 

Direct lixchequer assistance paid on sugar 

3-2 

3-6 

produced . . 

li,S76,on) 

£2,623,467(6) 


(а) Calculations made in relation to acreage are on a net acreage basis; 

(б) Includes ;t404,955 for capital services under the terms of Section ih 
of the Sugar Industry (Reorganization) Act, 1036 {£2^0,000 depreciation 
and 64,955 interest charges). 

Livestock Industry Bill. This Bill, the passage of which 
through Standing Committee was completed on April 13, was 
re-committed on May 3 to a Committee of the whole House 
of Commons in respect of amendments to certain clauses, 
following which Report Stage was taken and, on May 4, the 
Bill received a Third Reading. The Bill is now before the 
House of Lords. 


Cattle Fund. The following table gives particulars of 
payments made under the Cattle Industry (Emergency 
Provisions) Acts, 1934 to 1936. 


Average 

Payments Animals payment |>er 

Animal 

April, 1935 . . 

April, 1936 

April, 1937 • • 

£ ' £ s. d. 

276,593 115..545 1 2 7 loj 

316.021 133.837 2 7 2i 

356,540 ' 150,108 276 

•Sept. I, 1934 to 

April 30, 1937 

, ! 

1 

10,236,594 4>3J7.95^ ! ^75 


* Commencement of .subsidy payments. 


National Mark Honey. When the National Mark Honey 
Scheme was introduced, standard glass jars of a particular 
design registered in the Minister's name were prescribed for 
the packing of National Mark honey. The possibility of intro- 
ducing an improved design was recently considered by the 
National Mark Honey Trade Committee at a meeting ihat 

264 




Marketing Notes 


was attended by representatives of the Glass Manufacturers’ 
Federation and by other interested parties who were invited 
to express their views on this point. After consideration of 
those views, the Trade Committee recommended the adoption 
of certain modifications suggested by the Glass Manufacturers’ 
Federation. Specimens of the proposed new jars, with 
different types of neck and fitted with caps of various depths, 
will be submitted by the Federation in due course for the 
consideration of the Trade Committee. 

When the new standard jars are approved by the Ministry 
they will supersede the present jars, but a transitional period 
will be allowed during which existing stocks of the latter may 
be used. 

National Mark Wheat Flour Scheme: Substitution of 

Wheatmeal " Grade for “ Wholemeal " Grade. On the 
recommendation of the National Mark Wheat Flour Trade 
Committee, the Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries has given 
notice of his intention to amend the Agricultural Produce 
(Grading and Marking) (\^’heat Flour) Regulations, 1933. 
The Draft of the Amending Regulations — the Draft Agricul- 
tural Produce (Grading and Marking) (Wheat Flour and 
Wheat Flakes) Regulations, 1037 — will shortly be placed on 
sale by H.M. Stationery Office. 

The amending regulations, besides providing for the 
substitution of the grade designation All-English (Wheatmeal) 
or National Mark Wholemeal in place of All-English (Whole- 
meal) or National Mark Wheatmeal, also include the following 
requirements in the definition of quality with respect to 
wheatmeal : — 

(1) The meal shall comprise at least 90 per cent, of the ground products 

of the wheat. No bran may be added thereto or flour extracted 
therefrom. 

(2) The ash content shall exceed i per cent., but shall not exceed 

1 • 7 per cent, of the total weight of the meal calculated on the 
bavSis of 15 per cent, moisture content, and, on this same basis, 
the fibre content shall exceed i per cent, but shall not exceed 

2 per cent. 

The opportunity has been taken of incorporating in the 
Draft Regulations the provisions of the Agricultural Produce 
(Grading and Marking) (Wheat Flour) (Amendment) Regula- 
tions, 1935, which prescribe a grade designation and a 
definition of quality for wheat flakes. 

' C 265 



Marketing Notes 


National Mark Dressed Ponltry. Reports on market and 
other inspections made during the past twelve months indicate 
that the National Mark Dressed Poultry Scheme is having a 
greater influence on poultry marketing than is indicated by 
the actual numbers of birds that were packed under National 
Mark labels. The methods of packing and marketing, which 
the Scheme sets out to encourage, are apparently being widely 
adopted by progressive producers and packers throughout the 
country. 

An interesting innovation is beginning to take shape in 
regard to the type of non-returnable containers used for the 
packing of supplies, and the half-dozen unit is becoming 
more popular. Fibre-board cases are being used and arc 
proving satisfactory and economical. There is, however, 
still room for improvement both in design and durability. 

Arrangements have been made for the continuance, at a 
number of shows during the coming season, of competitive 
classes for market packs of table poultry. The inauguration 
of these classes has proved to be of considerable educational 
value, and as a result, technique has steadily improved both 
as regards production and presentation. 


Marketing Demonstrations. Particulars of exhibits and 
demonstrations to be staged by the Ministry during June and 
early July are as follow: — 


Show 

Royal Counties, Reading . . 
June 2-5. 

Suffolk County, Beccles 
June 3-4 


Three Counties, Hereford . . 
June 8-10. 

Essex County, Maldon. 

June 9-10. 

Lincoln County, Spalding . . 
June 16-18. 

Northampton County. Kettering 
June 23-24. 

Aldershot 
July 1-3. 

Royal, Wolverhampton 
July 6-10. 


Demonstratiofi 

Tomato grading demonstration. 
Honey and dairy produce exhibits. 

Apple grading, egg testing, and live- 
stock demonstrations. Egg, table 
poultry, honey and vegetable 
exhibits. 

Egg testing and fruit grading demon- 
strations. Fruit, egg, table poultry 
and honey exhibits. 

Tomato grading demonstration 
Table poultry exhibit. 

Egg testing and grading, and live- 
stock demonstrations. Egg and 
vegetable exhibits. 

Egg testing and fruit grading demon- 
strations. Tabic poultry^ and egg 
exhibits. 

Egg grading demonstration. National 
Mark exhibit. 

Egg testing, fruit jading and live- 
stock demonstrations. Fruit, dairy 
produce, egg and honey exhibits. 


266 



ACCOMMODATION OF PICKERS OF HOPS, FRUIT 
AND VEGETABLES 

Following consultation with the Ministry of Agriculture and 
Fisheries and with representatives of Local Authorities and of 
agricultural interests, the Ministry of Health has prepared for 
the guidance of local authorities, a revised model series of 
Byelaws relating to the lodging and accommodation of persons 
engaged in the picking of hops, fruit and vegetables. The 
revised model series, a copy of which is appended below, is 
based on the existing model which, however, has been recast 
in more convenient form. The following additional require- 
ments have been incorporated in the revised model series : — 

(a) The floor of a new lodging must be constructed of some impervious 
material : clause 2 (li) , 

(b) A new lodging, while it is occupied, must be maintained free from 
any obstruction from behind so near as to interfere with the access 
of air and light : clause 2 (iv) , 

(6') At least fourteen days’ witten notice (instead of three days) of 
the intention to use a lodging in any year after the year in which 
It was erected must be given to the local authority : clause 3 (i) ; 

(d) Where a building has been used for animals, it must not be used as 
a lodging until at least ten days have elapsed since their removal 
therefrom, and the building has been properly cleansed and lime- 
washed or treated with some other suitable form of disinfectant : 
clause 3 (iv) ; 

[e) The person providing a lodging must secure that when a person 
sleeps upon the ground floor there shall be a space of not less than 
three inches between the ground and the bed upon which that 
person sleeps unless the floor is made of impervious material : 
clause 3 (vii) ; 

(/) Suitable and sufficient receptacles for refuse must be provided and 
maintained in good repair and in a clean and wholesome condition • 
clause 3 (viii) , 

(g) At least tiventy square feet (instead of eighteen square feet) oi 
available floor space must be allowed in respect of each person for 
sleeping. 

Two children under ten (instead of twelve) years ot agt‘ are tu be 
counted for this pur|)ose as one person. 

“Adult person” is defined to mean a person exceeding the 
age of ten (instead of twelve) years : clause 3 (x) , 

(/i) The accommodation for the cooking of food and the drying of 
clothes and other articles must include accommodation for the 
dr^dng of bedding. The accommodation must consist of a properly 
constructed fire grate, or of fire place accommodation measuring 
laterally not less than four feet for every sixteen persons (i.e. pot- 
rail system) : clause 3 (xii) ; 

{%) A supply of water must be situated not more than one Imndred and 
fifty yards from the lodging : clause 3 (xiii) ; 

267 



Accommodation of Pickers of Hops, Etc. 


(j) Sanitary accommodation must provide individual privacy lor 
women, afford protection from the weather, and be maintained in a 
clean and inoffensive condition. The accommodation for men must 
be separated from that for women and children by at least twenty- 
five feet or have separate entrances invisible the one from the other : 
clause 3 (xiv) ; 

(k) Any part of a lodging which is above the ground floor and intended 
for sleeping must be provided with adequate access from and to 
the level of the ground by an external stairway or stairways : 
clause 3 (xv) [a). 

The Ministry of Health has sent copies of the revised model 
series of Byelaws to the Local Authorities of those districts 
where it is known that imported labour is used for the picking 
of hops and has asked them to give it their early consideration, 
and, if they propose to make new byelaws, to take early steps 
to see that they come into force before this year’s hop-picking 
season commences. It is also understood that the Department 
is preparing a booklet for circulation by Local Authorities to 
growers, for their guidance in meeting the requirements of the 
new byelaws. 

Model Byelaws- relating to the lodging and accommodation of hop- 
pickers and pickers of fruit and vegetables. 

Draft form as revised In May, 1937. 


Byelaws made by tlie^ 

for securing the decent lodging and accommodation of persons engaged 
m hnp-pickmg or m tiie picking of Irint and vegetables in* 


1 la these byelaws " the Council means the* 

* Insert “ iMayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of 
, acting l>y the Council ", " Urban [or Rural] 

District C'oiincil ol as the case may he, 

“ Insert " the Borough ol or " the Urban [or 

Rural] District ol \ or, if the byelaws are to apply 

to part only of a rinnl district, "that portion ol the Rural District of 
which comprises the contributory places of 
", as the case may be. 

Erection of New Lodgings. 

2 . Any person who erects a new lodging not intended to be ordinarily 
occupied for human habitation for persons engaged in hop-picking or in 
the picking of fruit and vegetables shall comply with the following rules : — 

(i) He shall, before commencing to erect a new lodging, give to the 
Council at least twenty -eight days* written notice of his intention so to 
erect it. 

(ii) He shall cause the ground floor to be constructed of some 
impervious material. 

268 



Acxx)mmodation of Pickers of Hops, Etc. 


(ili) He shall provide and, while the lodging is occupied, maintain 
in front of it (or, where lodgings form a block, in front of each such 
block) an open space free from any erection and exclusively belonging 
to or used with the lodging or block which shall extend — 

(а) to a distance of fifteen feet if lodgings or blocks are not erected 

face to face, 

(б) to a distance of twenty feet between lodgings or blocks erected 

face to face. 

(iv) He shall so place it that there is not behind it any obstruction 
so near as to interfere with the access of air and light, and \vhile it is 
occupied he shall maintain it free from any such obstruction. 

General Provisions 

3. Any per.son who provides any lodging not ordinarily occupied for 
human habitation for persons engaged in hop-picking or in the picking 
of fruit and vegetables shall comply with the following rules : — 

(i) ^Hc shall before the lodging is used in any yeiir after the year in 
which it was erected, give to the Council at least fourteen days' written 
notice of his intention so to use it. 

* In the case of lodgings provided for persons engaged in the picking of 
fruit the local authority will no doubt consider whether the period should not 
be reduced to seven days. 

(li) He shall not permit the lodging to be used unless its site is 
reasonably free from damp and the lodging is clean, dry and w'eather- 
proof and shall cau.se the lodging to be cleansed immediately before 
each occasion on which it shall be occupied. 

(ill) He shall cause the lodging to he provided with proper and 
sullicient means of ventilation and lighting by natural light. 

(iv) If the building has been used for animals he shall not permit it 
to be used as a lodging until an interval of at least ten days has elapsed 
since their removal therefrom, and the building has been properly 
cleansed and lime-washed or treated with .some other suitable form of 
disinfectant. 

(v) He shall cause every part of the interior of the lodging, and of 
any cooking-hijuse, privy, or other premises in connection therewith, 
to be thoroughly cleansed immediately before the lodging is u.sed in 
any one year. 

lie shall cause the walls and ceilings of every room to be well and 
sufliciently lime-washed or treated with .some other suitable form of 
disinfectant once in every year not more than two months before 
occupation. 

(vi) He shall provide for every person received into the lodging a 
sufficient supply of clean, dry, and suitable bedding, wdnch if it be straw 
or other similar bedding shall not have been previously used, and shall 
renews it from time to time as may be reasonably neces.sary. 

(vii) He shall .secure that when a person sleeps upon the ground 
floor there shall be a space of not less than three inches betw^een the 
ground and the beil upon which that person sleeps unless the floor is 
made of impervious material. 

(viii) He shall provide for the persons received into the lodging or 
block of lodgings, suitable and sufficient receptacles for refu.se at a rate 
of not lcs.s than one for each sixteen persons and shall maintain the 
same in good repair and in a clean and wholesome condition. 

(ix) He shall cause all accumulations or deposits of refu.se filth or 
any offensive or noxious matter to be removed daily from the lodging 
and from the land surrounding or adjoining it of which he is the occupier. 

c* 269 



Accommodation of Pickers of Hops, Etc. 

(x) ^He shall not cause to be received into the lodging or into any 
room therein at any one time for sleeping a greater number of persons 
than will allow twenty square feet at the least of available floor space in 
respect of each person. 

^ It is suggested in connection with this byelaw that Local Authorities should 
print placards with spaces left blank for the figures. These placards could 
be given to the farmers with a suggestion that, to prevent contraventions of the 
byelaws and in their own interest, they should put them up in the huts. 

For the purpose of this rule two children under ten years of age shall 
be counted as one person. 

(xi) He shall 

(а) cause every room or part of the lodging which may be intended 

to be used for sleeping by adult persons of different sexes 
to be divided into compartments in such a manner that 
every compartment shall be separated from every other 
compartment by a screen or partition of such material, 
construction, and height as to secure privacy to the occupant 
or occupants of the compartment when so used ; 

(б) not cause any compartment to be appropriated for the use of 

adult persons of different sexes. 

Provided that this rule shall not be deemed to prohibit the appro- 
priation of a compartment for the exclusive use of a single family 
comprising the following persons or any of them, that is to say, a husband 
and his wife and their children not exceeding the age of fourteen years. 

For the purpose of this rule ** adult person means a person exceeding 
the age of ten years, 

(xii) He shall provide, in a safe and suitable position in or in con- 
nection with or adjacent to each lodging or block of lodgings, a 
suitable cooking-house or other place, properly covered and sheltered 
from the weather, in which fires may be safely and readily lighted and 
food may be properly cooked and clothes, bedding and other articles 
may be properly dried. 

He shall cause the cooking-house or place to be so constructed and, 
while the lodging or block of lodgings is occupied, so maintained that 
for every sixteen persons received in the lodging or block of lodgings 
there is separate accommodation for the cooking of food and the drying 
of clothes, bedding and other articles, and such separate accommodation 
shall consist either of a properly constructed fire-grate or of fire-place 
accommodation measuring laterally not less than four feet. 

For the purpose of this rule, any number of persons in excess of 
sixteen or a multiple of that number shall be deemed to be sixteen. 

(xiii) He shall (where it is not otherwise readily available) provide in 
or upon or in connection with the lodging, or in some suitable place 
readily accessible therefrom, such a supply of good and wholesome 
water as will at all times suf&ce for the reasonable requirements, whether 
for drinking, cooking, or washing, of the several persons received into 
the lodging. 

For the purpose of this rule a supply of water shall not be deemed 
to be readily available or accessible if it is situated at a greater distance 
than one hundred and fifty yards from the lodging. 

(xiv) He shall provide, in a suitable and convenient position in 
connection with every lodging or with every group of lodgings, water- 
closets, earthclosets or privies, properly constructed (and, in the case 
of earthclosets and privies, of su£&cient depth) for the separate use of 
each sex, and at a rate of not less than one for every twenty persons, 

270 



Accommodation of Pickers of Hops, Etc. 


The waterclosets, earthclosets, or privies shall 

(а) provide individual privacy for women, 

(б) afford protection from the weather, 

(c) be maintained in a clean and inoffensive condition, and 

(d) be marked MEN and WOMEN AND CHILDREN respectively, 

and those marked MEN shall be separated by at least twenty- 
five feet from those marked WOMEN AND CHILDREN, or 
have separate entrances invisible the one from the other. 

He shall cause the contents of earthclosets and privies to be covered 
once each day with dry earth or other suitable absorbent material and 
removed when necessary. He shall cause the contents of movable 
receptacles used for such purposes to be removed daily. 

(xv) He shall, where any part of the lodging which is above the 
ground floor may be intended to be used for sleeping — 

{a) cause that part to be provided with adequate access from and to 
the level of the ground by an external stairway^ or stairways ; 
(h) cause to be provided in connexion with any such part which 
may be used by more than ^persons, at least 

^ " stairway ” is used here to describe a meam of access with flat treads, 
i.e. something more than a ladder with rungs. The ivord does not imply 
what is known in building as a** staircase 

^'"fifteen has been suggested here, but, if the Local Authority consider 
this too high, the Minister will agree to ** ten " or some intermediate figure. 

two means of access extending to the level of the ground, one 
at least of which shall be approached by a door opening out- 
wards from within on to a proper landing ; 

{c) cause all means of access (including any stairs and landings) to 
be substantially constructed 

Penalties 

4. Every person who shall offend against any of the foregoing byelaws 
shall be liable on summary conviction to a tine not exceeding five pounds, 
and in the case of a continuing offence to a further fine not exceeding 
forty shilllings for each day during which the offence continues after 
conviction therefor. 


Repeal of Byelaws.^ 

^ If there are no byelaws in force, this should be stated and the clause struck 
out. 

5. The byelaws for securing the decent lodging and accommodation of 
persons engaged in hop-picking, or in the picking of fruit and vegetables, 
which were made by the on the 

day of and were confirmed by the [Local Govern- 
ment Board] [Minister of Health] on the day 

are hereby repealed. 




271 



JUNE ON THE FARM 

R. W. Wheldon, D.Sc., 

Armstrong College, Newcaslle-itpon-Tyne. 

The present month is one driring which some indication 
of the abundance of the harvest and winter keep is usually 
obtained. It is perhaps the month during which, in normal 
seasons, the greatest growth takes place. 

As far as cereal crops are concerned it may be that cleaning, 
rolling and all cultural operations are finished, but much may 
be learnt from frequent and careful observation of the crop 
during the month. Lime and other plant food deficiencies 
are often revealed in unevenness of growth, lack of vigour 
and reaction to adverse weather conditions. Faulty drainage 
is usually evidenced in the crop. While it may be too late 
to do anything for the present season, the information should 
be duly noted and acted on at the most suitable time. 

In the April notes reference was made to the value of 
mechanization in helping forward cultivation w'ork, especially 
in a late spring. The prices realized at recent farm sales for 
tractors and farm horses with the necessary equipment 
indicate how the law of supply and demand very quickly 
affects prices. The concentration oi a large amount of spring 
work in a short rush period has put prices to a high level. 
At one farm sale in the north of England during May a tractor 
eighteen months old realized over lo per cent, more than 
present new price, while horses suitable for farm work have 
been in ver>' keen demand. 

Pasture. The adjustment of the stocking to the particular 
grazing areas is one of the important questions to be decided 
by the farmer. Numbers, periods of stocking and intensity 
of grazing are all factors involved. In this month the farmer 
should be able to foim a fairly accurate judgment as to 
whether his fields are adequately stocked. The saying 
“ What is grown in May should be eaten in May,” indicates 
amongst other things that grass should not be allowed to 
run to stem. Recent knowledge has confirmed the desirability 
of keeping grass leafy as long as p>ossible and efficient grazing 
stimulates the tillering properties of pasture plants. At the 
same time overgrazing at this time of the year may be 
definitely harmful, and greatly increase the risk of considerable 

272 



June on the Farm 

difficulty should drought ensue in mid-season. This is 
especially the problem of the south country grazier. 

The tendency on many farms to overstock with sheep is 
not only harmful from the point of view of the health of the 
sheep, but also tends to reduce the productivity of the pasture. 
Sheep alone are not good grazing stock, particularly on 
permanent pasture, as they have powers of discrimination in 
grazing and take out the finer bottom leaves, leaving the 
flowering stems to produce flowers and seed. The result 
of a pasture plant being allowed to produce seed is that the 
plant is reduced in vitality and production is not so great in 
the following year. Sufficient cattle stock to keep the pasture 
plants from ninning to seed should be aimed at. 

Cake Feeding on Grass. The advisability of feeding cake 
on grass land is frequently under discussion. The results of 
cake feeding on grass land at Cockle Park on both Tree Field 
and Hanging Leaves fields indicates that cake feeding is not 
an economic means of improving grass land. The returns 
from dressings of basic slag have given much more economic 
live-weight gains in both cattle and sheep. It should be 
borne in mind that the Cockle Park experiments were designed 
to test the value of cake feeding as a means of improving 
grass land. The cattle used in the experiments have always 
been young growing animals. 

Where the object of cake feeding is beef j>roduction the 
feeding of concentrates in addition to pasture may be quite 
profitable. The results of trials carried out at Auchincruive 
and reported by Principal Paterson indicate that a very 
satisfactory return may be obtained from judicious cake 
feeding — in fact, the cake feeding gave more economic returns 
than manuring. The cattle were better finished and 
commanded a higher price per cwt. In reporting on this 
experiment Principal Paterson states that " As compared with 
the improvement effected by manuring, the feeding of concen- 
trates contributes to more rapid as well as to more economic 
beef production.” 

As with most other questions in farming, it is difficult to 
generalize, each farm or district having to be considered in 
the light of its own particular circumstances and its particular 
grazing conditions. The now famous East Northumberland 
grass feeding areas are practically entirely maintained by the 
use of phosphates, and cake feeding is not the general rule. 

273 



June on the Farm 

The indications from the Cockle Park results are that, under 
certain conditions, a better balance between expenditure on 
cake and that on fertilizers would lead to better returns. 

Hay Making. There can be no doubt that good hay is the 
basis of successful winter feeding with most classes of farm 
stock. Soil, climate, manuring and management all play an 
important part in determining quality. Management and 
weather conditions are the factors that may be considered 
here. Time of cutting is an important factor as affecting 
quality. It has been stated that there is as much food value 
in the plant just before it comes into flower as at any stage of 
its growth, and as maturity proceeds the food value deterior- 
ates. The practical difficulty of “ winning ” or making into 
hay immature grass or clover is well known. Air cannot get 
through the cut swath; it takes longer to make; and, as a nile, 
the product is not so palatable. On the other hand, if cutting 
is delayed until the plants have become too mature there is 
loss due to seed falling out and the stems have become 
woody and less digestible. Very late-mown hay in .some 
instances corresponds to a partially threshed corn crop. Two 
advantages are obtained from cutting the crop before it 
reaches an over-mature stage: (i) the hay produced is of 
better feeding value, and (2) the plants retain vigour and give 
a more abundant aftermath. In permanent meadows it will 
be found that early cutting results in more vigorous growth 
in the following spring. 

It might be noted that with newly-laid-down permanent or 
temporary grass land it is particularly important that cutting 
should be done early when a hay crop is taken in the first 
year as it greatly helps in the grasses and clovers becoming 
established. 

Weather is a determining factor. No matter how good a 
hay crop may be, its value can be greatly reduced by an 
unfavourable harvest. In this connexion there are now 
many implements and appliances that greatly help the farmer 
to make the most use of any favourable spells of weather w'hen 
they occur. 

Sheep. During June the chief operation with the sheep 
flock is the clipping of the ewes and young sheep on lowland 
farms. Before clipping there is constant need for shepherding 
on account of the risk of ewes getting on their backs. With 
flie advent of warmer weather the enemies of the sheep 

274 



June on the Farm 

become active and great care needs to be exercised in order 
to keep sheep clean and free from dirt, which encourages 
the attack of the sheep maggot. Observations in Australia 
have shown that dirty sheep are more prone to attack than 
clean sheep. At the first suggestion of trouble by the appear- 
ance of maggots, dipping should be carried out — ^prevention 
is always better than cure. All shepherds know how very 
quickly an animal becomes badly mutilated if a maggoted 
sheep is overlooked. 

It is of interest to note that in different parts of the country 
the ravages of stomach worms in sheep vary in seasonal 
activity. For example, in the south-west the chief trouble 
from parasitic disease is noted mainly in the autumn months, 
and in these counties very heavy losses have been recorded 
during the last few years. 

In many northern counties, however, the menace of 
internal parasites is evident very much earlier, and farmers 
commonly adopt preventive measures some time in June. 

The symptoms of worm infestation are that some of the 
lambs cease to thrive, and diarrhoea may or may not appear. 
Where diarrhoea does occur some lambs become very weak 
and the worst may actually die before the trouble is diagnosed. 
In other instances, where no diarrhoea occurs, the unthriftiness 
is accompanied by dryness of the skin, and it is important 
for the farmer to realize that the trouble is parasitic, even in 
the absence of other apparent symptoms like diarrhoea. 

In all probability the varying symptoms are produced by 
the presence of different species of worm parasites. Where 
parasitic troubles are suspected it is best to obtain the advice 
of a veterinary surgeon. An accurate diagnosis may be made 
by examining the faeces, or more simply by opening a dead 
lamb. The recognized treatment is to use a solution of copper 
sulphate, and excellent results have been obtained in the 
Northern Province from the use of nicotine mixture. What- 
ever method of treatment is adopted it is wise to be guided by 
the veterinarian. 

Root Crops. The singling of root crops will occupy a good 
deal of time during this month. This operation is still mainly 
carried out by hand labour and is therefore costly. Too much 
emphasis cannot be laid on the importance of careful and 
efficient work. Trials with sugar-beet have demonstrated in 
a striking manner the difference in results between good and 

275 



June on the Farm 

indifferent singling. The difficulty of obtaining a plant, owing 
to “fly" and other troubles, makes the root crop a speculative 
one. It is therefore most desirable not to lose an5dhing by 
carelessness in singling. 

Root crops are usually regarded as cleaning crops, but it 
should always be borne in mind that they only facilitate 
cleaning operations. The weeds have to be got rid of if the 
land is to be cleaner as a result, and horse and hand hoeing 
should be well and efficiently carried out. With hand hoeing 
particularly, there is need for efficiency. How often can the 
differences in the work of individual workers be seen in the 
growing crop later in the season ! 

The after-cultivation of the potato crop may exercise a 
marked influence upon the development of the crop. 
Frequent and thorough drill cultivation as time and weather 
permit will usually repay the farmer. The drill cxiltivation 
should not only take into consideration the control of weeds 
but also the promotion of favourable soil conditions for the 
crop. It is desirable that drill cultivation should be carried 
out in the early stages of growth, as when the plants become 
well grown there is danger of damage of the young roots 
with a resultant check. It is always well to bear in mind 
that cultivations may have an adverse effect on the soil 
if they are not carried out under favourabk' conditions. 
An examination of the crop will reveal the vigour and 
purity of stock. Growers should be prepared to discard weak 
or impure stocks. Lack of vigour or evidence of disease 
should guide the grower as to whether a stock should be saved 
for another year. During the month application should be 
sent in to the Ministry of Agriculture for the inspection of 
growing crops for purity. Official certificates are issued to 
those growers whose crops fulfil the conditions of inspection, 
and such certificates are a useful guarantee, helpful to both 
purchaser and seller alike. 


276 



PRICES OF ARTIFICIAL MANURES 




Average prices per ton (2,240 Ib.] 




during week ended May 5. 



Description. 















! 




Costs 


Bristol 

Hull 

1 L’pool 

London 

per 










UnitH 


£ 

5 . 

1 

5 

£ 

5. 

£ 

5 . 

5 . 

d. 

Nitrate of Soda (N. 15^%) 

7 

12c 

7 

lie 

: 7 

12 C 

7 

I2C 

9 

10 

,, ,, Granulated (N. 16%) 

7 

12c 

7 

12c 

7 

lie 

7 

12c 

9 

6 

Nitrate of Lime (N. 13%) 

7 

oc 

7 

OC 

7 

OC 

7 

OC 

10 

9 

Nitro-Chalk (N. 15!%) . . 

Sulphate of Ammonia ; — f 

7 


7 


7 


7 

5 C 

9 

4 

Neutral (N. 20*6%) . . . . 

7 

5 C 

7 


7 

50 

7 

5 ^ 

7 

0 

Calcium Cyanamide (N. 20-6%) } 

7 


7 

Sfl 

7 

5 d 

7 

5 d 

7 

0 

Kainite (Pot 14%) . . . . v 

2 

18 

2 

15 

i 2 

15 

2 

15 

3 

II 

Potash Salts (Pot. 30%) 

5 

0 

4 

17 

4 

15 

4 

17 

3 

3 

,. ,. (Pot 20%) 


15 

3 

12 

3 

12 

3 

12 

3 

7 

Muriate of Potash (Pot. 50%) 

8 

3 

8 

I 

7 

17 

8 

I 

3 

3 

Sulphate ,, (Pot. 48*^0) 

9 

15 

9 

13 

; 9 

9 

9 

13 

4 

0 

Basic Slag (P A. 15!%) 

2 

12b 

2 

5^ 



2 

106 

3 

2 

„ (P.A. 14 %).. .. S 

2 

86 

2 

ob 

2 

*06 

2 

66 

3 

3 

Cird Rock Phosphate (P A 26- 

1 










27 i%) 

2 

12a 



2 

loa 

2 

5 « 

I 

8 

Superphosphate (S P.A. 16%) . . 

3 

4 

1 


' 3 

3<5 

3 

of 

3 

9 

(S.P.A I 3 J%).. 

3 

I 

» 2 

17 

' 2 


2 

16/ 

4 

I 

Bone Meal (N. 3!%, P.A. 20 J%) 
Steamed Bone Flour (N j%. 



' 6 
! 

10 

7 

5S 

7 

0 



I’.A. 27 i%- 29 i%) .. 

1 5 

5h 

i 5 

10 

5 

og 

5 

0 




Abbreviations : N. —Nitrogen ; P.A —Phosphoric Acid : 

S P.A. = Soluble Pho.sphonc Acid , Pot.— Potash. 


* Prices are for not less than 6- ton lots, at purchaser's nearest railway station 
unless otherwise stated. Unit values arc calculated on carriage-paid prices. 

S Prices are for not less than 2 -ton lots, net cash for prompt delivery f o.r. in 
town named, unless otherwise stated. Unit values are calculated on f.o.r. prices. 
a I'rices for 4-ton lots f.o.r. Fineness 85% through standard sieve. 
b Prices for 6-ton lots. Prices at Bristol are f.o.r. Bridgwater ; at Hull and 
Liverj>ool f.o.r. neighbouring works, and at London f.o.r. at depots in London 
district. Fineness 80% through standard sieve. 

c For lots of 4 tons and under 6 tons the price is 15 per ton extra, for lots 
of 2 tons and under 4 tons, 5s. per ton extra, and for lots of i ton and under 
2 tons, los. extra. 

d Delivered in 4-ton lots at purchaser’s nearest railway station. For lots of 
2 tons and under 4 tons the price is 5s. per ton extra, for lots of i ton and under 
2 tons, 105. per ton extra, for lots of 10 cwt. and under i ton, 155. extra, and 
for lots of less than 10 cwt. but not less than 2 cwt., 205. extra. 
e Prices shown are f.o.r. Widnes. 

/ Prices shown are f.o.r. northern rails ; southern rails 15. 3<f. ^xtra. 
g Prices shown are f.o.r. Appley Bridge. 
h Price shown is f.o.r. Newport, Mon. 

% These are calculated by regarding a ton as comprising 100 “ units ** (equal parts 
of 22*4 lb ) so that a fertilizer, for example, with 16 per cent, nitrogen contains 
t6 such “ units ’* in a ton. Then, if the price per ton of such a fertilizer be divided 
by the percentage figure, the deduced cost is that of a ** unit " of that agent. Those 
in the table above are based on London prices. (For further explanation, see 
Advisory Leaflet No. 146, “ The Valuation of Artificial Manures,” obtainable from 
the Ministry, free of charge.) 


277 





NOTES ON FEEDING 

Charles Crowther, M.A., Ph.D., 

Principal, Harper Adams Agricultural College. 

The Assessment of Productivity of Grassland. It has 

long been recognized that the weight of produce obtainable 
from an area of grassland is not a reliable measure of its 
productive capacity, since the nutritive value of the produce 
may vary between wide limits. Even when supplemented 
by determinations of chemical composition and digestibility 
a considerable element of uncertainty still remains, since the 
nutritive efficiency of the digestible matter can only be roughly 
assessed unless elaborate metabolism experiments can be 
carried out. 

This patent weakness of analytical methods to furnish the 
desired information has led grassland investigators to 
attempt direct measurement by way of liveweight increase, 
milk production, etc., recorded by stock grazed on the area. 
The classic example of this method is furnished by the Cockle 
Park experiments in whch the effects of different manurings 
were assessed by comparisons of the liveweight gains recorded 
by grazing stock, and it has been followed by others here 
and elsewhere. Apart from the obvious difficulties of closely 
adjusting the density of stocking to the variable amount of 
grazing available, the method suffers from the serious defects 
that liveweights are difficult to measure accurately, and the 
nature of the liveweight increase tends to vary as the animal 
grows, so that liveweight alone is an unreliable measure of 
nutritive effect. In the young animal the liveweight increase 
put on is much richer in water and protein, and poorer in 
fat, and therefore less concentrated in energy, than the 
material deposited in the body at later stages when the animal 
is approaching maturity. One and the same food supply, if 
equally suitable for both classes of animals, may ffius be 
expected to give a greater liveweight increase with young 
animals than with older animals. 

A similar, though smaller, variation in the nature of ffie 
liveweight increase may also arise, especially in the young 
animal, through variations in the protein content of the 
fodder. 

The difficulties occasioned by these factors are not peculiar 
278 



Notes on Feeding 


to grassland feeding experiments, but apply to all feeding 
experiments with growing animals in which results are 
assessed in terms of liveweight increase. The problem 
received much attention from the late Professor Wood, whose 
conclusions with cattle, sheep and pigs are embodied in his 
feeding standards. In its application to grassland studies 
it came under discussion at the third International Grass Land 
Congress held at Zurich in 1934, and inspired the late Professor 
Wiegner to an attempt to devise a more satisfactory basis 
for the interpretation of the results of feeding experiments, 
the results of which for growing cattle were published shortly 
after his death last year. 

In arriving at the method set out in his paper he started 
out by examining the question as to how much energy 
(expressed as “ starch equivalent ”) is required to produce 
in the bodies of growing cattle one kilogram of body protein 
and of body tat respectively, and arrived at the conclusion 
that each kg. of fat stored in the body requires 4 kg. of starch 
equivalent in the food, whilst each kg. of protein stored in 
the body requires 1-36 kg. of starch equivalent in the food (in 
the form of protein). 

If, then, wc know how much fat and protein respectively 
are present in the liveweight increase put on by the animal 
at each particular stage of growth we can calculate the 
amount of production food (expressed as starch equivalent) 
that must have been consumed to produce this increase. 
When to this is added the maintenance requirement we arrive 
at an estimate of the total food consumption. 

For guidance as to the body composition of young cattle 
at different liveweights Wiegner devised an equation based 
upon the American data from Haecker’s experiments, which 
led to the results summarized, with slight approximations, in 
the following table (i kg. =2 2 lb.) : — 




Total Weight 

Total Weight 

Total Production of 


Liveweight 

of Fat 

of Protein 

Food (expressed as 


in Body 

in Body 

Starch equivalent) 





stored in Body 


- m 



kg. ^ 

(lb.) 

.50 

(no) .. 

2-0 

lo- 1 

21-8 

(48) 

100 

(220) .. 

7-2 

19-4 

55-0 

(121) 

200 

(440) .. 

^ 5*4 

37*3 

152-3 

(335) 

300 

(660) .. 

53*3 

54-6 

287-5 

(633) 

400 

(880) .. 

90*2 

71-7 

458-1 

(1,008) 

500 

(1,100) .. 

135-6 

88-4 

662-5 

(1,458) 

600 

(1,320) .. 

189-2 

105-0 

899-4 

( 1 , 979 ) 

700 

(1,540) 

.. 250-7 

T 2 I -4 

I 167-6 

(2,569) 


279 



Notes on Feeding 


From the weights of fat it is clear that in the earliest stages, 
up to about 500 kg. , the animals from which these data were 
derived were growing with only a moderate degree of fattening. 

The data in the last column are arrived at by multipl5dng 
the weights of body-fat by 4 0, and those of body-protein by 
1-36 (see above), and adding the two products together. 
They represent, in terms of " production starch equivalent,” 
the estimated amounts of “ production food ” (i.e. food over 
and above maintenance requirement) that must have been 
consumed in order to produce the amounts of fat and protein 
present in the animal’s body at each liveweight. 

From these data it is simple to calculate the average amounts 
of starch equivalent required for each i kg. (or i lb.) of live- 
weight increase put on in the separate 100 kg. (or 220 lb.) 
intervals of liveweight, which work out as follows: — 


Liveweight 


>>g- 

under loo 
100-200 
200-300 
300-400 
400-500 
500-600 
600-700 


Kg Starch Equivalent 
required as Production 
Pood for I kg. 
Liveweight Increase 

0*66 

0- ()7 

1- 36 

1- 71 

2- 04 

^•37 

2-68 


These results are appreciably lower than the ‘ ' standards ’ ’ 
drawn up by Kellner, Armsby and others, but this is to be 
expected, since the method used in arriving at them must 
tend to give minimum figures that could only be attained in 
practice under the most favourable conditions of nutrition. 
They must certainly be raised somewhat for application to 
the determination of the productivity of grassland. It is 
hardly worth while therefore to go into as much detail 
as the above table suggests, requiring a new factor for each 
100 kg. increase of liveweight. Wiegner proposed therefore 
that for practical purposes the appended simplified table 
should be used : — 


Liveweight 


under 250 
250-450 
over 450 


Production Starch 
Equivalent required per 
I kg, Liveweight Gain 


1-5 


2-0 


2-5 


280 



Notes on Feeding 


Thus if a group of young cattle grazing an area increased 
in average liveweight from 250 kg. (550 lb.) to 400 kg. (880 
lb.) in 200 days, the average liveweight gain per head would 
be 150 kg. (330 lb.) and the food (starch equivalent) 
consumed (apart from maintenance) to produce this would be 
estimated at 150x20 = 300 kg. (6(^3 lb.). If now we take 
the maintenance requirement at 06 kg. starch equivalent per 
100 kg. liveweight per day, then since the average liveweight 
over the 200 days is 325 kg. (715 lb.) the average daily 
maintenance requirement per head will be 3-25 x 0 6 kg. , or 
1 95 kg. , and the total starch equivalent consumed for 
maintenance will work out at 195x200 = 390 kg. We thus 
arrive at an estimate of 690 kg., as the average food 
consumption (in terms of starch equivalent) per head for 
production and maintenance combined. 

In order to turn this figure for starch equivalent into weight 
of actual produce* we require to know the average starch 
equivalent value of the produce. If we assume, for example, 
that in this case the dry matter of the grass had a starch 
equivalent of 40 per cent. , then the 690 kg. of starch equivalent 

would correspond to , or 1725 kg. of grass dry 

matter, or about four times this weight of fresh grass, since 
this usually contains 20-30 pt;r cent, of dry matter. 

The method is perhaps cumbrous, and based as yet upon 
inadequate data, but it represents at least an advance upon 
the comparison of grazing results merely upon liveweight 
changes, since these give no guidance as to the weights of 
food that have been required to give the changes recorded. 

Food Requirements of Sheep. The discussion of this 
subject in last month’s Notes requires now to be supplemented 
by reference to a further report from Oxford subsequently 
issued in the current number of the Empire Journal of 
Experimental Agriculture. In this report Professor J. A. 
Scott Watson and his colleagues summarize the results of six 
further feeding trials carried out in the years 1934-36. In 
each series the sheep were divided into three or four lots, and 
used for comparisons of different levels of food supply. In 
the various lots the food supply ranged from an estimated 
starch equivalent per head per week of 6-55 lb, to 13-51 lb., 
and the average liveweight increases per week recorded from 
0-66 lb. to 327 lb. As the food supply was increased the 

281 



Notes on Feeding 


ratio of additional starch equivalent consumed to additional 
liveweight gain produced remained relatively steady at an 
average of i : 0227 or 44 : i. In other words, the 
deduction may be drawn that a sheep, supposing that its 
energy requirements for maintenance, body-growth, and wool 
production are already met, requires about 4^ lb. of starch 
equivalent for each pound of additional gain, and that this 
figure remains much the same as the level of nutrition is 
raised. It is interesting to note how closely this ratio 
approximates to the 4 : i ratio for the conversion of starch 
equivalent into pure body fat. 

The data obtained in these experiments furnish further 
evidence in support of the Oxford contention that Wood’s 
standard of 9 lb. starch equivalent per 100 lb. liveweight per 
week for the maintenance energy-requirement of the sheep 
is too high. In seven lots of sheep in the Oxford experiments 
here reported average liveweight increases of o-66 lb. to 177 lb. 
were obtained, although the estimated starch equivalent 
consumed per 100 lb. liveweight was in no instance over 9-2 
lb. and in one was as low as 69 lb. The conclusion is 
drawn, therefore, that, “ at a rough guess ” or 7 lb. of 
starch equivalent per 100 lb. liveweight per week provided 
not only for maintenance but for normal growth, and 9 lb. 
per week provided for maintenance, growth, and the storage 
of fully half a pound of fat. 

In view of the Cambridge pronouncement confirming 
the 9 lb. standard, there is clearly need for further and more 
precise investigation of this point. 

In further discussion of the general formulation of food 
requirements the Oxford authors suggest that with growing 
animals the requirements for growth should be incorporated 
with the maintenance figure, rather than with the production 
figure as is customary. 

On this basis, and from their experimental data, they suggest 
standards as given below for the fattening teg, 9 to 12 months 
old: — 


Per 100 lb. Liveweight 

Starch Equivalent 
per Week 

Maintenance plus normal growth (f lb. live- 

weight weekly) . . . . . . . . 6-7 lb. 

Fat-production, per pound additional liveweight 

increase 4-4* lb. 


The standards are also set out in the appended alternative 
282 



Notes on Feeding 

form which will perhaps be more convenient for practical 
application : — 

Tegs, 9-12 Months, per loo lb Liveweight 

Starch Equivalent 
per Week 

Normal growth ( f lb. per week) . . 6*5 lb. 

Slow fattening (li lb. ,, ) .. .. 9*7 lb. 

Full fattening (2^ lb. ) •• *• 12-9 lb. 

Intensive fattening (2i lb. ,, ) •• •• 15*0 lb. 

It is pointed out that if the low Oxford maintenance 
standards, “ or anything like them, can be confirmed by 
further work, they will put a different complexion upon one 
of the sheepfeeders’ problems, viz. that of the relative 
economy of the fattening sheep at different levels of nutrition.” 
The standards hitherto used lead to the conclusion that a 
satisfactory efficiency of utilization of food can only be 
attained by intensive feeding, but if the lower Oxford 
standards are correct the level of nutrition would appear to be 
relatively unimportant in this respect. 



PRICES OF FEEDING STUFFS 





Manu- 

Cost of 

Starch 

Price 

Price 



Price 

rial 

food 

per 

per 

Pro- 

Description 

per 

value 

value 

equiv. 

unit 

lb. 

tein 


ton 

per 

per 

per 

starch 

starch 

equiv. 




ton 

ton 

TOO lb. 

equiv. 

equiv. 




,9. 

£ 

5. 

£ 

5. 


5. 


d. 

/() 

Wheat, British . . 

10 

0 

0 

8 

9 

12 

7^ 

2 

8 

1*43 

9-6 

Barley, British Feeding 

8 

15 

0 

8 

8 

7 

7i 

2 

4 

T-23 

6*2 

,, Argentine 

9 

0 

0 

8 

8 

12 

71 

2 

3 

1-29 

6-2 

,, Persian . . 

8 

13 

0 

8 

8 

5 

71 

2 

4 

1*^5 

6*2 

Oats, English, white 

9 

3 

0 

9 

8 


60 

2 

II 

I 56 

7-6 

,, ,, black 












and grey 

9 

3 

0 

9 

8 

M 

60 

2 

II 

1-56 

7-0 

,, Scotch, white 
,, Canadian 

9 

13 

0 

9 

9 

4 

60 

3 

I 

1-65 

7*6 

mixed feed 

9 

2 

0 

9 

8 

13 

60 

2 

II 

1*56 

7-6 

Maize, Argentine 

6 

15 

0 

7 

6 

8 

78 

I 

8 

0-89 

7-6 

,, Gal. Fox. 

6 

i 7 t 

0 

7 

6 

10 

78 

T 

8 

0-89 

7*6 

,, South African 











No. 3, White Flat 

7 

8t 

0 

7 

7 

1 

78 

I 

10 

0 • 98 

7*6 

Beans, English, Winter 

6 

15 § 

0 

17 

5 

18 

66 

I 

9 

0-94 

19 - 7 

Peas, English Blue 

1 1 

5 § 

0 

15 

10 

10 

69 

3 

I 

1*65 

i8'i 

„ Japanese . . 

22 

i 7 t 

0 

15 

22 

2 

69 

6 

5 

3'44 

i8*i 

Dari 

Milling Offals : 

8 

I 5 t 

0 

8 

8 

7 

74 

2 

3 

I • 20 

7*2 

Bran, British . . 

7 

12 

0 

16 

6 

16 

43 

3 

2 

I '70 

9*0 

,, broad . . 

8 

2 

0 

t6 

7 

6 

43 

3 

5 

1-83 

JO'O 

WeatingsJ 

8 

7 

0 

14 

7 

13 

5h 

2 

9 

I -.17 

10*7 

,, Superfine^ . . 

8 

17 

0 

13 

8 

4 

69 

2 

3 

1 *29 

12 ' I 

Pollards, imported . . 

7 

7 

0 

14 

6 

^3 


2 

8 

1*43 

I I 'Q 

Meal, barley 

10 

0 

0 

8 

9 

12 

71 

2 

8 

1*43 

6' 2 

„ ,, grade 11 .. 

9 

5 

0 

8 

8 

17 

V 

2 

6 

1*34 

6' 2 

,, maize 

7 

7 

0 

7 

7 

0 

78 i 

1 

10 

0-98 

7-6 

„ „ germ 

7 

10 

0 

IT 

6 

19 

84 

I 

8 

0*89 

10'3 

,, locust bean 

7 

15 

0 

.5 

7 

TO 

71 ' 

2 

1 

T • 12 

3*f> 

,, bean 

8 

12 

0 

17 

7 

15 

66 

2 

4 1 

1*^3 

19-7 

,, fish (white) 

,, Soya bean 



2 

2 

12 

13 

59 1 

4 

3 

2-28 

53*0 

(extracted) J 

8 

17 

J 

9 

7 

8 

64 

2 

4 

1*^3 

38*3 

Maize, cooked, flaked . .| 
Linseed cake- j 

7 


0 

7 

7 

TO 

84 : 

I 

9 

0*94 

9-2 

English, 12% oil 

10 

.5 

I 

0 

9 

5 

74 

2 

6 

1*34 

24*6 

9% 

9 

1 

1 

0 

8 

12 

74 

2 

4 

T'25 

24-6 

1. .1 

‘ 9 

7 i 

1 

0 

8 

7 

74 1 

2 

3 

1 • 20 

24*6 

Cottonseed cake. 


1 

1 

j 







English, Egyptian 


1 





' 1 





seed, 4j% oil 

6 

2 

0 

18 

5 

4 

1 1 

4- 1 

2 

6 

1*34 

17*3 

Cottonseed cake, 



1 




1 

1 1 



Egyptian 4 J% oil 
Cottonseed cake. 

5 

10 

0 

18 

4 

12 

4 ^ i 

2 

2 

I *16 

17*3 

decorticated, 7% oil . . 
Cottonseed meal, 

8 

I 5 t 

I 

1 

8 

7 

7 

68 I 

2 

2 

116 

34*7 

decorticated, 7% oil . 

8 

12t 

1 

I 

8 

7 

4 

70 

2 

T 

1 • 12 

36*8 

Coconut cake, 6% oil . . 

n 

/ 

5 

0 

18 

6 

7 

77 1 

I 

8 

0-89 

i6'4 

Ground nut cake. 










decorticated, 6-7% oil 

3 


1 1 

8 

._7 

9 

73 

' 2 

0 

6 

VI 

41*3 






PRICES 

OP FEEDINC 

5 STUFFS (continued) 



Description 

Manu- 
IMcc rial 
per value 
ton per 

ton 

Cost of 
food 
value 
per 
ton 

Starch 

equiv. 

per 

I 100 lb. 

Price 

per 

unit 

starch 

equiv. 

1 

Price 

per 

lb. 

starch 

equiv. 

Pro- 

tein 

equiv 

Ground nut cake, 

imported decorticated, 

£ £ s. ! 

1 

1 

1 

/ .. 

1 

1 


i‘. d. 

d. 

0/ 

. 0 

6-7% oil .. 
Palm-kernel meal, 

8 2 1 1 8 

! 

1 M 

1 

' 73 

1 10 

0*98 

41*3 

1-2% oil 

8 2 ' 0 12 

i 7 10 

: 71 

2 I 

I • 12 

i6-5 

F ceding treacle . . 

5 0 0 8 

i 4 12 


1 10 

; o*g8 

2-7 

Brewers’ grains, dried ale 
Brewers’ grains, dried 

6 5 i 0 II 

i 5 M 

] 

48 

2 4 

1-25 

12 *5 

porter . . 

1 5 17 : 0 11 

’ 5 

48 

2 2 

1 • 16 

12-5 

Dried sugar-beet pulp . , 

1 From £s ys. 

1 

1 

6d to £6 2S. 6d. per tor 
(according to factory) 

i ex factory' 


§ At Hull. t At l.iverpool 

I In these instances mannnal value, starch equivalent and protein 
equivalent are jinivisional. 

Note : The pnct's cpioted alxive reprt‘sent the averap;e prices at which 
actual wholesale transactions have taken place in London, unless other- 
wise staU‘d, and refer to the price ex null or store. The prices were 
current at the end of April 1937, ^^re, as a rule, considerably lower 

than the jirices at local country markets, the dilference being due to 
carriage and dealers’ commission. Buyers can, however, easily compare 
the relative values of the feeding .stuhs on offer at their local market 
by the method of calculation used in these notes Thus, if linseed cake 
IS offered locally ut ;/rT per ton, then since its mammal value is £i per 
ton as shown above, the cost of food value per ton is £10. Dividing 
this figure by 74, the starch equivalent of linseed cake as given in the 
Table, the cost per unit of starch equivalent is as. Sd Dividing this 
again by 22-^, the number of pounds of starch equivalent in one unit, 
the cost per lb of starch equivalent is 1-43^/ Similar calculations will 
show the relative cost per lb of starch equivalent of other feeding stuffs 
on the same local market. From the results cd such calculations a 
buyer can determine which feeding stuff gives him the best value at the 
prices quoted on his own markets. 1 he figures given m the Table under 
the heading rnamirial value per ton are calculated on the basis of the 
following unit prices ’ — N , ys. ^d , P/),, 2 $ yl , Kfi, y bd. 


285 




FARM VALUES OF FEEDING STUFFS 


The prices in respect of the feeding stuffs used as bases of comparison 
for the purposes of this month’s calculations are as follow : — 



Starch 

Protein 

Per 


equivalent 

equivalent 

ton 


Per cent 

Per cent. 

1 

Barley (imported) . . 

71 

6-2 

8 16 

Maize 

78 

7*6 


Decorticated ground-nut cake 

73 

41-3 

S 9 

„ cotton-seed cake 

68 

34-7 

8 15 

(Add los. per ton, in each instance, for carriage.) 


The cost per unit starch equivalent works out 

at 2-15 shillings, 

and 


per unit protein equivalent 0*81 shillings. An explanation of the method 
of calculation employed is given in the Report of the Departmental 
Committee on Rationing of Dairy Cows.* 

The Table is issued as a guide to farmers respecting the feeding value of 
their crops in relation to current market prices. (The “ food values,” 
which it is recommended should be applied by Agricultural Organizers 
and other advisers in connexion with advisory schemes on the rationing 
of dairy cows, are given in the November, 1936, issue of the Ministry's 
Journal, p. 816.) 

Farm Values 


Crop 

Starch 

equivalent 

Protein 

equivalent 

Food Value 
per ton, on 
farm 


Per cent. 

Per cent. 


Wheat 

72 

9*6 

8 3 

Oats 

60 

7-6 

6 15 

Barley 

71 

6-2 

7 18 

Potatoes 

18 

0*8 

I 19 

Swedes 

7 

0*7 

0 16 

Mangolds 

7 

0*4 

0 15 

Beans . . 

66 

19-7 

7 18 

Good meadow hay . . 

37 

4*6 

4 3 

Good oat straw 

20 

0-9 

2 4 

Good clover hay 

38 

7-0 

4 7 

Vetch and oat silage 

13 

1*6 

I 9 

Barley straw 

23 

0-7 

2 10 

Vnieat straw 

13 

0*1 

I 8 

Bean straw 

23 

1-7 

2 II 


♦ Obtainable from H.M. Stationery Office, Adastral House, Kingsway, 
W.C.2, price 6(f., post free 7^, 


286 






MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 
The Agricultural Index Number 

The general index number of prices of agricultural produce 
for April is 140 (base 1911 - 13 = 100) or 10 points higher than 
a month earlier and 17 points above that ruling for April, 1936. 
(If allowance be made for payments under the Wheat Act, 
1932, and the Cattle Industry (Emergency Provisions) Act, 
1934, the revised index is 143.) Prices of wheat, barley, oats, 
fat cattle and sheep, potatoes and wool showed a rise, but 
those of fat pigs, eggs, butter and milk moved downwards. 


Monthly index numbers of prices of Agricultural Produce. (Corresponding 
months of 1911-13 -- 100.) 


Month 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

January 

122 

107 

114 

117 

119 

130 

Februarv'' 

II7 

106 

II 2 


118 

129 

March 

113 

102 

108 

II 2 

116 

130 

April 

II7 

105 

III 

119 

123 

140 

May . . 

1 15 

102 

II 2 

III 


— 

June 

III 

100 

no 

in 

116 

— 

July 

106 

lOI 

114 



— 

August 

. . 105 

^05 

119 

113 

119 

— 

September . . 

104 

107 

119 

120 

127 

- — 

October 

100 

107 

114 

113 

125 

— 

November . . 

lOI 

109 

114 

113 

125 

— 

December . . 

103 

no 

II3 , 

114 

126 

— 


Revised monthly index numbers of prices of Agricultural Produce, allowing 
for payments under the Wheat Act (a) and the Cattle Industry (Emergency 
Provisions) Act (b) 


Month 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

January 

— 

in 

119 

124 

125 

133 

February 

- — 

no 

117 

122 

123 

133 

March 

— 

106 

112 

118 

122 

134 

April 

— 

log 

116 

126 

128 

143 

May . . 

__ 

105 

116 

117 

120 

— 

June , . . . ; 

— 

104 

114 

117 

121 

— 

July 

1 — 

104 

117 

120 

121 

— 

August . . - . j 

108 1 

1 108 j 

122 

120 

124 

— 

September . . . . 1 

108 

1 in , 

125 

128 

133 

— 

October . . , . 

104 

' 112 ; 

i ^21 

119 

129 

— 

November . , 

105 

113 : 

! 120 

119 

129 

— 

December . . 

107 

; 114 

120 

120 

130 

— 


(a) Commenced August, 1932. (b) Commenced September, 1934. 


Grain. Wheat, at an average of gs. iid. per cwt., was 
higher by iid. per cwt. than in March, and the index moves 

287 






Miscellaneous Notes 


upwards from 121 points to 131. Prices of both barley and 
oats rose by ^d. per cwt., the former averaging los. id. per 
cwt. and the latter 9 >s. $d.. while the respective indices rise 
from 124 to 132 and 115 to iig. In April, 1936, wheat 
averaged 6s. 5^. per cwt., barley 7s. ^d. and oats 6s. od., 
the relative indices being 85, 96 and 85. 

Livestock. During the month under review, quotations 
for fat cattle continued to rise, the average for second quality 
at 38s. ()d. per live cwt. showing an increase on that of March 
of 2s. ()d . : the index at 106 is higher by 4 points. The effect 
of adding the subsidy under the Cattle Industry (Emergency 
Provisions) Act, 1934, brings the index up to 120. At an 
average of is. oJ<i. per lb. for second quality, the price of 
fat sheep rose by per lb. ; a reverse movement of a similar 
amount during the base period accentuates the rise in the 
index, which at 153 is 8 points above that recorded for 
March. Baconers at iis. iid. and porkers at 12s. ^d. per 
score (20 lb.) declined by .^d. and c)d. respectively, the relative 
indices at 119 and 117 being lower by 3 and 7 points. 

Compared with March, dairy cows and store cattle were 
dearer; the index for the former rises from iii to 112 points, 
and that for store cattle from 105 to 109. Store sheep also 
realised higher prices, the index moving from 117 to 128. On 
the other hand, store pigs were reduced in price and index', 
the latter showing a fall of 3 points to 126. 

Dairy and Potdtry Produce. The regional contract price 
of liquid milk was reduced by id. per gallon in April, but owing 
to the seasonal fall between March and April of the base years 
having been considerably larger than this amount, the latest 
index rises to 215 points. 

Butter averaged is. i^d. per lb., a reduction of ^d. per 
lb., but here again, the decline which took place during the 
corresponding period of 1911-13 was heavier, and the index, 
as a consequence, rises from 100 to T04. Eggs at 8s. td. per 
120 compared with los. 2d. per 120 in March; the index at 
112 falls by 9 points. Quotations for cheese were not quite 
so high as a month earlier, and the average at £4 2s. od. per 
cwt. was reduced by 6d. per cwt. ; the index falls by i point 
to 109. The combined index for poultry at 113 compares 
with 123 in March. 

Other Commodities. At £8 13s. 6d. per ton, prices of 
potatoes were higher by 16s. 6d. per ton, but as a proportion- 
ately larger increase took place during the base years, the 

288 



Miscellaneous Notes 


index at 191 shows a reduction of 9 points. Quotations for 
both descriptions of hay remained unchanged, although the 
combined index falls from 101 to 100 in consequence of a 
slight rise in the base prices. Wool averaged is. per lb. 
or xd. more than in March and the index advances by 8 points 
to 138. 


Monthly index numbers of prices of indicidiial commodities {Corre- 
sponding months 0/1011-13 - 100 ) 


Commodity 

1935 

! »93<> 


T937 


Apr. 

i Apr. 

Jail. 

Feb. 

Mar 

Apr. 

Wheat 

64 

85 

133 

122 

121 

131 

Barley 

93 

9^ 

125 

124 

124 

132 

Oats 

08 

: «5 

120 

1 16 

115 

119 

Fat cattle . . 

86 

! <)2 

97 

99 

102 

106 

,, sheep . . 

141 

, 128 

140 

T37 

M5 

T53 

Bacon pigs 

108 

T I 1 


126 

T 22 

119 

Pork .... 

”3 

1 12 

^31 

125 

124 

117 

Eggs 

96 

. 107 

95 

115 

121 

112 

Poultry 

1 lO 

115 

120 

121 

123 

^^3 

Milk . ' 

^15 

-JI 3 

^71 ; 

171 

I7I 

215 

Butter 

89 

96 , 

93 

97 

100 

104 

Cheese 

91 

100 

107 

107 

I 10 

109 

Potatoes 

95 

164 

205 

1 201 

200 

191 

Hay 

<)9 

79 

98 

I q 8 

lOI 

1 100 

Wool 

«3 

97 

131 : 

! >3^ 

139 

138 

Dairy cows . 

99 

1 TOO 

111 1 


111 j 

1 12 

Store cattle 

85 

94 

09 

1 101 

105 1 

1 09 

,, sheep 

107 

109 

118 

113 

II7 1 

128 

pigs .. 

122 

1 22 

' 5 - I 

139 

129 i 

126 


Revised index numbers due to payments under the Wheat Act and the 
Cattle Industry (Plmergency Provisions) Act 


Wheat 

114 

120* 1 

• 3 . 3 * i 

134* : 

* i 

1.34* ; 

131 

Fat cattle . . 

100 

l of) ; 

112 , 

114 

117 

120 

General I ndex 

1 26 

128 ' 

1 

133 ' 

T 33 

^34 ' 

143 


* SupcTseding figtirt* previously piiblislied 


Arrangements for Demonstrations to Parties of Farmers 
and others at Rothamsted and Woburn Experimental 

Stations 

Farmers and all interested in agriculture in its practical, 
technical, or educational aspects are cordially invited to visit 
the Rothamsted and Woburn plots at any convenient time 
from now to the end of October. Mr. H. V. Garner, M.A. 

289 










Miscellaneous Notes 


(Camb.), and Capt. E. H. Gregory will be in charge of the 
demonstrations, and there is ample material at either of the 
farms to occupy a full day. 

The soil at Rothamsted is a heavy loam. The classical 
fields, laid down from 1843 onwards, form an unequalled 
demonstration of the effects of fertilizers on wheat, barley, 
mangolds and meadow hay. The continuous growing of 
wheat on Broadbalk field is of special interest to those who 
are now faced with the manurial and cultivation problems 
arising out of mechanized cereal farming. Modern fertilizer 
and cultivation problems are being investigated by the new 
field technique developed at the Station. 

These modern experiments are concerned with the manuring 
of potatoes, sugar-beet, wheat, barley, beans, mangolds, kale, 
clover and temporary grass. Rotation experiments test 
various alternative methods of returning cereal straw to the 
soil; and suitable equipment for the production of these 
manures is provided. In addition the effect of green 
manuring is being examined. 

Additional experiments deal with poultry manure and other 
organic fertilizers, the effects of bare fallowing, and rotary 
cultivation. Tests of soil fumigants against insect and other 
pests are in progress. Experiments on various points of pig 
management are carried out from time to time. Good types 
of implements are on view at the farm and a complete electrical 
installation has been added. Growing trials on the effect of 
cake feeding on pasture are being started. If the weather 
turns out too bad to permit of inspection of the fields the 
results can be examined in the Demonstration Room. 

The Woburn farm is on light soil. In addition to the 
classical fields, modern experiments are in progress on 
potatoes, barley, sugar-beet, kale, lucerne, pyrethrum and 
straw and green manure crop)s. It is not possible to see both 
Rothamsted and Woburn in one day. 

The Director, Sir John Russell, will be happy to arrange 
full details with organizations of farmers, farm workers and 
Others wishing to accept this invitation; small groups of 
farmers are specially welcomed. 

All communications and requests to visit the Stations should 
be addressed to the Secretary, Rothamsted Experimental 
Station, Harpenden. It would be a convenience if ample 
notice could be given so as to avoid the possibility of dates 
clashing. j 

290 



Miscellaneous Notes 


Export of Breeding Stock 

Number and declared value of animals, living, for breeding 
exported from the United Kingdom during 1936, with 
comparative figures for 1935- (From returns supplied by 
H.M. Customs and Excise.) 


Country to which 
Consigned 

1936 

1935 1 

Number 

Declared 

Value 

Number 

Declared 

Value 

Cattle. 


£ 


£ 

Australia . . 

121 

13.633 

52 

10.365 

Canada 

172 

16,040 

29 

3.722 

Irish Free State . . 

210 

7.548 

216 

5.683 

Kenya 

53 

i,8ii 

24 

1,117 

New Zealand 

4 

1,169 

5 

1.033 

Union of South Africa . . 

96 

8.369 

70 

5.409 

Southern Rhodesia 

6 

727 

4 

327 

Newfoundland and Coast 





of Labrador 

13 

1,460 


— 

Other British Countries . . 

34 

1.859 

20 

1.235 

Argentina 

230 

75.802 

199 

38.140 

Brazil 

30 

1.657 

47 

2,225 

Chile 

I 

118 

8 

524 

Egypt 

— 

— 

7 

310 

United States of America 

51 

3.860 

32 

2,935 

Uruguay . . 

23 

5.356 


1.788 

Sweden 

6 

489 


— 

Denmark . . 

5 

95 


— 

Other Foreign Countries 

7 

150 

7 

275 

Total 

1,062 

I40>i43 

731 

75.088 

Sheep and Lambs. 

1 

! 



Australia . . 

75 

i 2,533 

53 

2,332 

Canada 

163 1 

! 2,648 

74 1 

1.822 

Irish Free State . . 

228 i 

i 1,222 

129 

859 

Kenya 

: 27 1 

389 

6 

109 

Jamaica . . 


— 

12 1 

82 

Union of South Africa . . 

69 

904 1 

148 i 

2.171 

New Zealand 

M 

286 1 

2 

120 

Other British Countries . . 

1 II 

26l 

— 

— 

Argentina 

1 387 

10,928 

393 

13.815 

Brazil 

7 

93 

63 

801 

Chile 

24 

782 

31 

958 

United States of America 

20 

207 

— 

— 

Uruguay 

15 

386 

97 

3.470 

Soviet Union 

2,491 

25.746 

— 

— 

Finland 

365 

4.325 

— 

— 

Poland 

22 

265 

— 

— 

France 

47 

634 

9 

146 

Madagascar and 





Dependencies 

30 

415 

— 

— 

Other Foreign Countries 

55 

805 

51 

598 

Total 

4^050 

52.829 

1,068 

27.283 


291 




Miscellaneous Notes 


Export of Breeding Stock — continued. 


Country to w hich 
Consigned 

1936 

1935 

Number 

Declared 

Value 

Number 

Declared 

Value 

Swine. 


i 


i 

Australia . . 

^7 

784 

13 

449 

Canada 

17 

280 

1 

20 

Channel Islands . . 

130 

240 

56 

108 

Irish Free State . . 

17 

371 

17 

336 

Malta and Gozo . . 

20 

300 

32 

686 

Newfoundland and Coast 





of Labrador 

— 

— 

13 

55 

Kenya . . . . i 

12 

128 

I 

25 

Union of South Africa . . 

6 

174 

14 

415 

Other British Countries 

II 

192 

10 

150 

Brazil . . . . 

6 : 

05 ! 

54 

920 

France , . j 

^7 ; 

272 1 

9 

87 

Germany . . . , j 

— 1 

j 

II 

308 

Japan . . . | 

15 

746 ! 

5 ! 

345 

Switzerland . j 

14 1 

! 

— 

— 

Hungary . . . i 

1 

— 1 

39 

834 

Other Foreign Countries 

39 , 

1.105 j 

30 

698 

Total . . . . | 

1 

321 ! 

1 

5>2I3 j 

305 

5.436 


Farm Workers’ Minimum Rates of Wages. — A meeting of the Agri- 
cultural Wages Board was held at King’s Buildings, Smith Square, 
London, S.W.i, on Tuesday, April 27, 1937, Mr. W. B. Yates, C.B.E., J.P., 
presiding. 

The Board considered notifications from Agricultural Wages Committees, 
of decisions fixing minimum and overtime rates of wages and proceeded 
to make the following Orders : — 

Beds and Hunts, — An Order cancelling the existing minimum and overtime 
rates of wages and fixing fresh rates in substitution therefor, to come 
into force on May 2, 1937, to continue in operation until October 30, 
1937. The minimum rates for male workers of 21 years of age and over 
are unchanged at 325. 6d. per week of 50 hours, except (i) in the vveek 
in which Coronation Day falls when the hours are 41, with in addition 
not more than three hours in connexion with milking and the care of 
and attention to stock on that day, and (2) in the week in which Whit 
Monday falls when the hours are 41, with overtime throughout the 
period unchanged at per hour on weekdays, lo^d. per hour on Whit 
Monday, and ii\d, per hour on Sundays and in addition 10^^. per 
hour on Coronation Day. The minimum rates for female workers of 
18 years of age and over are unchanged at 6\d., with overtime at 'J^d. 
per hour on weekdays, per hour on Whit Monday, and g\d. per 
hour on Sundays and in addition S\d. per hour is payable for employment 
on Coronation Day. 

Cumberland and Westmorland. — An Order fixing minimum and overtime 
rates of wages to come into operation on May 16, 1937 the day 
following that on which the existing rates arc due to expire), and to 
continue in force until June 4, 1938. The minimum rates are as follows : 

292 






Miscellaneous Notes 


(a) for male workers of 21 years of age and over hired by the month 
or longer period, 41$. (instead of 40s. as formerly) per week of customary 
hours (which is defined as meaning a week of 62 hours) ; (b) for other 
whole-time male workers of similar age, 33s. (instead of 32s. as formerly) 
per week of 48 hours in winter and 34s. 6d. (instead of 33s. 6d, as 
formerly) per week of 54 hours in summer ; (c) for casual male workers 
of 18 years of age and over, S^d. per hour (instead of Sd. per hour as 
formerly) ; with overtime for all male workers of 18 years of age and 
over at gd. per hour (instead of 8 id. per hour as formerly) ; and (d) for 
all female workers of 18 years of age and over Gd. per hour (instead 
of ^id. per hour as formerly) for all time worked. 

Durham. — An Order fixing minimum and overtime rates of wages to 
come into force on May 14, i<)37 (the day following that on which the 
existing rates are due to expire) and to continue in operation until 
May 13, 1938. The minimum rates for male workers of 21 years of 
age and over are as follows : (a) horsemen who are householders, 34s. 
(instead of 335. as formerly) per week of 50 hours, with, in addition, 
75. per week to cover all time spent in attention to horses ; (6) horsemen 
who are not householders and are not boarded and/or lodged by their 
employers, 335. (instead of 32s. as formerly) per week of 50 hours, 
with, in addition, 35. Gd to cover all time spent m attention to horses ; 
(r) horsemen who are boarded and/or lodged by their employers, 33s. 
(instead of 325. as formerly) per week of 50 hours and all time spent in 
attention to horses ; (d) stockmen and shepherds, per week of the hours 
customarily spent in attention to stock, householders, 45s. (instead of 
445. as formerly), non-householders who are not boardeci and/or lodged 
by their employers, 38.') loid (instead of 375. loj^f. as formerly), w'orkers 
board<‘d aiid/or lodged by their employers, 375. (instead of 365. as 
formerly) ; (e) casual workers unchanged at Gd. per hour , and (/) for 
male workers, 325. (instead of 315. as formerly) per week of 30 hours, 
'rhe overtime rates lor all classes of male workers of 21 years of age 
and over (other than casual workers) remain at gd. ])er hour, except 
for overtime employment on Saturday afternoon, Sunday, Christmas 
Day and Good Friday, when the rate is lod. per hour. The minimum 
rates for female workers of 18 years of age and over are unchanged at 
25 . Gd. per day of 8 hours, with overtime at 4d. per hour. 

Gloucestershire . — An Order cancelling the existing minimum and overtime 
rates of wages and fixing fresh rates in substitution therefor to come 
into force on May 2, 1937, continue in operation until 

September 25, 1937. f minimum rates for male workers of 21 years 
of age and ewer are as follows : (a) heeid carters, 36s. Gd. per week of 
58 hours, except in the weeks in which Coronation Day and Whit 
Monday fall when the hours are 31 , (6) head shepherds and head stock- 
men, 385. per w^eek of 60 hours, except in the weeks in which Coronation 
Day and Whit Monday fall when the hours are 32^ ; (^:) under-carters. 
34s. Gd. per wec‘k of 34 hours, except in the weeks in which Coronation 
Day and Whit Monday fall when the hours are 48 , (d) under-shepherds 
ancl under-stockmen, 365. Gd per w^eek of 37 hours, except in the w’eeks 
in which Coronation Day and Whit Monday fall when the hours are 30J ; 
and (e) other male workers, 32s. per w'cek of 30 hours, except in the 
weeks in which Coronation Day and Whit Monday fall w'hen the hours 
are 41. Provision is made for an adjustment of the hours in respect of 
which the minimum rate is payable in Coronation week to meet cases 
where a holiday is given in lieu of a holiday in the w'eek in w^hich Whit 
Monday falls. The overtime rates for all male w'orkers of 21 years of 
age and over are unchanged at 9^- per f^our on w’eekdays, and iiif. per 
hour on Sundays, Coronation Day and Whit Monday. 


293 



Miscellaneous Notes 


Hertfordshire , — An Order varying the existing minimum and overtime 
rates of wages, the rates as varied to come into force on May 2, i937» 
and to continue in operation until further notice. The minimum rates 
for male workers of 21 years of age and over are 34s. (instead of 32s. 
as formerly) per week of 48 hours, except (i) in the weeks in which 
Easter Monday and Whit Monday fall when the hours are 39J ; (2) in 
the week in which Christmas Day and Boxing Day fall together when 
the hours are 31 ; and (3) in the weeks in which Christmas Day and 
Boxing Day fall when those days fall in separate weeks when the hours 
are 39J, with overtime at SJd. per hour (instead of M, as formerly) for 
all employment on Easter Monday, Whit Monday, Christmas Day and 
Boxing Day, and in excess of the above-mentioned numbers of hours, 
and lid. per hour (instead of lod. as formerly) for all employment in 
excess of 5^ hours on Saturday or other agreed weekly short day. The 
minimum rates for female workers of 19 years of age and over are 28s. 
(instead of 255. as formerly) per week of the numbers of hours mentioned 
above in the case of male workers, with overtime at yd. per hour (instead 
of 6 \d. as formerly) for all employment on Easter Monday, Whit 
Monday, Christmas Day and Boxing Day, and in excess of the above- 
mentioned numbers of hours, and 8|([i. (instead of y\d. as formerly) for 
all employment in excess of 5^ hours on Saturday or other agreed weekly 
short day. Special rates for overtime employment on the hay harvest 
are not fixed as formerly, but the rates for overtime employment on the 
com harvest are for male workers of 21 years of age and over, iid. per 
hour, and for female workers of 19 years of age and over, 8|(/. per hour 
for all employment on harvest work during the corn harvest (after 
5.30 p.m. legal summer time) on any day and in excess of 48 hours in 
any week, 

Lancashire . — An Order fixing minimum and overtime rates of wages to 
come into force on May i, 1937 following that on which 

the existing rates are due to expire) and to continue in operation until 
April 30, 1938. The minimum rates for male workers of 21 years of 
age and over are (i) in the Southern area, workers employed wholly 
or mainly with animals (i.e., horses, cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry'), 
385. (instead of 37s. for stockmen or teamsmen as formerly) per week of 
52^ hours, and other workers, 34s. 6 d. (instead of 335. 6 d. as formerly) 
per week of 50 hours ; and (2) in the remainder of the area of the 
Committee, workers of the special classes mentioned above, 41s. (instead 
of 40s. for stockmen or teamsmen as formerly), and other w'orkers, 
38s 6 d. (instead of 37s. Od. as formerly) per week of 60 hours in each 
case. The overtime rates for all classes of adult male workers are gd. 
per hour on weekdays and is. i^d. per hour on employment (other 
than time necessarily spent in the immediate care of and attention to 
animals) on Sundays. Overtime at gd. per hour is also payable for 
employment (other than the immediate care of and attention to animals) 
on Christmas Day and Good Friday. For female workers of 18 years of 
age and over the minimum rate remains unchanged at 6 d. per hour for 
all time worked. 

Leicester and Rutland . — An Order varying the existing minimum and 
overtime rates of wages, the rates as varied to come into operation on 
May 2, 1937. The minimum rates for male workers of 21 years of age 
and over are (a) in Leicestershire, unchanged at 34s. per week of 
54 hours, except (i) in the weeks in which Coronation Day, Whit 
Monday and Easter Monday fall when the hours are 48 ; (2) in the 
weeks in which Christmas Day and Boxing Day fall when those days 
fall in separate weeks when the hours are 48 ; and (3) in the week in 
which Christmas Day and Boxing Day fall together when the hours 

294 



Miscellaneous Notes 


are 42 (instead of 54 hours per week throughout the year as formerly) , 
and (b) in Rutland, unchanged at 325. 6d, per week of 54 hours in summer, 
except in the weeks in which Coronation Day, Whit Monday and Easter 
Monday fall when the hours are 48, and 50 in winter, except (i) in the 
weeks in which Christmas Day and Boxing Day fall when those days 
fall in separate weeks when the hours are 44, and (2) in the week in 
which Christmas Day and Boxing Day fall together when the hours are 
38 (instead of 54 hours per week throughout summer, and 50 hours per 
week throughout winter as formerly). The overtime rates in both 
counties remain unchanged at gd, per hour on weekdays and iid, per 
hour on Sundays. The minimum rates for female workers of 18 year^ 
of age and over remain unchanged at ^d. per hour, with overtime at 
Sd. per hour for Sunday work. 

Norfolk. — An Order cancelling the existing minimum and overtime rates 
of wages and fixing fresh rates m substitution therefor, to come into 
force on May 2, 1937, 21*^^ continue in operation until December 25, 
1937- The minimum rates for male workers of 21 years of age and over 
are unchanged at 335. 6d. per week of 50 hours in summer, except in 
the week in which Coronation Day falls when the hours are 42, and 
48 in winter, except in the week in which Christmas Day falls when 
the hours are 40, with, in addition in the case of workers employed 
as teamsmen, cowmen, shepherds or yardmen, 5s. (>d. per week, and 
in the case of sheep tenders and bullock tenders 4s. 6d. per week in 
lieu of overtime in respect of work in connexion with animals other 
than : (i) such work on Christmas Day, in respect of which an additional 
sum of 5s. is payable, except where a day's holiday with full pay is 
giv’en in the week in which that holiday falls or in the week immediately 
following ; and (2) such work in excess of three hours on Coronation 
Day, in respect of which excess overtime is payable. The overtime 
rates for all male workers of 21 years of age and over are gd. per hour 
on weekdays (including Coronation Day), and iid. per hour on Sundays. 
The minimum rates for female workers of 18 years of age and over are 
unchanged at ^d. per hour, with overtime at 6^d. per hour on weekdays 
and y^d. per hour on Sundays. 

Northamptonshire and Soke of Peterborough. — An Order cancelling the 
existing minimum and overtime rates of wages and fixing fresh rates 
in substitution therefor to come into force on May 2, 1937, and to 
continue in operation until October 30, 1937. The minimum rates for 
male workers of 21 years of age and over are unchanged at 32s. (yd. 
per w^eek of 50 hours, except : (1) in the weeks in which Easter Monday 
and Whit Monday fall when the hours are 41 ; and (2) in the w^eek in 
which Coronation Day falls when the hours are 41, w'lth, m addition, 
not more than 3J hours in connection with milking and the care of and 
attention to stock on that day. The overtime rates are unchanged at 
lod. per hour on weekdays, is. per hour on Sundays, Easter Monday and 
Whit Monday, and in addition is. per hour is payable for employment 
on Coronation Day. The minimum rates for female wwkers of 18 years 
of age and over are unchanged at 6Jcf. per hour, with overtime of y\d. 
per hour on weekdays and gd. per hour on Sundays, Easter Monday 
and Whit Monday, in addition gd. per hour is payable for employment 
on Coronation Day. 

Oxfordshire. — An Order cancelling the existing minimum and overtime 
rates of wages and fixing fresh rates in substitution therefor to come 
into force on May 2, 1937, to continue in operation until October 3, 
1937. The minimum rate^ for male wwkers of 21 years of age and over 
are unchanged at 325. 6d. per week of 50 hours, except : (i) in the week 

295 



Miscellaneous Notes 


in which Coronation Day falls when the hours are 41, with, in addition, 
not more than three hours employment in milking and the care of and 
attention to stock on that day ; and (2) in the weeks in which Whit 
Monday and August Bank Holiday fall when the hours are 41. The 
overtime rates arc unchanged at lod. per hour on weekdays, is. per hour 
on Sundays, Whit Monday and August Bank Holiday, and in addition 
15. per hour is payable for employment on Coronation Da3^ The 
minimum rates for female workers of 18 years of age and over are 
per hour, with overtime at Sd. per hour on weekdays, and g^d. per hour 
on Sundays, Whit Monday and August Bank Holiday, and gld. per 
hour on Coronation Day. 

Suffolk . — An Order cancelling tlie existing minimum and overtime rates 
lor male workers and fixing fresh rates 111 substitution therefor to come 
into force on May 2, 1937, continue m operation until August 28, 

1937. The minimum rates for male workers of 21 years of age and 
over are unchanged at 315. 6 d. per w^eek of 50 hours, except in the week 
in which Coronation Day falls w'hcn the hours are 41 with, in addition, 
m the case of horsemen, cowmen and .shepherds of 18 years of age and 
over, a sum of 6s. per week to cover employment up to 10 hours per 
w^ek in connexion with the immediate care of animals. The overtime 
rate for all male workers of 21 years of age and over remains at gd. 
per hour. 

Warwickshire — An Order \arying the existing minimum and overtime 
rates of wages, tin* rates as varied to come into force on May 2, 1937. 
The minimum rates for male w'orktrs of 21 }ears of age and over are 
325. (instead of 315. as formerly) per week of 50 hours in summer, except 
in the weeks in which Good Friday and Coronation Day fall when the 
hours are 41, and 48 hours m wdnter, except in the week when Christmas 
Day falls, when the hours are 39 J. The overtime rates are gd. per hour 
on weekdays and icd. ]K'r hour on Sundays, (iood Friday, Christmas' 
Day and Coronation Day (instead of ^\d. per hour as formerly). 
Provision is made for an adjustment of the hours in respect of which the 
minimum weekly wage is payable in the weeks in which Easter Monday 
and Boxing Day fall to meet cases where holidays are given in those 
wrecks instead of in the wet*ks in which Good Friday and Christmas 
Day fall. For female workers of 18 years of age and over the minimum 
rates are unchanged at ^d. per hour, with overtime at (>d. per hour on 
weekdays and per hour on Sundays, Good Friday and Christmas 
Day, in addition 'j\d. j^er hour is payable for employment on Coronation 
Da}. 

Merioneth and Montf^omery . — An Order fixing minimum and overtime 
rates of wages to come into force on May i, 1937 "tbe day following 
that on which the existing rates are due to expire), and to continue 
in operation until April 30, 1938. The minimum rate for male workers 
of 21 years of age and over employed wholly or mainly as stockmen, 
teamsters, carters, or shepherds, is 34s. per week of 60 hours (instead 
of 325. C>d. per week of 58 hours as formerly), and that for other male 
w^orkers of 21 years of age and over is 30s. per week of 54 hours (instead 
of 285. (>d. per week of 52 hours as formerly), with overtime in each case 
unchanged at gd. per hour. For female workers of 18 years of age 
and over the minimum rate remains unchanged at ^d. for all time 
worked. 

Enforcement of Minimum Rates of Wages. — During the month ending 

May 10, 1937, proceedings w^ere taken against six employers for 

296 



Wireless Talks 


failure to pay the nimimum rates of wages fixed by the Orders of the 
Agricultural Wages Board. Particulars of the cases follow 


Committee 


Fines 

Costs 

Arrears of 

No. of 

Area 

Court 

Imposed 

Allowed 

Wages 

workers 





ordered 

involved 



/ .S' (/. 

i 

£ s. d 


(.'ornwall 

Helston 

4 0 0 

I 1 0 

1.5 i<> 5 

2 

Lines. (Kest- 

Market 

4 3 


60 0 0 


even and 

Rasen 





Lindsey) 

1 

1 

1 

] 


Monmouth . . i 

Raglan 

018 0 

! 

(> 0 0 j 

J 

Norfolk . . 1 

Down ham 

1 0 13 0 

0 7 0 

5 ^ 9 3 

3 

! 

Market 





Suffolk 

Stow market 

1 (^0 

420 

.50 4 4 ' 

2 

Radnor 

New Radnor 

oil 0 


20 0 0 



1 

1 

10 7 0 

5 10 6 

184 10 2 j 

18 


(a) Dismissed under Probation of OlTenders Act 


WIRELESS TALKS, JUNE, 1937 


AGRICULTURAL 


Station and 
Date 

Time 
: p m 

Speaker 

Subject 

National : 




June 7 

t) 20 

1 Mr J it Stewart 

■ Haymaking 

14 

' 0.20 

Messrs [ ('» Stew.irt 

The Law relating to Bonn- 


and Ross Woodley 

(lanes and Trespass 

,, 21 

() . 20 

Mr j, G Stewart 

Weeds. 

,, 28 

0 . 20 

Messrs W S Manstiild 
and J (i vSteuart 

I'.irm Horses 

West : 



Junt* 2 

5 • 30 

Mr A W Ling 

Down on the Farm (Chil- 


dren's Hour ) 


(>.40 

Mr A W Ling 

h'or Western h'armers m 


particular 

North : 




June 17 


Messrs. T. Taylor, J A 

A Discussion about Sheep 

Willis, F. Barker and 
H IL Lamb 




Welsh : 

i 


1 

June 4 

; 7*53 

Professor Isaac Jones 

j How a Welsh Farm Insti- 

and Mr W H. Jones 

: tute Works 

.. 3 

1 7 30 

Mr. David Thomas 

j Farm and Animal Calls 

18 

Discussion between 

1 Rural Industries in Wales 



Messrs, W H Jones, 
Percy Cieorge, and K 
G. Bowen 

j To-day (in Fmglish) 

Scottish : 




June 3 

730 

Mr J, P. Ross Taylor 

Rural Housing. 

10 

0.25 

Not yet arranged 

i Prospects of the Highland 


Show. 

- 17 

6.0 

Lord Cochrane of Cults 

New Methods at Cults. 


interviewed by Mr. 
A. D. Buchanan Smith 



«> 22 

8.50 

Mr. J, B. Douglas 

At the Highland Show (i). 

23 

10.25 

Mr. J. B. Douglas 

At the Highland Show (2). 


297 






Notices of Books 

HORTICULTURAL 


Station and 
Date 

Time : 
p.m. 

Speaker and Subject 

National : 



Fridays . 



June 4 

7. 10 

Interesting Plants: Messrs. C. H. Middleton and 



N. K. Gould. 

,, II 

7.10 

Seasonal Topics : Mr. C. H. Middleton. 

i« 

7.10 

Roses : Messrs. C. H. Middleton and Courtney Page. 

.. 25 

7. 10 

Mr C. H. Middleton discusses gardening problems 



with an amateur 

West: 



June 20 


For Western Gardeners : Plant hybridization for 
amateurs : Messrs. D. Harris and C. F. Langdon. 

Scottish : 


June I 

^•15 1 

June in the Garden (i) : Mr Alexander Keith. 

- 14 

9.0 

.. (2) 

North : 

1 


June 4 

i 

... 1 

Mr W. E. Shewell-Cooper will describe his corre- 


spondence bag, pick out typical letters from readers 
in all parts of the North and give his replies. 

1 

,, is 1 

" 1 

Messrs. W. L. Steer and W. E. Shewell-Cooper will 

I 

1 

1 

give a talk on " Winter Produce for the Vegetable 
Garden." 

Northern | 



Ireland : j 

J une <1 ( 

_ 1 

Ulster Garden : Mr. H. G Fleet 

.. 23 1 

i 

“ ■ 1 



Foot-and-Mouth Disease. — No outbreak of Foot-and-Mouth Diseast? 
has been confirmed since February 5. At the time this issue of the 
Journal went to press, no part of Great Britain was subject to any 
restriction in connexion with this disease. 


APPOINTMENTS 

COUNTY AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION STAFFS: ENGLAND 

Cheshire ; Mr. W. L Steer has been appointed Horticultural Superin- 
tendent, vice Mr. H Fairbank, N.D.H. 

Derbyshire : Mr. B. K. Randall, N.D.H. , has been appointed Assistant 
Horticultural Instructor. 


NOTICES OF BOOKS 

The National Farmers* Union Year Book, 1937. Edited by Cleveland 
Fyfe Pp. 522. (London : National Farmers' Union. Price 55.) 

The sixteenth issue of this well-known annual publication as usual 
contains a large number of useful facts and figures for farmers and others 
who are interested in agricultural matters. An article by Sir John Orr 
deals with “ The Science of Nutrition and Agricultural Policy," a subject 
that has aroused great interest in recent years. A chapter entitled 
" Legislation Affecting Agriculture in 193b/* summarizes the Tithe Act, 
the Education Act, the Sugar Industry (Reorganization) Act, the Unem- 
ployment Insurance (Agriculture) Act and other important additions to 

298 





Notices of Books 


the Statute Book during last year. Other chapters are entitled ** The 
Marketing Schemes of 1936/* The Farmers* Statistical Abstract *' — 
compendious and up-to-date, “ A Transport Miscellany *' and ** Fertilizers 
and Feeding Stuffs.** All the information in this useful annual is made 
readily accessible by means of a comprehensive index. 

Journal of the Bath and West and Southern Counties Society. Vol. XI, 
1936-37. Pp. ciii -f 148. Illustrated. (London : Edward Stanford, 
Ltd. Price 6s. 6 d.) 

Agriculture in the West Country is well represented by this long- 
established annual, the present issue of which covers a wide and varied 
range of interests. Grass drying, which is engaging much attention at 
the moment, forms the subject of an article by the Earl Waldegrave and 
Mr. W. T. Mce. Mr. J. F. H. Thomas writes on “ Causes of Loss in 
Sheep,** and Mr. R. W. Marsh contributes “ Notes on Apple Canker.** 
Other articles deal with pit props, forestry, a survey of soils and fruit in 
the Vale of Evesham, dormant roots and buds of the cricket-bat willow, 
the effects of the removal and retention of lateral branches in the production 
of sets of the cricket-bat willow, Angmllulina Dipsaci as a cause of parsnip 
canker, experiments on the control of lichen on apple trees by means of 
tar-oil washes, control of insect pests of nursery fruit stock, the effect of 
nitrogenous fertilizers on potatoes affected with potato sickness, and fruit 
spraying. In addition there are reports and full information regarding 
the Bath and West and Southern Counties Society, now in its i6ist year. 

Agricultural Progress. Vol. XIV (Part. I) : 1937. Pp. 94. (Cambridge : 
W. Heffer & Sons, Ltd. Price 25.) 

The publication of the official organ of the Agricultural Education 
Association in parts is a new departure. The opening article in this 
part is an interesting account by Sir E. John Russell of the origin and 
development of the Rothamsted Experimental Station, the first of a 
series dealing with the history of the agricultural educational and research 
institutions of the United Kingdom. This is followed by papers on land 
reclamation in Scotland, the agriculture of South-Western Scotland, the 
Ayrshire early potato industry, bracken eradication, mastitis, milk in 
cheese- making, cacao shell as a foodstuff for cattle, ice-cream, insects 
associated with bracken, and chicken rearing for egg production, each by 
well-known writers on their respective subjects. The issue concludes with 
a record of recent activities, book review's and information concerning the 
Association. 

The Feeding of Crops and Stock ; Part I — The Plant. 2nd edition. By 
Sir A. Daniel Hall, K.C.B., F.R.S. Pp. ix -j- 120 and 18 Figs. 
(London : John Murray. 1937. Price 3s. 6 d.) 

This is an old friend in a new guise ! In its original form it was published 
in 1911. It acquired immediate and widespread popularity, and frequent 
reprints of this edition w'cre called for in the years that followed. The 
author has now deemed it desirable, in view of the great strides made by 
biological science during the last twenty-five years, to revise and re-write 
a considerable part of the subject-matter and to divide the treatise into 
three distinct parts. The volume under review constitutes Part I and 
deals with plant growth generally, the functions of the leaf and the roots, 
the changes of composition that take place within the plant throughout 
growth, and the subject of reproduction in the plant world. A particular 
feature of this new ^ition, compared with the former version, is that the 
arguments and illustrations have been drawn as freely from horticulture 
as from agriculture, and the work gains thereby in interest and usefulness. 

299 



Notices of Books 


Sir Daniel Hall needs no introduction to agricultural readers. His 
attractive style of writing, and the ease with which he brings the most 
difficult subject within the range of understanding of all classes of readers, 
have placed him .securely in the foremost rank of writers on agriculture. 
The present volume will be read wdth pleasure and profit by all who are 
interested in the growth of crops on the farm or in the routine of the 
garden. It calls for no special scientific training in the reader. Indeed, 
Sir Daniel expresses the hope that the complete treatise will find its way 
into the schools and furnish to the youthful mind a guide to the appre- 
ciation of the major processes by which life is carried on and our food 
is produced. 

“ What 1 have tried to do,” writes the author, ” is to provide the non- 
technical reader with a scientific approach to the understanding of how 
life is carried on.” Those who are familiar with his long record of literary 
and scientific achievement will agree that no one is more competent than 
Sir Daniel Hall to undertake this difficult and fascinating task * 

Grass- Drying : A Study of Production Costs in 1936. liy R. N. Dixey 
and R. P, Askew. Pp. 45. (Oxford : Agricultural Economics 
Research Institute. 1937. Price 15.) 

This small book is another addition to the rapidly-growing literature 
of grass-drying. Its appearance is one further proof of the general interest 
aroused by this new farm process. Whether grass-drying has come to .stay 
or not, it cannot be denied that the investigations of Woodman and his 
colleagues have stimulated agricultural inquiry on a scale that can scarcely 
be paralleled by any other discovery of recent times. 

The authors rightly point out that the commercial success of the process 
must depend on whether the dried young grass can be produced at a co.st 
to compete with the feeding stuffs it is designed to replace. With the 
object of gaining an insight into the economics of the problem, they 
selected, in the South Midlands, five farms, on which costings investi-^ 
gations could conveniently be earned out. Large Biilingham driers 
had been installed on three of these farms, while on the remaining two 
were Ransome and C'urtis-Hatherop driers respectively. 

The wTiters give exceedingly interesting and readable accounts of the 
season's experiences on these five farms. It is, in the main, a story of 
difficulties encountered and only partly overcome. The treatment of the 
grass, the cutting and delivering of the grass to the drier, the processes of 
drying, baling and storing are all dealt with in detail. It is shown that the 
inclusive cost per ton of dried grass produced on the selected farms 
averaged 185. ( yd . 

It may be observed that if the dried grass produced on these farms 
was the genuine ” concentrate ” product, then the cost w^as not really 
uneconomic, since on the basis of the present prices of feeding stuffs, 
dried young grass is w^orth at least £6 per ton for its digestible protein and 
starch equivalent, without taking into account the unassessable factors 
of minerals, pigments and vitamins. Reference to the figures given for 
protein content, however, shows that the product obtained was not of 
the highest grade, 'this was due to the circumstance that the herbage, 
under the influence of the heavy summer rainfall, was usually ” ahead ” 
of the drier. The area of grass to be cut must clearly be adjusted to the 
rate of output of the drying appliance. 

It is perhaps futile to speculate about the costings of grass-drying until 
the right machine has been designed and the correct field technique 
developed. For this reason the authors may agree that the findings from 
their 193b investigation should not be taken too seriously. It is sincerely 
to be hoped, how ever, that their researches in this direction will be continued. 

300 



Notices of Books 


Chemistry of Food and Nutrition. By H. C. Sherman, Ph.D., Sc.D. 
5th edition. Pp. x + 640. 38 Figs, and 64 Tables. (London : 

Macmillan & Co. 1937. Price 12s. 6 d.) 

This American textbook, which is well known to British students of 
the biochemical aspects of human nutrition, was first published in 1911. 
For the purposes of this, the fifth edition, it has been completely revised 
and re-written, a course that was dictated by the great advances that 
have been made in the chemistry of food and nutrition during the last 
quarter of a century. The result has been to provide teacher and student 
with a textbook embodying the findings of all the main nutritional 
researches of recent times. In its pages are expounded the most modern 
views of the relation of nutrition to the general well-being of the human 
organism. 

The keynote to the significance of this treatise is furnished by the 
author m the preface. “The present work/' he writes, “is published 
primarily to meet the needs of college classes. It is hoped that the book 
may also be of service to other readers who appreciate the importance 
of food and nutrition as factors m health." It follows, therefore, that 
the v<jlume may be perused with profit by those authorities in this country 
who are advocating an improved general standard of nutrition as a basis 
for a higher standard of health and physique among the British races. 

The author rightly emphasizes the importance of a well-balanced kne^w- 
ledge of all the four main factors ot nutritive requirement —energy, 
protein, mineral elements and vitamins, iiis treatment of the subject is 
indeed built up around this central idea. The chapters dealing with 
these factors leave little to be desired, and taken together, they form a 
comprehensive and satisfying picture of the* present .state of knowdedge 
in this crucial branch of biological lucpiiry. 

Not the lea.st v^aluable features of the book are the lists ol references 
at the ends of the chapters, and the tables in the appendix giving the 
organic and mineral composition, together wuth details ol vitamin content, 
of all the common foods that make up the human dietary. Although 
the volume deals specifically wuth the science ol human nutrition, an 
understanding of the principles belonging to this branch of nutrition 
makes possible a fuller appreciation of the lactors underlying the successful 
teeding of farm animals. 'I'lic discerning student of animal nutrition, 
therefore, will not hesitate to acquire this admirable new' edition of 
Ih-ofessor Sherman’s w'ork. 

A Practical Course in Agricultural Chemistry. By F. Knowles, F.I.C., 
and J. E. VVatkia, B.Sc , Ph.D., A I C. Intioduction by Sir John 
Russell. Pp. X -f 188, and 21 Figs. (London: Macmillan & Co., 
Ltd. 1937. 106’) 

This volume can truly be said to have filled a long-felt want. This is at 
once the pleasantest and the rarest compliment that can be paid to the 
author of a new textbook in these days of busy printing-presses. 

For one reason or another, the claims of the agricultural chemist to a 
concise and systematic account of analytical methods have in the past 
received but scant recognition. Who, among old students of the subject, 
docs not remember the typed sheets of instructions that used to be issued 
as a guide to chemical work in the laboratory ? How' impermanent were 
these sheets, their life being scarcely longer than the few short terms 
during which the laboratory exercises were being carried out ! 

Gone is now the need for the laboratory typescript, lor 111 the volume 
under review we have a practical textbook that will be welcomed by all 
teachers of practical agricultural chemistr>^ In the words of the authors, 
it has been produced to meet the requirements of students preparing for 

301 



Notices of Books 


the B.Sc. degrees in agriculture, horticulture and dairying, for the national 
and college diplomas in these subjects and in poultry husbandry. It 
brings together a considerable amount of material at present only accessible 
in scientific journals, specialized books and miscellaneous publications. 

By virtue of their long experience in the teaching of the subject, the 
authors have been able to use their discretion in discarding obsolete methods 
and views. They have set out to write a thoroughly up-to-date and 
reliable textbook, and in this object they have succeeded in the fullest 
.sense. The wide scope of the treatment is revealed in the titles of the 
main chapters, which deal with the analytical methods employed in the 
chemical examination of soils, fertilizers, feeding stuffs, dairy j^roducts, 
water, insecticides and fungicides. 

In an admirable foreword. Sir John Russell calls attention to a specially 
valuable feature, namely, that explanations are given not merely of the 
processes performed, but of the relation of the experiment to the whole 
subject, so that the student may be able to appreciate the bearing ol his 
laboratory exercises on farm practice. No student ot agricultural science 
should be without this textbook. 

Second International Congress for Microbiology, London, 1936. Report 
of Proceedings, Edited by R. St. John-Brooks. xiii - 1 - 579. 

Illustrated. (London : Harrison & Sons, Ltd. 1937. Price 205.) 

This volume, as its title indicates, gives a full account, in not far short 
of 600 pages, of the activities of, and the scientific work presented to, the 
Congress for Microbiology held in London from July 25 to August i, 
1936, under the Patronage of H.R.H. The Duke of Kent and the Presidency 
of Professor J. C. G. Ledingham, of the Lister Institute. Abstracts of the 
proceedings of the eight Sections in which the work of the Congress was 
carried on make up the greater part of the volume The Ih-esidential 
Address and those by the Ptesidents of Honour are also included. That ot 
Sir John MacFadyean may perhaps be specially mentioned here since it 
deals with the progress that has been made in our knowledge of, and 
power to control, contagious diseases of dome.stic animals during a period 
of nearly half a centur>^ Whilst in nearly all the Sections papers on 
matters of fundamental biological importance having some relation to 
agricultural science were read and discussed, yet the accounts of the 
proceedings in Section 2 (Viruses and Virus Diseases in Animals and 
Plants), Sub-section i ol Section 4 (Dairy Microbiology), and Section 5 
(Medical, Veterinary and Agricultural Zoology and l^arasitology), will 
perhaps be of more immediate interest to those engaged in research in 
agriculture. Virus workers will be interested in Dr. P. R White's method 
of cultivating plant viruses indefinitely in vitro on isolated plant organs 
under controlled conditions (p. 71), as also in Dr. W. M. Stanley's cry.stal- 
line Tobacco Mosaic protein (p. 82), a specimen of which was exhibited. 

The dairy bacteriologist will read with interest the reports of the 
discussions on the significance of the number and types of bacteria in milk 
(p. 183), and on the factors that determine the behaviour of micro- 
organisms in milk and milk products (p. 194). Other papers and dis- 
cussions. e.g. those on the decomposition of plant-remains in soil, manure 
and compost heaps (p. 223), on the microbiology of silage production 
(p. 231), and on the physiology of nitrogen-fixing organisms and the 
biochemistry of nitrogen fixation (p. 261) are of special interest to soil 
research workers. To plant physiologists the papers and discussion on 
bacterial photo-synthesis (p. 465) will appeal, whilst those on the prophy- 
laxis and serum treatment of human and animal diseases caused by 
anaerobic bacteria will be of particular interest to the veterinarian. The 
above are meiely a few selections from the vast amount of scientific work 

302 



Notices of Books 


on microbiology, in all its varied aspects, which was brought before the 
Congress and is so successfully garnered into the present volume. The 
Editor is to be congratulated on having produced with commendable 
promptitude a worthy record of this important Congress, for permanent 
reference. 

Journal of the British Dairy Farmers* Association. Vol. XLIX. Pp. 442. 
(London : British Dairy Farmers' Association. 1937. Price 6 s.) 

A glance at the names of the contributors to this well-known annual 
assures us that we shall find in it reliable and up-to-date information on 
the subjects with which they deal The first paper, by Messrs. Edgar 
Thomas and F. H. Villiers of Reading, provides some useful practical 
lessons from “ Grassland Dairying in the Blackmore Vale " and has been 
reprinted in pamphlet form. Evidence is pre.sented concerning the 
financial results on ten dairy farms during a four-year period, the general 
conclusion being that the most important single factor in the success or 
failure of these dairy farmers is their ability to make economical use of 
their chief raw material, viz., their grasslands. Mr. H. G. Robinson 
(Principal, Midland Agricultural College, Sutton Bonington) wites on 
“ Dairying in Derbyshire, Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire,” 
Dr. A. T. R. Mattick (National Institute for Research in Dairying) on 
“ Applied Bacteriology in Dairying ” and Mr E. Walker on ” Dairy 
Changes in Village Life,” and Mr. E. E. F. Colam contributes ” Some 
Remarks on Ice-Cream.” In addition to the usual reports and information 
concerning the Association, there are papers on butter tests, poultry and 
pigeons, and a detailed review bv Mr. T. W. Palmer on milking trials 
for goats in 1936 

The Social History of American Agriculture. By Joseph Schafer, Ph.D., 
LL.If Pp. viii -f 302, and 9 Maps. (London : Macmillan & Co., 
Ltd , 1936. Price los. 6d.) 

fhe essays that comprise this study were first delivered at University 
('ollege, London, in the early part of last year. In preparation for 
publication they have been extended, and documentary evidence has 
been provided. The de^’elopment of agriculture since the coming of the 
white man to America has successively taken on very varied phases, 
with consequent reactions upon the lives of the people engaged in 
the farming. In the short space of three hundred years a continent 
has been subdued, and it has, in some respects, reached the highest point 
of development in agriculture of any country in the world. Many and 
varied are the lessons that the countries of the older civilization in Europe 
have learned from their young relation. 

Schafer’s book tells the story clearly and concisely. Beginning with 
the planting of Virginia and the settling of the Pilgrim Fathers at New 
Plymouth, he brings the .story down to modem times, when farming in 
America has become as disastrous for many people as it has in the older 
countries .since the Great War, The gradual spread westward of the white 
man, the assimilation of the public domain, the varieties of farming 
that became necessary as each new strip of territory was occupied, will 
be not only fascinating to the farmer, but instructive to the layman, 
since they show how methods of exploiting land are restricted by its 
configuration, soil, and climate. There is no such similar .study of British 
conditions, although there are many books that touch upon the subject. 
For this reason students of the history of agriculture should read this 
work, which they will find suggestive of new and interesting lines of 
inquiry. 


303 



Notices of Books 


“ The Feathered World ” Yearbook, 1937 . Pp. 300. Ulus. (London : 

The Feathered World, g, Arundel Street, W.C.2. Price 2s.) 

This issue of a useful annual well maintains its normal standard. It 
contains articles dealing with all breeds of poultry, pigeons, ducks, geese 
and cage-birds, and there is an attractive illustrated supplement showing 
prize-winning birds of the year. The section on poultry organization 
provides information concerning the poultry press, poultry personalities 
and societies, and lists of county poultry instructors for England, Scotland, 
Wales and the Irish Free State, but, strangely enough, no mention is made 
of the very capable group of instructors who serve the industry in Northern 
Ireland. 

Great Farmers. By Professor J. A. Scott Watson and May Elliot Hobbs. 

Foreword by the Rt. Hon. Walter Elliot. Pp. 287, Ulus, (London : 

Selwyn & Blount. 1937. Price 125. 6d.) 

It is not too much to say that the land of England has been made in 
the past two centuries, and many of those eminent men who led in the 
task lived and died in comparative obscurity, except amongst the 
agricultural community, which took example from their activities and 
precepts. Professor Scott Watson and Miss Hobbs have rescued many 
of them from this undeserved obscurity in what is a fascinating tale of 
endeavour and achievement. The moral to be drawn from this enter- 
taining book is that the course of farming improvement is necessarily slow% 
and that a final outstanding result can only be secured by a tenacity of 
purpose that is often condemned by the urban population as the stubborn- 
ness of the farmer. 

Growth processes are slow and the making of new varieties of plants 
needs years to bring them to maturity. With animals the creation of a 
great herd or an outstanding flock is a matter of an even longer period. 
In one or two of the instances described in this book it took three genera- 
tions of men to bring intractable areas of land into a state of high cultiva- 
tion and prosperity. In others, one man’s lifetime was sufficient to secure 
fame and financial recompense for years of striving. The book should 
be widely read and should undoubtedly lead our predominantly urban 
population to a better understanding of the problems that farming and 
rural life present. 

The Production of Field Crops : A Textbook of Agronomy. By T. B. 

Hutcheson, T. K. Wolfe and M. S. Kipps. Pp. xvii + 445, and 1 10 figs 

(London : McGraw'-Hill Publishing Co., Ltd. 1936. Mce 21s.) 

The writer of a text-book on the field crops (of North America) must be 
under the same disadvantage as one who proposed to perform the same 
task for the continent of Europe. Clearly what is given to breadth of 
treatment takes away from depth. This is a text-book in the sense that 
it provides an arrangement of the subject and lecture lieadings for the 
instructor, who is left to select material according to his territory and 
supplement it from his local knowledge ; and that is the extent of its 
claim. It is apparently suitable for North American conditions and 
cropping, and may be regarded as having reached a high standard. The 
work may have an interest for British readers, but has little or no bearing 
on British agriculture. 


Printed under the authority of Ills Majesty’s Stationery Office, 
By William Clowes Sons, T.td., Duke Street, Stamford Street, S.E.i. 



THE JOURNAL 

OF THE 

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE 

Vol. XLIV No. 4 July, 1937 

NOTES FOR THE MONTH 

Research on Foot-and-Mouth Disease 

The following note has been contributed by Sir Joseph 
Arkwright, F.R.S., of the Lister Institute of Preventive 
Medicine, who is Chairman of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease 
R(!search Committee of the Ministry : — 

The fifth Progress Report of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease 
Research Committee of the Ministry of Agriculture and 
Fisheries, recently issued, covers the work of about five years. 

It contains a brief review of the past work and aims of 
the Committee and a general summary of the more recent 
results from the experiments recorded in detail in Appendices 
to the Report. The research has been carried out at the 
Pirbright Experimental Station where farm animals have been 
used, at the National Institute for Medical Research, 
Hampstead, the Lister Institute, Chelsea, and for a part of 
the time at Manchester University and at the Oxford Bureau 
of Animal Population. 

Numerous lines of research have been followed, but they 
can be grouped under three main headings : — (a) inquiry 
into the properties and behaviour of the virus, (b) the means 
whereby infection is introduced and spread, and (c) problems 
connected with resistance to the disease. 

These subjects have been investigated from many different 
aspects and considerable progress has been made. 

A close examination of the infective agent or virus and the 
minute particles of which it is composed shows that these 
latter are smaller than almost any other known microbes and 
arc about two-millionths of an inch in diameter. Their size 
and the very large number present in infective material 
probably account for the very high infectivity of this disease. 
After many trials of different disinfectants it has been found 
that washing soda is the most efficient means of destroying the 
virus outside the animal body, besides being cheap and easily 
obtained. Study of the properties of the virus has shown its 

A 305 



Notks for the Month 


general resemblance to the viruses of other infective diseases 
and has also provided means of distinguishing between Foot- 
and-Mouth disease and certain other diseases, such as vesicular 
stomatitis of the horse. 

Many kinds of animals, including rats, rabbits, mice, dogs 
and cats, can be infected artificially, but there is little evidence 
that most of them acquire the disease naturally and pass it 
on to others, though no doubt they can act as mechanical 
carriers. Hedgehogs alone besides cattle and other hooved 
animals are readily infected by contact and able to transmit 
the disease to other susceptible individuals. There is no 
proof, however, that in nature wild hedgehogs contract the 
disease and transmit it to farm animals. Since the hedgehog 
so nearly resembles cattle in relation to this disease, it is 
hoped that further use can be made of this animal to advance 
knowledge of the natural methods of infection and of procuring 
inununity. 

One of the chief aims of the Committee’s work has been 
to discover any means by which farm animals can be made 
more resistant to Foot-and-Mouth disease, and during the last 
few years experiments with cattle have been made on a larger 
scale than before; the experimental work has previously been 
largely carried out with guinea pigs and rats, which, though' 
cheap, easily handled, and invaluable for many purposes, do 
not quite reproduce the disease as seen in farm animals. The 
ease with which animals can be infected and the severity of 
the attack vary very much with the age and state of nutrition, 
and under some circumstances ill-fed and old animals suffer 
less than those in better condition; moreover, this observation 
seems to be applicable to several different species. 

Experiments on the protection afforded by vaccine or 
serum have been very much complicated by the discovery 
that there are several types of virus, all causing apparently 
identical forms of illness; but an attack due to one type does 
not protect against the other types. It has been found that 
one attack gives a more lasting immunity against infection 
with the same type than was formerly supposed. 

These experiences encourage the hope tiiat in spite of the 
great difficulties encountered a practical vaccine may 
eventually be obtained. One of the chief hindrances to 
preparing a vaccine consists in the difficulty in obtaining a 
sufficient supply of highly active virus. If a good and easy 
method of protective vaccination were discovered perhaps the 

306 



Notes for the Month 


chief value for this country would be the reduction of disease 
in those other countries with which the British Isles are 
connected through the meat trade. * 

The means whereby the disease is introduced into this 
country can seldom be ascertained, but it is known that 
chilled and frozen meat and bones may remain infective for 
many weeks. The Ministry has therefore ordered that un- 
cooked meat, bones and offals must not come in contact with 
farm animals, and an Order also prohibits the use of wrappers 
from imported carcasses in connexion with farm animals or 
for making bags to contain fodder for animals. These very 
important regulations, in addition to the other means of 
administrative control, are calculated further to diminish the 
risks of outbreaks. 

The Animal Diseases Research Association. 

The following note has been received from the Agricultural 
Research Council : — 

An extensive programme of investigation into the cause and 
prevention of disease in farm animals confronts the Animal 
Diseases Research Association, whose Institute, situated at 
Moredun, near Edinburgh, is under the direction of Dr. J. 
Ru-ssell Greig, M.R.C.V.S. 

It has for some time become apparent that the existing 
laboratories and animal accommodation at Moredun were in- 
sufficient for the Research Association’s rapidly extending 
work, and Treasurj' sanction has recently been given to the 
recommendation of the Agricultural Research Council and the 
Department of Agriculture for Scotland that a grant not exceed- 
ing £9,800 should be made available (after taking into account 
any receipts from other sources) from the Development Fund 
to enable necessary building extensions to be undertaken. 
Further, the permanent staff of the Institute will be strengthened 
by the additional appointment of a senior and a junior research 
officer, with a full complement of laboratory assistants. 

In view of the economic importance of grass sickness, it 
became clear to the Department of Agriculture for Scotland and 
the Agricultural Research Council that further extension and 
intensification of the research into the cause and prevention 
of this disease were necessary. Besides the capital sum already 
mentioned, which was approved on exceptional terms in order 
that the needs of the grass sickness investigations might be met 
immediately, the Treasury have sanctioned an appropriation 

Aa 307 



Notes for the Month 


from the Development Fund to the Department of Agriculture 
for Scotland of such sum not exceeding £ 2,, 200 as, after taking 
into account any funds provided from other sources, might be 
required by Moredun Institute to meet the expenditure for 
extended work on this disease during the current financial year. 
Several contributions towards the cost of grass sickness investi- 
gation have been received from outside sources, notably that 
from the Racecourse Betting Control Board, who have granted 
^1,000 for the work on grass sickness at Moredun during 1937. 

The granting of these additional sums will make it possible 
to test on a large scale in the field the value of vaccination of 
horses against infection with grass sickness. For this purpose 
additional temporary veterinary appointments have been made. 
It should be clearly realized, however, that while the cause of 
this fatal disease which is reported to have killed some 1,200 to 
1,500 horses last summer and is by no means confined to 
Scotland, is suspected to be due to poisoning developed in the 
intestine by certain bacteria, taken in on grass or in some other 
way during feeding, this theory, though promising, is not yet 
proved. The vaccination trial, which is being made after 
careful preliminary experiment, is intended as a further test of 
this theory. 

Meat 

The Imperial Economic Committee has recently published 
a useful summary of the figures relating to world production 
of and trade in meat.* The figures relate to the period 1929- 
1935, but there are appendices on “ Regulation of Meat 
Imports into the United Kingdom ” and on “ Meat Duties 
and Quantitative Restrictions in Foreign Importing Coun- 
tries,” in which the information, in some instances, also relates 
to 1936. 

Perhaps the most interesting section of the publication is 
that dealing with the increasing share of home production in 
the total meat supplies of the United Kingdom. In the 7 
years under review, the output of beef and veal in the United 
Kingdom increased by over i million cwt. and comprised 
52 per cent, of the imports requirements in 1935, as against 
48 per cent, in 1929. The home production of mutton and 
lamb declined from 46 per cent, to 43 per cent, of total 

* Meat : A Summary of Figures of Production and Trade relating to Beef, 
Mutton and Lamb, Bacon and Hams, Pork, Cattle, Sheep, Pigs and Canned 
Meat. Obtainable from H.M. Stationery Office, Adastral House, Kings- 
way, London, W.C. 2 . lYice 2s. 6d., post free 25. 9 ^. 

308 



Notes for the Month 


supplies. In the same period, the output of pig meat is 
estimated to have increased by no less than 2| million cwt., 
and to have accounted for almost exactly one-half of the 
United Kingdom consumption of pig meat in 1935, compared 
with 39 per cent, in 1929. 

In addition to the expansion in home production, Empire 
countries are providing an increasing share of United Kingdom 
meat requirements. The Empire, as a whole, is a net importer 
of all meats, owing to the large import demand of the United 
Kingdom, but the import balance has diminished appreciably 
in recent years. Of the imports in the United Kingdom in 
1935, Empire countries furnished 24 per cent, of the beef 
and veal as against only 10 per cent, in 1929, and 81 per 
cent, of the mutton and lamb, compared with 59 per cent. 
With regard to bacon and hams, the Empire share of total 
imports rose from under 9 per cent, in 1929 to 21 per cent, 
in 1935- 

The world trade in meat as a whole declined by about 12 
per cent, between 1929 and 1935. The increase in world 
trade in beef during the immediate post-war period was 
followed by a downward trend up to 1932. Supplies were 
maintained at this reduced level in the two succeeding years, 
and an upward movement occurred in 1935. International 
trade in mutton and lamb experienced a marked increase in 
the post-war years to a peak in 1931. A declining tendency 
was in evidence in the three succeeding years, but was 
apparently checked in 1935. International trade in pig meat, 
which is dominated by the movement of bacon and hams to 
the United Kingdom, showed a marked rise to a peak in 1932, 
but was substantially reduced between 1932 and 1935 owing 
to the regulation of imports into the United Kingdom. 

Fruit 

The Imperial Economic Committee has also published its 
annual summary of the world production of, and trade in, the 
chief kinds of fresh, canned and dried fruit.* It will be useful 
alike to those who are interested in the fruit supplies of the 
United Kingdom and to those interested in a growing Empire 
industiy. 

The review, which covers the period 1929-1935, shows that, 

* Fruit : A Summary of Figures of Production and Trade relating to 
Apples, Pears, Bananas, Citrus Fruit, Grapes, Wine, Raisins and Currants 
and Canned Fruit. Obtainable from H,M. Stationery Olftce, Adastral 
House, Kingsway, London, W.C.2. Price 2s. 6d., post free 2s, Sd, 

309 



Notes for the Month 


although the world export trade in apples, pears, oranges 
and lemons during 1934 and 1935 was, with each commodity, 
on the average on a somewhat smaller scale than in the 5 
preceding years, the quantities of these fruits exported from 
Empire countries were substantially heavier. Further, 
exports of certain other fruits, including grapes, grapefruit 
and canned fruits from Empire countries, have continued to 
increase. 

Changes in the world output of the different kinds of fruit 
are difficult to measure over short periods, but there is little 
doubt that since the War the general tendency has been one 
of expansion, more especially in those countries growing fruit 
largely for export; and trade has develop)ed considerably, 
particularly in citrus fruits, bananas and the various kinds 
of canned fruits. In fact, exports of canned fruit increased 
steadily from 1930 to 1935, in which year they easily attained 
a new high level. 

A distinctive feature of the United Kingdom trade has been 
the marked growth of the imports from Empire countries, 
which in 1935, ^ record year, were over seven times greater 
than in the years before the War. The Empire is a net 
importer of all the principal fruits, with the one exception, 
in normal years, of bananas. Expanding imports from the 
Dominions are, however, reducing the import balance 
considerably. 

Interesting Birds: (5) The Song-Thrush 

As well-known as the blackbird and as often seen in 
gardens and orchards, the song-thrush is with us all the year 
round. It is an accomplished singer, although inferior in 
this respect to the blackbird, and may be heard at seasons 
of the year when most other birds are silent. Its food is 
much the same as that of the blackbird. It is, however, less 
prone to take cultivated fruit, and has an especial liking for 
snails. Its good work in the destruction of these and other pests 
should be enough to commend it to the gardener. “ Thnish- 
stones " are common objects of the countryside. An indi- 
vidual song-thnish will regularly use one particular stone on 
which to crack snails, and the ground around the stone 
will, in time, become littered with fragments of shell. The song- 
thrush’s mud-lined nest, with its four or five beautiful blue, 
black-spotted eggs, is well-known to most country-folk. Like 
the blackbird, the song-thrush, when nesting, makes little 
310 




^onj;-thru'.h bnii^in" food ti 



Notes for the Month 


or no attempt at concealment, and sometimes rears two or 
even more broods of young in a season. It has always been 
one of our commonest birds, and is undoubtedly a beneficial 
species. 

Quick Drying of Hay 

The following note has been communicated by Mr. J. St. 
Bodfan-Griffith : — 

Some method for the quick drying of hay has been evolved 
in most parts of Scandinavia and North Germany, where the 
summers are either short or inclined to be wet. With the 
tripod method from North Germany many British farmers 
are acquainted. In Scandinavia, however, an even quicker 
method is practised, whereby the crop may be set up to dry 
at once. In Norway, where the rainfall is heavy, it is mostly 
grass that is dealt with, chiefly, no doubt, on account of the 
fact that grass grows relatively well and also owing to the 
difficulties of cultivating such mountainous country. 

In Sweden, however, a special crop is usually grown for 
the purpose, made up of approximate!}' : 

17 lb. Swedish Red ('lover j 

II lb. Timothy, and [ per acre, 

() lb. Alsikc ' 


and included in the regular rotation of : fallow — winter wheat 



— mixed com — clover hay, for several seasons — and mixed 
com again (Ultuna Rotation). The grass and clover seeds 

311 




Notes for the Month 


are sown down under mixed corn. Farmyard manure is 
applied in the fallow, phosphoric acid with the wheat and 
nitrogen and phosphoric acid with mixed corn again; 
sufficient potash being present in this district. The seeds crop 
is grown primarily for fodder, the first cut for hay, and the 
second (in August or September) for Silage (A.I.V.), and 
eventually grazed before ploughing in. 

The hay crop is cut when the first signs of colour are visible 
on the clover hud, and is dried on “ Hassjor.” These 
" hassjor ” or hay racks vary in construction and material, 
being modified to suit local conditions, but the principle on 
which they are designed is always the same. In the north, 
for example, where wood is plentiful and cheap, the racks 
are made entirely of wood (Figs, i and 2), whereas further 
south wire or cord is used instead of wood for horizontals, 
and we may take the latter as being more typically interesting. 

Wooden stakes, 7-9 ft. long and pointed at both ends, are 
used for uprights; q of these are set up, 3-4 ft. apart, using 
a stout crowbar for making holes, and arc best set on either 
side of a straight line for strength (Fig. 3), the end stakes 
being set at a slight slant away from the others, for the same 
reason. Pliable wire or tarred hemp line is then stretched 
across by securing it to the first stake and giving it a turn 



Fig. 2. — ^Wooden rack covered with hay. 


around each of the others in succession. On this the green 
crop is hung to dry. 

Green clover may be hung up at once, but grass should lie 
for a few hours after cutting. The racks can be set up in 
the hay field as soon as a sufficient area has been cut to allow 
312 






Notes for the Month 


room for them. The hay is then brought up to the racks, 
as for cocking. A small horse-drawn sweep is most useful 
and practical for this purpose. The hay is then hung over 
the bottom line, using a hay fork. It is surprising how easy 
this is to do and how well the hay hangs in its green state. 
When the first line is covered, wire is stretched across, as 
before, leaving a space of from 2-4 in. above the covered 
line beneath, and more hay hung on that. It is then often 
advisable to make a support to prevent sagging in the middle, 
and this may be done quickly by securing a stake diagonally 
inwards from the end stakes of the rack. Hanging is then 
continued. 




Fig. 3 — Rack with wire horizontals and end stakes sloping outward.s The plan 
show's position of stakes on eithtT .side of central line 


Once on the rack, the crop is safe for weeks and wall be 
practically unaffected by rain or storm. This allows 
harvesting operations to go on steadily, uninterrupted, for 
example, by the necessity of carrying one field before cutting 
another in a wet season. The result is that all the crop may 
be cut in prime condition. 

In good weather, the crop on the racks w'ill dry in 2 
or 3 days, but in wet seasons it may be necessary to leave 
it for a week to ten days before it is safe to carry it to stack. 
The more quickly it dries, the better the quality of the hay 
will be, and, of course, it should be carried as soon as 
possible after it is dry. Beyond this the possibilities of damage 
are infinitely less than with cocking. 

A four-line rack of this kind, covered with clover hay, 
holds from 77-110 lb. of dry hay, per running yard, depending 
on the amount of moisture in the crop at the time of racking, 
and one man usually makes and covers 8 racks per day. At 
this rate 5 men would just about keep pace with a mowing 
machine. 

The racks are made without difficulty, and it will be found 

313 


Notes for the Month 


no more trouble to hang up the crop than to make a cock — 
in fact, less skill is required than in good cockmaking, and it 
is certainly far less tedious and much quicker than all the 
turning so often necessary before cocking. 

Jordhrukstekniska Foreningen, Uppsala, through whoso 
courtesy the diagrams arc reproduced, have worked out costs; 
those of two methods are given for comparison : — 


Q)sts of drying i ton of hay, all costs of labour, material and trans- 
portation from the field included. Costs, calculated to the nearest 
represent averages from 4 farms in 1928 : 


Method of 
drying 

Labour Horse labour ! 

, valued at valued at ^d. 
\(yid, per hour per hour | 

Cost 

of 

materials 

Tf)TAL 


s. d. 

s. d. 


— 

Cocks . . 

\ ^ 5 h 

T 5 



Wire Racks 

2 ll 

i 61 




It will be noticed that the difference in the cost of making 
hay on racks and in cocks is only one shilling per ton, or 
approximately 1-3 per cent, of its value, which is insignificant 
when the far higher feeding value of rack hay is taken into 
consideration. Even in wet seasons, drying hay on racks 
assures at least an average quality crop, whereas that 
dried in cocks under similar conditions, may often be so poor 
as to be of practically no value at all ! In excessively hot 
or dry seasons, it has been found that hay dried on racks 
sustains less loss through withering and scorching of the leaves. 
In fact, rack hay made from a crop that is mainly clover is 
the sort most farmers long to produce ; one has only to touch 
or smell it to be filled with envy, while for dairy cows, it is, 
in itself, almost a balanced ration. With 11-14 lb. of it, 
some silage or roots and a little home-grown crushed corn, in 
our dairy rations, we could wave goodbye to concentrates, as 
usually understood, for the rest of our lives ! 

Sampling Observations on Wheat 1936>37: Report for 
Second Quarter 

The observations from appearance above ground to 
tillering date are summarized in the accompanying Table, 
which shows the date of tillering (defined as the moment 
when the number of shoots is double the number of plants), 
the rate of tillering and the plant number at tillering date. 

314 






SAMPLING. OBSERV ATKINS ON WHEAT. Kj.V-i/ SECOND QUARTER 


Notes for the Month 



315 


Squarehead’s Master t 1933-3O. X O*' March 5. 




Notes for the Month 


The values for the present season may be compared with the 
averages for the four previous seasons, shown in adjacent 
columns. 

The weather of the past quarter has been marked by un- 
precedented rainfall, deficiency of sunshine, and absence 
of frosts in January and February. The rate of progress of 
wheat in growth has, however, in most cases been normal up 
to tillering date, except that the three northerly stations, 
Newport, Boghall and Carlisle, were rather late. There was 
no exceptionally early tillering, the first date recorded being 
for the local variety at Seale-Hayne on January 22. Tillering 
took place during February at three stations. At Cirencester, 
Yeoman and Little Joss tillered towards the end of February, 
but Squarehead’s Master lagged behind, and has not yet 
reached the 2 to i ratio, though the plant has now begun to 
increase its height. Of the remaining stations, Sprowston 
and Wye tillered during March and Newport, Boghall and 
Carlisle in April. It is interesting to note that at Boghall 
tillering is on the average three months later than at Seale- 
Hayne. By ear emergence, the average interval between the 
two stations has dropped to 16 days. 

Squarehead’s Master generally tilleis slightly later than 
Yeoman, as the averages show, but this year there was no 
consistent difference between the two varieties. Squarehead’s 
Master being much later at Cirencester and Wye, but con- 
siderably earlier at Newport and Plumpton. 

The rate of tillering was slightly slower this season than 
usual, low values occurring at Rothamsted, Wye and Seale- 
Hayne, which are among the stations where tillering took 
place early. The highest rates occurred as usual at the late 
stations. 

At most stations, plant elimination since the first count 
has been fairly small this year, presumably owing to the 
absence of severe frosts, and plant numbers arc generally 
somewhat higher than usual. Exceptions are Plumpton and 
Newport, the two stations with the lowest average plant 
numbers. At Newport, indeed. Yeoman has almost failed, 
the plant numbers having dropped by about half since the 
first count on December 23. It will be interesting to see to 
what extent the plant recovers later. Last year, it will be 
remembered, Newport had a very sparse plant, yet produced 
the highest yield of all stations at harvest. 


316 



IMMATURE GRASS AND YOUNG SWARDS-I. 


Professor R. G. Stapledon, C.B.E., M.A., 

Welsh Plant Breeding Station, Aberystwyth. 

The (flying of grass, like all innovations, serves to em- 
phasize a number of facts which have a significance reaching 
much farther than the ends immediately in view. The dry- 
ing of grass is desirable, and when all the processes are per- 
fected will be of immense importance, for the sole reason 
that it affords a means of storing immature grass. 

We are perhaps inclined to forget that the product must 
always come before the means of putting it to some new 
purpose. Nor must we forget that immature grass is always 
valuable, whether dried or not; indeed, it is probably most 
valuable when it is on the field, still alive and growing. Facts 
are being accumulated as to technique and costs of drying 
grass to be used primarily as a concentrated winter and off- 
season feed. It is therefore certainly logical that inquiries 
should be set on foot to ascertain whether it might not be 
more satisfactory, and cheaper, to produce at least some 
proportion of the immature grass required for the winter and 
for other difficult times of the year. 

The grazing year divides itself naturally as follows; — 

(i) January to oml of March (m late and hilly districts, to end of April), 

(j) April to end of June 

(3) Ji'b' August. 

( 4 ) Septeinhor to early-muldle October. 

(5) Karly-niiddle t)ctober to January. 

In most districts, and in most years, the only comparatively 
safe grazing periods are April to June and September to 
early-middle October. Frequently during both of these 
periods properly-managed swards will produce more imma- 
ture grass than the farmer can contrive to convert there and 
then, and on the spot. In some years the period July- August 
is highly critical, while in most years it is a period that 
presents considerable anxieties to ffie grazier. In practically 
all districts the period January-March is much more critical 
than the period mid-October to December. It would probably 
be no exaggeration to say that at least 70 per cent, of the 
grassland problem centres on the three difficult periods, 

317 



Immature Grass and Young Swards 


July- August, mid-October to December, and January- 
March, and in this rising scale of importance. In cold fact 
it is quite impossible to work out a rational technique of 
grassland management before and until the economist will 
be obliging enough to inform the agronomist as to the precise 
value of the dry matter in a ton of immature grass (a) dried and 
nicely stored away in the barn, and (6) out on the field and 
still alive at each of the five periods of the year above 
mentioned. 

It is not the intention of this pa}x?r to attempt to assist the 
economist to do his own job, and the question of costs of 
production will not be once mentioned: the intention is to 
discuss some of the more important aspects of the problems 
involved, and to show that immature grass in considerable 
quantities can be produced on the field at each of the most 
critical periods. It will also be shown that animals thrive 
on such grass. 

The Characteristics of Immature Grass. Although the 
chief facts about immature grass are now generally known, 
a brief statement will not be out of place, while certain 
characteristics of such grass deserve more consideration than 
they have anywhere received. 

Immature grass is in a state of active growth: it consists 
of a high proportion of leaf, and leaf is more nutritious than 
stem: it is highly concentrated in propnjrtion to its 
immaturity.* the ultimate chemical proi)erties of immature 
grass show considerable seasonal variation, and it would 
appear from the results of the resc'arches condiu ted at the 
Hannah Dairy Research Institutcf that the biological values 
of the proteins themselves show marked seasonal differences. 
Thus it has been shown that the biological value of autumn 
immature grass is not as high as that of spring immature 
grass for milk production, the proteins of the latter being 
richer in lysine. This is not to say that the proteins of 
autumn, or indeed of winter, grass are not valuable, or that 

* The range of chemical ditfcrciiccs as between hay and pasinre grass, 
leaf and stem, and herbages of different periods of growth, burned herbage 
and green herbage, and other details are concisely shown by Fagan. 
See Fagan, T. W., The nutritive value of grasses, Jour. Univ. Coll. Wales, 
Agricultural Department, Vol. XVI, 1927 ; and Fagan, T. W., The 
influence of management on the nutritive value of herbage plants, Agric. 
Progress, Vol. VIII, 1931. 

f See Morris, S., Wright, N. C., and Fowler, A. H., The nutritive value 
of proteins for milk production, Jour. Dairy Res., Vol. VIl, No. 2, May, 

193^. 

318 



Immature Grass and Young Swards 


they may not be of particular value to particular classes of 
stock; nor is it to say that by the adoption of appropriate 
methods it may not be possible to grow grass capable of 
producing “ spring ” proteins in the autumn. These are 
matters to which reference will again be made at a later 
stage. 

A very important property of immature grass is its suc- 
culency. We know all too little as to what constitutes 
" succulency,” but we do know that succulent herbage is 
palatable and that it contains a higher percentage of water 
of constitution than does less palatable and more mature 
herbage. In this connection it is important to emphasize 
that the water content of herbage is high in proportion as 
it is growing rapidly, and there is strong presumptive 
evidence in support of the view that herbage is nutritious 
(or, if not “ nutritious ” in the nutrient or ingredient sense, 
at least serviceable to the animal) in proportion to the accen- 
tuation of these properties. An animal thrives well accord- 
ing as it can make for itself long rests between its periods 
of grazing and of chewing the cud. The point about a suc- 
culent herbage is that an animal will eat more per unit of 
time than it will eat of a less succulent and more mature 
herbage, and moreover, the animal will eat sufficiently more 
to have taken in more dry matter (and therefore, proportion- 
ately, considerably more nutrients, for the dry matter of 
succulent herbage is richer than that of less succulent herbage) 
from the succulent (and watery) herbage than from 
mature (less watery) herbage.* 

The time factor is one of great importance as affecting the 
serviceability of food-stuffs, and particularly of herbage 
plants growing in situ. Properly, digestibility (which in effect 
implies the usefulness of a food) should take heed of this 
factor. In the chemical analysis, of e.g., “ digestible pro- 
tein,” no value can of necessity be given to the time factor 
as here understood. A food-stuff with a higher digestible 
protein might in fact be less serviceable to the animal than 

* The evidence for the views here expressed was derived from experi- 
ments conducted at the Welsh Plant Breeding Station during the period 
1925-1026. 

See Stapledon, R. G., and Jones, Martin G., The sheep as a grazing 
animal and as an instrument for estimating the productivity of pastures, 
Welsh Plant Breeding Station Bulletin, Series H, No. 5, 1927 ; and Jones, 
Martin G., Comparison of pastures by means of sheep, Welsh Jour. Agric., 
Vol. IV, 1928. 

319 



Immature Grass and Young Swards 

one with a somewhat lower figure, if the former food (because 
less succulent) were in a form that the animal took longer to 
eat or to collect. It is interesting in this connexion to specu- 
late whether i lb. of dried grass with the succulence driven 
out of it is as serviceable to the animal as r lb. of dry matter 
of the same grass undried. Whether moistening a dry food 
is to give that food succulence (its water of constitution) 
again must be open to considerable doubt. 

Succulence is a matter demanding most detailed research. 
Thus, if it were proved that dried grass was less serviceable 
than immature grass on the field we should have a further 
argument in favour of producing off-season and winter grass 
in situ. 

Two further facts deserve mention. Clover is not only 
richer in protein than grass but richer also in water of con- 
stitution. Clover is altogether more effective in fatting sheep 
than is grass.* Water of constitution is a variable of varia- 
bles; it is influenced not only by rapidity of growth, but 
also by weather conditions as such. The herbage taken in 
wet weather, however, always also carries extraneous mois- 
ture, so that the animal has to deal with all this extra water 
and perhaps an excess of succulence as well. Be this as it 
may, in a dry year there will not be as much liveweight 
increase per acre as in a wet year, but the liveweight incre- 
ment per unit of dry matter will be greater.* It may be that 
the serviceability of a herbage plant bears some relation to 
an optimum figure of succulence; the grasses vary very con- 
siderably amongst themselves in their percentage moisture, 
while grasses as a class tend to be richer in dry matter than 
either the legumes or the miscellaneous herbs. To adopt 
percentage dry matter as a criterion for estimating the value 
of a fodder plant, particularly a grass, clover or miscellaneous 
herb, subjected to selective grazing, is assuredly to pin one's 
faith on a standard of very questionable validity. 

Factors Favouring Rapid Growth and Succulence. 

Rapidity of growth in plants and animals alike is to a verj' 
real extent a matter of youthfulness. This is tnie of swards; 
young swards grow faster than old ones. Critical sward 
trials have been conducted at Aberystwyth for the past 17 

• See Jones, LI. lorwerth. The feeding value of pastures sown with 
different strains of grasses and clovers, Emp. Jour. Exp. Agric., Vol. IV, 
No. 15, July, 1936. 

320 



Immature Grass and Young Swards 


years, and as a result of such trials it has been possible to 
form a sound judgment upon certain aspects of the grass land 
problem which the trials as such were not designed to test, 
and upon which it is almost impossible to obtain reliable 
statistical evidence. Thus it is impracticable to plan a satis- 
factory experiment designed to test herbage yield from year 
to year irrespective of weather conditions. If the same mix- 
ture is repeatedly sown year after year, the weather con- 
ditions at the time of sowing and establishment will never 
have been twice the same. Examination of all the data col- 
lected during this 17-year period, and close association with 
the experiments, however, leave no doubt that sown swards 
tend to fall off in both rapidity of growth (and therefore in 
succulence) as the years advance, and in total yield per acre 
per annum. This falling off in yield and rapidity of growth 
would seem to be greater than could reasonably be accounted 
for by the slower-growing invaders like Agrostis that may 
have replaced the quicker-growing sown species. Yield and 
rapidity of growth tend to fall away in the quicker-growing 
sown species themselves in proportion as the sward increases 
in age. 

Such evidence as has been obtained in terms of liveweight 
increase tends to confirm this view, and the only conclusion 
that can be drawn is that temporary grass (leys of from one 
to about six years’ duration) are heavier yielders of succulent 
herbage than all but possibly the very best permanent pas- 
tures. Much more important, however, is the fact that the 
temporary leys yield more succulent herbage during the 
critical periods mid-October to December and January to 
March than do permanent swards. As bearing on this 
question it is highly significant that hill sheep farmers looking 
for wintering grounds for their younger ewes and lambs 
always prefer farms where temporary leys contribute in fair 
measure to the land under grass rather than holdings wholly 
in permanent pasture. 

An indication of the monetary value of winter herbage is 
afforded by evidence collected by Dawe and Blundell* as 
the result of an examination of records obtained on 133 dairy 
herds in the Bristol Advisory Province. They put forward 
at a tentative estimate that i lb. of starch equivalent is 
worth o-^^d. when taken in the form of winter grazing from 

* Dawe, C. V., and Blundell, J. E., Winter Feeding for Milk Production, 
Univ. of Bristol {Dept, of Agric. and Hort.), Bui. No. 16. 


321 



Immature Grass and Young Swards 


permanent pastures. On some farms the estimated cost was 
as low as o-2Sd. per lb. These figures must be compared 
with a cost of l ogd. per lb. of starch equivalent in the form 
of concentrates. Although, taking no account of the extra 
value of winter grass in terms of protein as such, and of 
carotene, these data nevertheless suggest that the expendi- 
ture of not inconsiderable money would be justified in the 
production of winter grass and by means more intensive than 
merely the conversion of low-grade permanent grass into 
high-grade and long-duration temporary grass. The farmer 
should aim at altogether higher yields than could be obtained 
from even good, ordinary leys ordinarily managed. It is 
more than probable that by the adoption of appropriate 
methods he could obtain yields so much higher than those 
to be had from permanent pastures or from ordinary leys, 
that in addition to enormously increasing his supplies of 
winter grass he would reduce the price per lb. of starch 
equivalent. 

The Production of Winter Grass. Four methods are 
open to the farmer for the special production of winter 
grass. These are: — 

(1) To sow fields down to Italian rye-grass primarily for winter use. • 

(2) To grow special winter-growing grasses in cultivated drills. 

(3) To use special mixtures for loiig-du ration swards, to obtain the 

maximum of winter grass. 

(4) To accumulate foggage from leys or from drills sown with such an 

object predominantly in view. 

(i) Italian Rye-grass for Winter Feed. Experiments have 
been conducted for many years at Aberystwyth in the pro- 
duction of Italian rye-grass for winter feed. The rye-grass 
has been sown (a) in an ordinary oat crop, when it grows 
away fast in the stubble; (b) with an oat crop that is cut 
for hay, this procedure ensuring a quicker and more robust 
development of Italian rye-grass; (c) in June with rape; and 
(d) as a pure crop in May, June or July. When sown with 
oats (either for grain or for hay) the rye-grass sward is always 
dressed with nitro-chalk immediately after harvest; when 
sown pure or with rape the sward receives nitro-chalk in 
late August or September. 

The Italian lye-grass may be either grazed intermittently 
from September to April, or it may be in the main reserved 
for March and early April (lambing time). If it is required 
more particularly for lambing time it should be grazed fairly 

322 



Immature Grass and Young Swards 


close in September, and again lightly once or twice, and 
rested completely from about the middle of October. This 
latter procedure ensures a good yield of highly nutritious 
fodder in March; higher yields, but of a less nutritious 
fodder, will be obtained in March if the field is only grazed 
off in September. 

The point to be insisted upon is that Italian rye-grass 
(properly manured) is capable of making appreciable growth 
all through the winter. At Aberystwyth, samples taken from a 
grazing experiment* showed a yield of never less than 200 lb. 
of dry matter per month per acre, and a total yield from 
monthly cuts (corresponding to monthly grazings September 
to March) of 3,521 lb. of dry matter per acre. The yield in 
March from plots rested since September was 944 lb. of dly 
matter per acre, while that from plots again grazed in early 
December was 719 lb. per acre. The yield of crude protein 
per acre was 245 lb. from the former plots, and 282 lb. from 
the latter, while the crude protein taken under a system of 
monthly grazing (seven grazings September to March) was 
456 lb. The contribution of crude protein to the dry matter 
(in March) varied from 1575 per cent, on the plots grazed 
monthly to 1271 on those rested since September. All 
through the winter Italian rye-grass was producing a fodder 
with a crude protein percentage of never less than 12 per 
cent., and this was in exceedingly palatable fodder with a 
high leaf to stem ratio. 

These data are of particular significance; they were ob- 
tained from small plots as long ago as 1927, and have been 
the forenmner of a prolonged and successful use of Italian 
rye-grass. Thus Griffith and Jonest have reported upon an 
experiment conducted in 1929-30 in which Italian rye-grass 
was rested from October i to December 27, having received 
a dressing of i cwt. nitro-chalk per acre. By December 27 
there was a thick sward of Italian rye-grass, 6 to 8 in. high. 
Sheep were then grazed on the Italian rye-grass for two 
hours a day, the remainder of the 24 hours being spent on 
an adjoining block of rough pasture. The rye-grass — three 
acres — cum rough grazing (which had very little feed to 

* Stapledon, R. G., Fagan, T. W , Evans, R. E , and Milton, W. E. J., 
Italian rye-grass for winter and early spring keep, Welsh Plant Breeding 
Station Bulletin, Series H., No. 5, 1927. 

t Griffith, M., and Jones, M., Italian rye-grass for winter keep, Welsh 
Jour, Agric,, Vol. XI, 1935. 


323 



Immature Grass and Young Swards 


contribute) maintained 35 sheep from December 27 to April 5, 
and this without by any means completely utilizing all the 
rye-grass. Results of a similar nature have been obtained 
year after year in recent years on the farm lands of the 
Cahn Hill Improvement Scheme, though there we have 
usually kept the grass in the main for lambing. An area of 
Italian rye-grass has, however, proved invaluable all through 
the winter as a temporary “ hospital ” for weakly ewes. 
The inherent feeding value of Italian rye-grass has been well 
illustrated by a further experiment conducted at Aberyst- 
wyth.* In a period August 23 to September 13 lambs fatting 
resp)ectively on rape, hardy green turnips and Italian rye- 
grass actually put on more weight on the Italian rye-grass 
(80 lb. liveweight per lamb) than on hardy green turnips 
(6 lb.), or on rape (3.5 lb.); by September 23 the lambs on 
the rape had, however, further increased in weight and gave 
the maximum yield (95 lb.); those on the Italian rye-grass 
had fallen from the weights attained on September 12 by 
27 lb. per head. This result is of significance as showing 
that grass as it matures (the ration offering was always 
adequate) falls off in fatting properties more quickly than 
does rape, and affords an interesting side-light on the im- 
portance of rotational grazing. It also emphasizes the care 
that needs to be exercised in the matter of the date at which 
fields should be closed in order to provide the maximum 
of nutritious grazing — bulk is not everything; but to this 
aspect of the question we shall presently revert. 

(2) The Growing of Special Winter Grass in Cultivated 
Drills. For the purposes of seed production the larger grasses 
are grown in drills, the ground being kept well cultivated 
between the drills. Such drills make considerable growth 
during the winter, and as Fagan has shown, produce a 
fodder somewhat richer in protein than that developed from 
the same species in sward. 

A strain of timothy (S.48)t bred at Aberystwyth has 
proved itself particularly satisfactory as a winter grass when 
grown in this way. At the farm of the Cahn Hill Improve- 
ment Scheme this strain has been grown in drills for wintering 
lambs. A hay or a silage crop is taken from the timothy 
which is subsequently rested until December, save perhaps 

♦ Griffith, M., and Hutton, P. M. G., The lamb-fattening capacity of 
certain crops for hill conditions, Welsh Jour. Agric., Vol, XII, 1936. 

t S " denotes Welsh Plant Breeding Station pedigree strain. 

324 



Immature Grass and Young Swards 


for one or two light grazings, then from December to April 
lambs running on an adjoining old pasture are given two 
hours a day on the timothy. Seven acres of timothy drills 
cum ten acres of poor pasture in 1934 maintained g8 lambs 
as a slightly gaining weight from December 6 to March 15.* 

These lambs were wintered at about 850 ft. above sea-level ; 
they were maintained by this procedure in a thriftier con- 
dition than similar lambs wintered away in the lowlands. 
The “ timothy ” lambs had put on about an average of 
i lb. per head; the lowland lambs had droj)ped about i lb. 
per head. These timothy drills have also, like the Italian 
rye-grass, proved invaluable as a “ hospital " for weakly 
ewes, such ewes recovering rapidly when given access to 
such grass for a week or two. So much for winter protein 
grown in situ. 

The practical economics of winter grass grown in this 
way awaits upon the correct evaluation of winter grass, and 
upon devising the cheapest possible means of cultivating 
drills subjected to the constant and heavy treading of animals. 
The conservation of spring and summer grass by drying or 
by silage costs money, while as every flockmaster knows to 
his consternation, sheep have an uncanny preference for 
young green grass in situ, and show a marked antipathy to 
hand feed if and when there is even the minimum of green 
grass to be had. 

(3) The Use of Special Seeds Mixtures. The precise 
species and strains that are employed for the production of 
winter grass are of an importance second only to manage- 
ment. From what has already been said it follows that 
Italian rye-grass should form an essential ingredient in all 
mixtures with the object of providing winter grass during 
the first winter after sowng. If the winter grazing will be 
hard as much as 10 lb. per acre of Italian rye-grass can be 
added to any ordinary seeds mixture : the presence of Italian 
lye-grass serves the additional purpose of protecting the 
smaller and less rapidly growing species from being grazed 
too hard. In respect of all species of grass the indigenous 
and leafy strains are more heavily winter yielding and more 
winter green than are the ordinary strains of commerce; 
indeed, this is the most important characteristic of the 

• Griffith, Moses, and Hutton, P. M. G , The wintering of sheep on 
temporary grasses, Part I, Welsh Jour. Agric., Vol. XI, 1935 ; Part II, 
ibid., Vol. XII, 1936. 


325 



Immature Grass and Young Swards 


indigenous strains. Evidence from one of our comprehensive 
experiments* has shown that in respect of four species 
(perennial lye-grass, cocksfoot, meadow foxtail and red 
fescue) the amount of grass produced in December and 
January was 2^ times as much from the indigenous strains 
as from the commercial. The amount of grass produced 
in March from the same four species was in the ratio com- 
mercial strains to indigenous strains as loo : 150. The 
highest yielding winter grasses have been the indigenous 
strains of the four species immediately under consideration. 
The exceedingly high-yielding ability of indigenous red 
fescue (S.59) is particularly noteworthy; this grass is also 
exceptionally winter green, and although, like all the fine- 
leaved fescues, relatively unpalatable, it is readily grazed by 
stock during the winter. A simple mixture consisting of 
indigenous meadow foxtail (S.56), indigenous red fescue 
(S.59) and wild white clover has proved to be one of the 
most winter green and productive of the mixtures employed 
at Aberystwyth for winter grazingt. Plots and fields sown 
with such a mixture have always been outstanding in 
appearance during February and March, and it is then that 
they are probably of their greatest relative usefulness; in- 
deed, in February the yield of such plots has generally been 
in excess of those sown predominantly with indigenous peren- 
nial rye-grass (S.23), which latter strain must perhaps be 
regarded as the most generally satisfactory of all winter 
grasses for use in long-duration leys. 

During the whole period of these winter grazing experi- 
ments (1927 to the present time) it has been rendered patent 
that winter grass is only developed in good quantity from 
leys subsequent to the first winter after seeding (when Italian 
rye-grass is the chief contributor) if the swards are well en- 
dowed with wild white clover. Wild white clover is always 
an ingredient in all our mixtures, and the basic slag at a rate 


• Stapledon, R. G., and Milton, W. E. J., Yield, palatability and other 
studies on strains of various grass species, Welsh Plant Breeding Station. 
Bulletin, Series H, No. 13, 1932. 

t A simple mixture consisting of indigenous meadow foxtail (S. 56), 
indigenous red fescue (S. 59) and wild white clover is necessarily expensive, 
but whether such a mixture is prohibitive awaits upon the proper evalua- 
tion of winter grass. At the present time supplies of the red fescue (S. 59) 
are generally available in fair quantities, but owing to lack of demand 
(at a necessarily high price) seed production has not l^jen proceeded with 
on a large scale with the meadow foxtail (S. 56). 

326 



Immature Grass and Young Swards 

never less than 6 cwt. per acre is always applied at the time 
of sowing. 

(4) The Accumulation of Foggage from Special Leys. 
Foggage has always been employed for winter keep as a 
standard practice on many farms, but what is foggage, and 
how should it bo produced? The art of producing winter 
grass raises a great many involved questions : what is wanted 
is the maximum possible amount of green and succulent 
leafage of a good protein content. Two considerations follow 
from this. In the first place, if too large a bulk of stuff is 
allowed to grow up and stand in to the winter the whole will 
become excessively burned and of relatively poor nutritive 
value, while the excess of burned and over-topping material 
will effectively put a stop to any further and contempo- 
raneous growth of young leafage. In the second place, the 
winter-green species will stand-on as nutritious foggage 
better than the more readily burning species. Long foggage, 
consisting of bent and sheep's fescue, will be of relatively 
little value, and of altogether less value than a shorter fog- 
gage consisting largely of the still green leafage of grasses 
like the rye-grasses, timothy and even Yorkshire fog if this 
latter grass has not been allowed to grow too long. The 
figures given in Table I, which are based on data kindly 
provided by Professor Fagan, illustrate this point. The 
analyses arc for winter grass (February 6, 1936) grown at the 
Cahn Hill Improvement Scheme by the various methods pre- 
viously discussed, in comparison with over-grown foggage 
from a but lightly grazed and unimproved bent-fescue 
pasture. 

TABLE I. — To Show thf Main Fkaturks in thk Chemical Com- 
position OF Winter Grass variously Produced. Percentage of dry matter. 



Timothy ; 
rows ! 

Italian 

rye- 

grass 

1 

, Improved i Unimproved 
sown i bent-fescue 
sw^ard* j pasture 

Crude protein (includ- j 



1 


ing true protein) . . 

13*44 ! 

14*68 

1 18*90 

1 7*08 

Phosphoric acid 

I -08 

1*24 

j 0*85 

i o* 16 

Lime 

0-56 1 

0*72 

1 0-55 

i 

* 0*20 


♦ Consisting of Yorkshire fog, perennial rye-grass, crested dogstail, a 
little cocksfoot and wild white clover. 


It should be pointed out that the timothy rows had been 
allowed to grow-on from hay harvest, so that a certain 

327 







Immature Grass and Young Swards 


amount of burning had taken place, and the same was true 
of the Italian rye-grass, which had not been grazed since 
the covering crop of corn had been harvested for hay, yet 
the protein contributions are remarkably high, notably lower, 
however, than those of the improved sown sward. The latter 
sward had been grazed off in the early autumn, rested for 
a period and then grazed hard all through the winter; thus 
treated, the protein content (in February) is seen to be 
excellent, despite the fact that Yorkshire fog was one of the 
chief contributing species. 

Further and valuable evidence is given by the experiment 
on Italian rye-grass which we first discussed. When the rye- 
grass was allowed to grown-on without once being grazed 
from the time the corn was harvested (August) until March, 
401 lb. of green Italian rye-grass leaf per acre were available 
in March; when, however, the rye-grass was grazed off in 
September (and therefore a less abundant over-topping 
leafage was carried into the winter), the amount of green leaf 
actually available in March was 529 lb. per acre. It follows 
that the foggage carrying over from September was in every 
way superior to that carrying over from August; the former 
“ foggage ” available in March consisted of more growth 
actually made during the winter (Italian lye-grass being 
capable of quite considerable winter growth) and therefore 
naturally of more green leafage than the latter. 

In putting fields up for foggage — or it is better to say for 
winter grass, for it is emphatically not dead and burned 
material that is wanted — much must depend upon the date 
at which the gate is closed upon the field. The whole 
question is now under detailed experiment at the Welsh Plant 
Breeding Station, and a report dealing with the matter from 
the point of view of chemical composition and of yield will 
shortly be published. Professor Fagan’s data, however, 
show that the protein content (crude protein) of the materials 
analysed has been remarkably high, having in no instance 
been lower than 14.83 per cent., and having reached a figure 
as high as 22.10 per cent. The experimental areas were 
closed to stock at different dates from August i to 
November i. The most interesting fact that is emerging 
from these experiments is that, provided the leafy and indi- 
genous strains are employed in the seeds mixtures (the data 
unmediately under discussion were from ley plots in their 
second harvest year), winter grass of remarkably high protein 
328 



Immature Grass and Young Swards 


content can be obtained from areas put up as early as the 
beginning of August. The winter grass from plots thus 
treated has corresponded to yields of dry matter available 
in February (sampled February 26) of from 142 lb. to 
1,117 lb* acre, the highest yields having been obtained 
from plots put-up early in September. 

The chemical analyses that have been presented denote 
a very valuable winter fodder; results of a similar nature 
obtained from plots on a permanent pasture, or on a field 
which had in any event been down to grass for a number of 
years at Cockle Park, have been reported upon by Brynmor 
Thomas and Boyns.* Here the plots were put up on August 4 , 
and let grow till October 27, when winter grazing commenced. 
The grass throughout the winter period (under grazing) gave 
a crude protein percentage of never less than 12.91 per cent., 
with a season mean of 13.82 per cent. ; it was found, however, 
that “ the digestion-coefficients fall with great consistency to 
a minimum in January and rise thereafter." 

An interesting feature of all these foggages, except that 
derived from over-grown bent and fescue, is that in protein 
content they have proved to be superior, and in many 
instances vastly superior, to hay; thus, in the Cockle Park 
results a more or less comparable hay gave a crude protein 
content of only g.53 per cent. 

* Brynmor Tliomas and Boyns, J’. M., 'J'he compo.sition of grass laid 
up for winter kcej), Eniptre Jottr. Exp. .-Igric., Vol. IV, No. 16, October, 
1936. 

[To he concluded. 'I 


329 



COMPOSTS 

H. V. (iARNER, M.A., B.Sc. 

Kothamstcd Experimental Station. 

The maintenance of a good supply of organic matter in 
soil is of great importance in horticultural work. With 
intensive cultivation and tender crops, this particular aspect 
of soil management becomes even more vital. For those 
who enjoy an abundant and cheap supply of stable manure 
there is no difficulty; weeds and crop-remains can go to 
the bonfire, to yield plant ash, burnt soil, and a satisfactory 
feeling that diseased material has been faithfully destroyed. 
In most gardens and allotments, however, there is a growing 
scarcity of animal manures, and the situation has to be met 
by making full use of the waste organic material produced 
on the land itself. The bonfire must accordingly be reduced 
to its smallest limits and confined to woody prunings, old 
pea sticks, diseased material, and the roots and underground 
stems of docks, bindweed, creeping thistle and the like. All 
other vegetation, including vegetable trimmings and faded 
flowers from the house, should find their way back to the soil. 

Compost making, by rule of thumb method, is as old as 
agriculture itself. In the peasant farming of the Continent 
the compost heap is used as a means of rotting down waste 
plant material that is too coarse and resistant to be employed 
as litter for livestock. The waste is put up in alternate shallow 
layers with earth, road scrapings, ditch cleanings and so 
forth. A sprinkling of chalk or lime is occasionally given as 
the heap is made, and the mass is watered from time to 
time, liquid manure being used when available. The process 
is slow, and one or two turnings are required in the course 
of the i8 months that the heaps are left to mature. The final 
result is a very rich calcareous soil, high in organic matter or 
humus and rich in nitrate. The application of this procedure 
to horticulture is limited, but the method may be used to 
deal with some of the materials mentioned above as likely 
constituents for the bonfire. Treated in this way and given 
time, twitch, cabbage stalks, twigs, rootstocks of p)erennial 
weeds, dead leaves and so forth can produce an earthy humus 

330 



Composts 


excellent for topdressing borders and lawns. Moreover, the 
labour of turning and carting material of this kind is less 
exacting under garden conditions than it is on a field scale. 

The treatment of vegetable refuse without the use of soil 
is much more important than the process just described, and 
has received detailed .scientific study. As a result a certain 
precision has been conferred on the production of organic 
manures from waste materials that was quite absent from 
the older methods. A statement of the leading facts may 
be useful. 

To 1 k“ of service to the growing crop a preliminary rotting 
of organic matter is quite essential; indeed, raw vegetable 
material turned straight into the ground is more likely to 
depress than to benefit the crop that is planted upon it. 
The rotting is caused through the activity of bacteria and 
fungi normally present in the original material so that no 
inoculation is required. I'he organisms decompose the 
sugars, starches and cellulose for their own nutrition provided 
they have sufficient readily available nitrogen and minerals 
to “ balance their ration ”. The cultivator is concerned 
with the end jK)int : that is to say, with the humified mass 
consisting largely of the cell substance of the countless 
organisms that have multiplied in the heap, together with 
plant constituents such as lignin, the chief components of 
woody tissue, which are too resistant for them to attack. 
The success of the rotting process therefore depends on the 
projxntions of easily decomposable carbohydrates relative to 
nitrogenous and mineral substances in the heap. If the 
material is high in carbohydrates and low in nitrogen, 
decomixisition will be slow, but what little nitrogen is present 
will be firmly held. If the mass is poor in carbohydrates 
and rich in nitrogen, decomposition will be brisk and nitrogen 
will be lost. The aim is to secure a correct balance between 
these two classes of substances, striking a middle course 
between the above extremes. Before indicating how this 
may be done in practice, the. other requirements for success- 
ful decomposition may be mentioned — namely, adequate 
aeration of the heap, presence of sufficient moisture, and 
enough basic material (usually chalk or ground limestone) to 
maintain a neutral or weakly alkaline reaction. 

The control of the balance between carbohydrate and 
nitrogen may be partly, but seldom entirely, controlled by 
the skilful blending of different kinds of plant material. This 

331 



Composts 


depends on the fact that young fresh green growth, such 
as lawn clippings, weeds, vegetable tops and the like, are 
considerably richer in nitrogen and minerals than mature 
tissues such as ripened straws, woody stems of herbaceous 
plants, and dead leaves. The first class also is naturally 
much less lignified than the second. The behaviour of these 
two grades of materials when put up into a heap is quite 
different. Grass cuttings, for example, will heat in a few 
hours, and in a week or two reduce themselves to a brown, 
slimy mass that, judged as a manure, lacks bulk, texture 
and fibre. On the other hand, straw will remain for months 
or even years almost unchanged. Neither of these results 
is desirable. The proper course is to use the excess nitrogen 
and minerals of the young green stuff to help the poorer 
and more fibrous material to decay. To do this a certain 
amount of grading of garden rubbish is required. Three 
grades may be distinguished: the first comprises soft green 
material such as grass cuttings, weeds, flower-bed and 
vegetable trimmings; the second, more fibrous material such 
as mature growths from herbaceous plants and kitchen 
garden; the third, woody material such as light prunings 
from shrubs and hedges, dead leaves, and dried litter. 
Straw or bracken, if available, will also fall in the last class. 
Hard and fast rules for the blending of these cannot be laid 
down, but as a working guide it may be said that the more 
mature and woody material that is present the higher the 
proportion of soft stuff should be, i part of grade 2 might 
have an equal quantity of grade i, while i part of grade 3 
might have 2 parts of grade i. 

The procedure is then as follows. A site is chosen, 
preferably in some out of the way spot shaded from sun and 
wind, and conveniently situated for water. Since the 
fermentation requires air, deep pits or even tall heaps are 
to be avoided, but a low concrete retaining wall about 2 ft. 
high makes a neat job. The actual size of the site will 
depend on the amount of waste to be treated, but it should 
be big enough to hold two heaps that will not exceed 2J ft. 
in height. If two heaps are provided for, it will be possible 
to start on the second while leaving the first to mature. 

The raw material, blended as far as possible on the lines 
suggested above, is built up in successive shallow layers 
about 6 in. deep, each layer receiving a sprinkling of chalk 
or powdered limestone and sufficient watering to wet the mass 

.132 



Composts 


thoroughly. In a few days, the heap will begin to get 
warm, and nothing need be done for about 6 weeks, when 
the first turning may be given; a second turning after another 
6 weeks may be necessary to complete the job. At each 
turning additional water may be given, and in drying 
weather water may also be required at other times 

The Acceleration and Control of the Rotting Process. 

Although the procedure outlined above will usually yield a 
satisfactory end product, quicker and better results can be 
obtained by adding to the heap some reagent to supply 
available nitrogen and lime. Such a reagent is calcium 
cyanamide, a well-known nitrogenous fertilizer with basic 
properties, sold in the form of a black, rather dusty powder. 
When using this material, chalk is not necessary, the dusting 
being carried out layer by layer, using calcium cyanamide at 
the rate of about i lb. per large barrow load of average mixed 
garden refuse. From what has already been said the quantity 
of cyanamide will naturally be measured according to the 
state of the refuse, moist sappy green material requiring less 
and hard woody material more. 

The pioneering work on the rotting of straw and other 
vegetable wastes by artificial means was carried out at 
Rothamsted, and the chief findings have already been 
mentioned. A development of this work is the well-known 
Adco reagent, extensively used in the making of artificial 
farmyard manure under controlled conditions. Many 
vegetable wastes have been successfully employed as starting 
points, but for the purposes of this article, straw, bracken, 
and mixed garden refuse will be those of most direct 
interest. 

Those employing the Adco process will find the procedure 
for various classes of refuse carefully laid down. The 
reagents supply nitrogen, phosphate and a base, and two 
grades are available, one for the coarser and more resistant 
materials, such as herbaceous stalks, dead leaves, potato 
haulm, pea and bean haulm, and cabbage stalks; the other, 
less highly nitrogenous, for the softer fresh materials. A 
pit 2 ft. deep with a low surrounding bank of earth is 
recommended. The waste is spread in layers 6 in. deep, 
each layer being thoroughly wetted with water and sprinkled 
with reagent at about 2 lb. per large barrow load. At least 
one turning is required after about a month. The period of 

333 



Composts 


rotting is 2-6 months, depending on the degree of decomposi- 
tion required. 

A few general points applicable to all compost heaps may 
be emphasized. 

Rotting of the raw material is essential, and a brisk initial 
heating is desirable. This denotes that conditions for decom- 
position arc correct and the high temperature probably kills 
many weed seeds and runners. To obtain this initial heating 
good-sized heaps are necessary, and shelter from wind is 
desirable. Heaps should be kept moist, and here again shelter 
from wind is a great help. Soil need not be shaken from the 
weeds, for a certain amount helps to compact the heap and 
restricts water loss. Small green stuff, such as lawn clippings, 
has the same effect, filling the open spaces in a loose heap of 
woody material. Since watering is laborious, heaps should 
be so shaped as to let in rather than shed the natural rainfall. 
Excessive watering, although not a common mistake, has the 
bad effect of washing out soluble potash, and if the heap 
becomes waterlogged highly unpleasant fermentation products 
arise. 

Time will ultimately correct many of the faults in compost 
making. If decomposition has been slow, or it is feared that 
perennial rootstocks may still be alive, or woody material is 
still in evidence, the remedy is to leave the heap a little longer. 


334 



A SURVEY OF THE GRASS LAND OF 
HERTFORDSHIRE 

R. G. Ferguson, M.Agr., 

Herts Institute of Agrieulture, Oaklands, St. Albans. 

Hertfordshire, in the past, has been a predominantly 
arable county — “ the first and best corn-growing county in 
the Kingdom.” From 1885, however, the arable area has ten- 
ded to decrease and during the decade 1924-1934 this change 
was greatly accelerated. The area under permanent grass 
increased markedly until at the present time the agricultural 
land of the c-ounty is about half arable and half grass land 
(Table i). ” Dairying is the most important individual 

enterprise in the economy of Hertfordshire Agriculture,”^* 
so that the keeping of dairy cows and young cattle, an 
increase in the numbers of grassland sheep and to a lesser 
extent the running of pigs and poultry on grass, reflect the 
ways in which this additional grass is being utilized. 

TABLE 1 


STAriSriCh OF AgKICULIITKAL Land in liERTFORDSHIRK 



1885 

U)oy 

1924 

1934 

Total acreage under - 
(Tops and (irass . . 


3 -’«.-!t 3 


290,038 

I’cr cent Arable . . 

()«-7 

(>i -o 

()i *4 

51 *3 

,, Permanent Grass 

3 ' i 

' 3^ ’ 

38 •(> 

48-7 


In addition, ” hay is the second most important cash crop 
grown in Hertfordshire .... the area cut for hay covers 
27 5 per cent, of the total farmed land, and of this, meadows 
account for almost exactly half, mixed seeds for one third, 
and clovers, sainfoin and lucerne the remainder.”' 

In view of this development, it is not surprising that con- 
siderable attention has been paid to educational work on 
grass land problems. One way in which this work has been 
carried out in the county in recent years, has been to run 
grass land competitions in those areas in which grass land is 

♦ References arc given on p. 343. 


335 





Grass Land of Hertfordshire 


most concentrated. Briefly, these competitions were con- 
ducted as follows : — 

Farmers in a given area were invited to enter all their 
grass land for the competition and the number of competitors 
in each competition area varied from 14 to 23. Each field 
on each farm was inspected separately. Generally, two 
inspections were carried out, one in May and one in Sep- 
tember. Opportunity was taken to advise the farmer (where 
advice was deemed necessary) on managerial and other prob- 
lems on the spot. Prizes were awarded as encouragement 
to entrants. When the field work was completed each farmer 
was sent a confidential report on the condition of his grass- 
land, and directions for improvement, better manuring, and 
management given for each field. Also, a general report on 
the condition of the grass land of the area was issued to each 
competitor. In these ways, farmers have had the opportunity 
of becoming familiar with modern methods of improving and 
managing their grass land. 

In the course of these inspections, certain field records have 
been kept, and an analysis of these affords a fairly reliable 
picture of the general condition of the grass land in each 
area. Some of these records may be of wider interest, 
especially in view of the emphasis that is being laid on nitro- 
genous manuring of grass land, and more recently on the 
possibility of grass drying in this country. They also serve 
as a check on estimates (see e.g., ref. 2) of the condition and 
requirements of the grass land of the country as a whole. 

The data presented below concerns the condition of the 
grass land in four different areas in the county, totalling 
8,215 acres. Four main soil types are covered, namely, 
London Clay, Boulder Clay, Glacial Gravels, and Clay with 
Flints, and there was also a small area of chalky soil. The 
data deals with the need of drainage, the need of lime, the 
degree of mattiness, the use of fertilizers and manures, weed 
flora, and some miscellaneous developments in grassland 
management. 

All the records were collected in the seasons 1932-1935. 
In Table II, the districts and soil types, the acreages involved 
and the relative amounts of new and old pastures are 
tabulated. “ New pasture ” refers to land laid down during 
and since 1924, “ old pasture ” to land laid down before 
that time. 

336 



Grass Land of Hertfordshire 


TABLE II 


District 

Chief 

Soil Type 

Total 

Acreage 

Acreage 

Old 

Pasture 

Acreage 

New 

1 Pasture 

Barnet 

London Clay . . 

2,200 

1,862 

338 

Watton 

Glacial Gravel . . 


i,fi 75 

756 

St. Albans 

Light Chalk, 
Medium Loam 
with flints, 
Glacial Gravel. 

2,284 

1 

1,302 

ijS 2 

Eastwick . . . . 

Boulder Clay . . 

1,300 

976 


Total 


! 8,-115 

5,815 

1 ^,400 


The largest increase in pasture has taken place on the 
lighter, poorer soil types. As far as the London Clay area 
is concerned, the bulk of the land has been under grass for 
many years and now practically all of it is grass. 

The figures given below do not exaggerate the state of 
affairs. On the contrary, they are probably an understate- 
ment, because they have been obtained from farms, the 
occupiers of which are sufficiently interested in their grass- 
land to enter into competitions designed to stimulate interest 
in the improvement and management of grass land, and 
therefore they are more likely to have done something already 
towards the betterment of their grass. 

Drainage. The position with regard to the need of 
drainage is brought out in Table III : — 


TABLE m 


District 

Acreage 

Considered to require 
Drainage 

Acreage 

Per cent, of 
Total 

Barnet 

2,200 

8go 

40 

Watton 

2,431 

2Q2 

12 

St. Albans 

2,284 

114 

5 

Eastwick . . 

1,300 

208 

16 

Total 

8,215 

L504 

18-3 


The average amount of grass land in need of drainage' is 
i8 per cent. Carslaw and his colleagues® have estimated that 

B 337 







Gkass Land of Hfktfordshike 


14 per cent, of all the land in the Eastern Counties is in 
need of drainage, and arguing from this it would seem that 
generally grass land is as neglected in this respect as arable 
land. There is considerable variation according to soil type 
(also noted by Carslaw). Thus, 40 per cent, of the grass- 
land on London Clay and only 5-12 per cent, on the lighter 
soil formations requires to be drained. In all these areas, 
fields mole drained in the previous ten years are excluded. 
It must be noted also that three of the four years in which 
these data were collected were veiy dry, so that these figures 
may be said to represent land “ badly " in need of drainage. 

lame. Soil samples were taken at random from each field 
and their pH values estimated colorimetrically. The results 
of these tests are set out in Table IV : — 


TABL 1 -: ]V 


District 

Total 

Degree of Acidity, per cent, of 
'j'otal Acreage 

Acreage 

pH 

7 • 0 and 
over 

pH 

6*9 to 
6*1 

pH 
6*0 to 
5*6 

pH 

5 5 to 
5-0 

pH 

4 *9 and 
under 

Barnet 

2,200 

4*3 

19*6 

18 *9 

35*6 

21 *6 

Watton 

St. Albans : 

^. 43 ^ 

29*6 

10*0 

i8-8 

-24*5 

17-1 

New Pasture 

981 

65-0 

1 1 0 

16 -o 

6*0 

2 'O 

Old Pasture j 


lO-O 

<>•5 

220 

469 

14*6 

Eastwick . . ' 

1.300 

76-3 

6*1 

6-3 ! 

1 

5'4 

5*9 

Average . . j 


37 

lo-O 

16-4 

23*7 

12*3 


On the average, 37 per cent, of the grass land is not 
deficient in lime, 63 per cent, requires more or less lime and 
36 per cent. (pH 4 9 to 5 5) is seriously acid. This condition, 
however, varies according to soil type and the age of the 
pasture. The percentage of sour grass land in the London 
Clay (Barnet) area is extremely high — no less than 95 per 
cent, of it having an acid reaction, over 57 per cent, being 
seriously acid. On the other hand, in the Boulder Clay 
(Eastwick) area, over 76 per cent, of the grass land is neutral 
or has a reserve of chalk, and only ii per cent, is seriously 
acid. These figues show that the grass land of Hertfordshire 
is much more in need of lime than the agricultural land of 
the Eastern Counties as a whole, for which Carslaw and his 

338 





Gkass Land of Hertfordshire 

colleagues* estimated (without doing any chemical tests) 
“ that one-fifth of the area is suspected as being deficient in 
lime.” 

That the newer areas are less likely to be seriously de- 
ficient in lime is well shown by the figures from the St. Albans 
area. Of the 2,284 acres examined in this area, 1,302 were 
old pasture and 981 acres new pasture. Of the old pasture 
over 61 per cent, of the acreage is seriously acid and of the 
()8i acres of new pasture only 8 per cent, are in that condition. 
These figures i)robably account in part for the higher palat- 
ability and feeding value and the better response to fertilizers 
on many new pastures compared with the old. 

Another factor — and one associated with soil acidity — 
contributing to lack of productivity of old pastures is the 
degree of ” mattiness.” The figures given in Table V. 
emphasize the piosition in this respxjct of old and new pastures 
in the St. Albans area and of all pasture in the Eastwick 
area. 


TAHLli V 


l)op(rcc t)f 
Mattiness 

Si. Albans Area 

Old Pasture | New Pasture 

I‘2astwick Area 

All Pasture 

Acres 

% j Acres 

0 

,0 

Acres 

0 ' 

, 0 

JtCxtremely Matted 


30 i Nil 

Nil 

M3 

2 1 

Moderately Matted 

(>90 

53 i '<>8 


533 

41 

Not Matted 

211 

>7 ! «73 

89 

O24 

48 

Total 

i 


100 i g8i 

_j 

100 

1,300 

2 00 


The need for mechanical cultivation (or other means) to 
remove this ” mat ” is great, particularly on the older 
pastures. Obviously, where there is much “mat,” wild 
white clover and the better sward-forming and more nutritive 
species will not be able to develop. Practically no mechanical 
cultivation was carried out on any of this grass land except 
light harrowing and rolling — operations grossly inadequate 
to deal with anything but a very light matted condition. 

Use of Manures and Fertilizers. Table VI shows the 
extent to which manures and fertilizers have been utilized on 
the grass land. The figures refer to the manorial treatment 
the fields have had during the seven years before inspection, 
i.e., all fields that had no manure of any sort during this 
B2 339 






Grass Land ok Hertfordshire 

period are regarded as having had no manure and are in- 
cluded in the " nil ” column. In the same way the other 
figures have been arrived at. Moreover, since the application 
of any manure or fertilizer (however small the amount) 
qualified for a place in the manured columns, it follows that 
the figures given do not necessarily mean that the manuring 
was suitable or adequate. In some instances the manuring 
was reasonably good (in one instance too good!), but in 
many it was quite inadequate and unsuitable, having regard 
to type of manure and price per unit. 


TABLE \T 


Area 


I Percentage of 1 a 

ind Treated 


Acreage 

Phosphates 
and I Potash 

IPhosphates 

Dung (or 
Pigs and/or 
Poultry) 1 

Nil 

Barnet . . 

2,200 

1 

8 

1 

6t 

Wat ton . . 

^.431 

-’7 

3 

1 

62 

St Albans 

^.284 

4^ 

3 

4 : 

49 

East wick 

1 ,300 

^1 

13 

3 1 

33 

Avcrcigf; . . 

1 

! 

^4*^5 

j S • -^5 

0 

5^>75 


The table shows that on the average 24 per cent, of the 
grass land examined received phosphates and potash, 8 per 
cent, some phosphate, and a further 10 per cent, dung 
(either F.Y.M. or the droppings from pigs and poultry), 
while 56 per cent, was given no manorial treatment whatever. 
The amount and type of manure, however, varies from dis- 
trict to district, e.g., in the Barnet area (almost entirely a 
grassland area) little artificial fertilizer is employed and the 
farmyard manure available from the cowsheds is utilized on 
the grass land, usually on the hay portion. In each area 
there is a tendency on a number of farms to manure in- 
directly through the medium of grazing pigs and poultry, 
particularly the latter, but the total influence of this is small. 
There was practically no evidence of the use of lime on any 
of the grass land in any area. Grass land on which sheep 
were kept always looked better, i.e., greener and fresher, 
than where no sheep were kept. 

Weed Flora. Table VII gives a summary of the main 
types of weeds found on the various grass land areas. All 
pastures contain more or less weeds and reference is made 

340 






Grass Land of Hertfordshire 


only to instances in which weeds were considered to be so 
plentiful as to be harmful to the productivity and quality of 
the grass. The weeds included are all non-gramineous; but 
in passing it may be mentioned that the plant population of 
much of the old pasture land, particularly the more acid 
fields, is made up of approximately 70 per cent. Agrostis 
spp. (Bents), 10 per cent. Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire Fog), 
TO per cent. Festuca ovina spp. (Fine-leaved Fescue), plus 
traces of about 20 other species. 

The term “ broad-leaved weeds ” refers to Plantains 
{Plantago sp.), Hawkweeds {Hieracium and Crepis spp.), 
Dandelion {Taraxacum officinale), and Daisy {Beilis 
perennis). They are grouped together as they seem to 
flourish under similar conditions and were generally found 
growing together. A glance at Table VII shows that these 
weeds are the most prevalent of the weed flora, particularly 
on the gravelly and lighter soils. Their prevalence appears 
to be influenced by soil fertility, soil type, climatic conditions 
and the management of the pasture. They gain access when 
a pasture is too closely grazed at the critical periods in dry 
seasons, and unless fertility is good and the grasses are 
allowed to recover, they remain and multiply. 


TABLE VIl 


District 

No of 
iMclds 
Inspected 

Number of fields at each centre containing 
an excess oi following weeds : 

Thistle 

Butter- 

cup 

Nettle 

Dock 

Broad - 
leaved 
Weeds 

Hard- 

heads 

Sorrel, 

Rush, 

Tussock 

Barnet 

190 



No 

record 

kept 



Wattoii 

17O 

42 

28 

5 

4 

64 

2 

II 

St . Albans . . 

19(1 

12 

12 

3 

2 

58 

2 

2 

Eastwick . . 

iiO 

11 

25 

4 1 

— 

18 

1 

__ 

5 

Total . . 

678 

65 

^5 

12 1 

0 

140 

4 

18 


Thistles (mostly Carduus arvensis) and Buttercups {Ranun- 
culus sp.) were the next most important weeds. The number 
of times that Nettles {Urtica sp.). Docks {Rumex sp.). Hard- 
heads {Centaurea nigra), Sorrels {Rumex sp.). Rushes 
{J uncus sp.), and Tussocks {Air a caespitosa) were recorded 
was singularly small. 

The figures for the three centres for which weed records 
have been kept have been further analysed in Table VIII to 

341 




Grass Land of Hertfordshire 


show the relative prevalence of weeds in old and new 
pastures. All weeds, with the exception of dock, are 
much more widespread in the old pastures. This is most 
notable with thistles and buttercups. Broad-leaved weeds 
occur plentifully in both types of pasture, though to a lesser 
extent in the new grass land. Old grass land is, on the 
average, also more prone to nettles, hardheads, sorrels, 
rushes and tussocks. 

TABLE Vlll 


District 

1 

' No 

1 

i Fields 

1 

Percentage of the number of fields containing 
excess of following weeds : 

Thistle 

Butter- 

cup 

Nettle 

1 lock 

Broad - 
leaved 
Weeds 

40*0 

27*0 

34-1 

22*0 

FV5 

I5’5 

Hard- 

heads 

Sorrel, 

Rush, 

Tussocks 

Wation 

Old Pasture 
New Pasture 
St. Albans 

Old Pasture 
New Pasture 
Eastwick 

Old Pasture 
New Pasture 

..i r3. 

..| 4. 

••i 

..| 73 

. . 1 90 

26 

.30-3 

45 

8*1 

2*7 

10*0 
7.8 1 

20-0 

4*5 

9*7 

26-6 

3*9 

30 

2*3 

1*6 

1-4 

4*4 

T*5 

4*5 

2*7 

1*5 

1-6 

7*6 

2*3 

1*6 

3*3 

7*8 

Average, three 









D%stvicts 









Old Pasture 


1 

i 8 -« 

3*0 

o\5 

29*0 

1*0 

4*-2 

New Pasture 

'■ i 

5.0 j 

2-8 

1*2 

1 

2*4 

21*5 J 

~~ 

3*4 


Rotational Grazing and Early Bite. Of the 67 farms 
visited in the course of these inspections, on four only was 
there an active attempt made to get better control of the 
grazing by dividing up the larger fields and grazing in rota- 
tion. Questions of fencing and water supply are not the 
only difficulties on many farms, for the taking of the animals 
to and from a special part of the pasture land twice a day 
involves much time and labour, unless the grass is near 
the homestead. Also, on only 4 out of the 67 farms was 
nitrogen used to secure an " early bite.” It is evident that 
there is a considerable time-lag between the introduction 
and demonstration ol new practices and their adoption on 
the average farm. 

Summary. An account is given of the condition of 8,215 
acres of grass land in four important grass land areas in 
Hertfordshire. It is shown that much of the land is in need 

342 






Grass Land of Hertfordshire 


of drainage; large areas are seriously acid and in a 
" matted ” condition. Over 56 per cent, of the pasture is 
given no manurial treatment and much of the remainder is 
inadequately manured. Broad-leaved weeds are the most 
prevalent of the weed flora, but thistles and buttercups are 
also important. All weeds with the exception of docks are 
more prevalent on old pastures than new. On much of the 
seriously acid pasture, the plant population is made up 
chiefly of Agrostis spp., Holcus spp., and Festuca ovina 
spp. Rotational grazing and the taking of an “ early bite ” 
are practised on only a few farms. 


ACKNOWLEDGMENT. — The writer wishes to thank his colleague, 
Mr. H. W. Gardner, D.A., for undertaking the ]»H tests of the soils. 


References 

^ An Economic Survey of HtTthirdshire Agriculture, 1031 (Farm Economics 
Branch, Department of Agriculture, C'ambndge, Report No. 18). 

“ Stapledou, R. G. : “ The Land Now and To-niorrow,” 1035. 

’ An Economic Survey of Agriculture of the Eastern Counties of England, 
1931 (Farm Economics Ifranch, Department of Agriculture, Cambridge, 
Report No 19). 

^ Ibid ., i()33 (Report No 22). 


34.3 



THE MINISTRY’S PUBLICATIONS 


Readers of this Journal during the last two or three 
years will be familiar with the annual reports on the work 
of the Education and Research Division of the Ministry, and 
will have noted that substantial sums are provided for the 
maintenance of research into agricultural problems and the 
provision of technical advice for farmers. 

The real value of such research and experimental work 
depends largely, however, on the extent to which the results 
are made available to farmers and others concerned in a 
readily assimilable form. 

One important means of bringing available information 
to the notice of farmers is the issue of various publications 
by the Ministry. Apart from this Journal, these fall into 
four main classes — the Bulletins (priced), the Advisory 
Leaflets (single copies free), the Marketing Reports (priced) 
and the Marketing Leaflets (free). 

The Bulletins, which are available at prices ranging from 
^d. to 6s., may be regarded as treatises adequately covering 
the subjects concerned. Apart from one issue (No. 82), which 
is a technical bulletin intended for manufacturers and 
analysts, the Bulletins arc written in simple language, so that 
the latest serviceable information on the subject dealt with 
is made readily accessible to the farmer or horticulturist. 
Most of the volumes are illustrated, and in some instances 
coloured plates have been provided. 

Since the Bulletins were started on April r, 1930, 98 have 
been published, in addition to a large number of new or 
revised editions and reprints. By the end of 1936 the total 
number of copies sold had reached the very satisfactory 
figure of 454,000 — an average of approximately 65,000 
copies per annum. 

A complete list of the Bulletins and other publications of 
the Ministry may be obtained free of charge and post free 
from the Ministry, and from the Sale Offices* of His Majesty’s 
Stationery Office, and it is therefore unnecessary here to 
mention all the various subjects covered. 

Certain of the Bulletins, however, have proved very note- 
worthy, and it may be of interest to refer briefly to them. 

Rations for Live Stock (Bulletin No. 48) was originally 

* Adastral House, Kingsway, IxMidon, W.C.z ; 120. George Street, 
Edinburgh, 2 ; 26, York Street, Manchester, 1 ; 1 , St. Andrew’s Crescent, 
Cardiff ; 80, Chichester Street, Belfast. 

344 



The Ministry's Publications 


prepared in 1920 by the late Professor T. B. Wood. It 
describes a simple general method of working out rations 
for cattle, horses, sheep and pigs. The publication, which has 
since been extensively revised and brought up to date by Dr. 
H. E. Woodman, has proved extremely popular and has 
been regarded as a standard work from the outset. Nine 
editions have been necessary, and the publication is now in 
its 45th thousand. 

Another Bulletin that has been in great demand is 
Domestic Preservation of Fruit and Vegetables (No. 21), 
prepared by the staff of the Long Ashton Research Station. 
The methods and recipes included can be carried out in any 
ordinary household. Four editions have been needed and 
over 23,000 copies have been sold. 

Among the Bulletins of more recent origin. Pig Keeping 
(No. 32) and Mushroom Growing (No. 34) have sold to the 
extent of about 13,000 copies each, thus reflecting the 
interest commanded by the subjects concerned. Tomatoes'. 
Cultivation, Diseases and Pests (No. 77), by Dr. W. F. 
Bewley, of the Cheshunt Experimental Station, has also been 
very successful and 8,000 copies have been sold. Within 
the last year or two Bulletins on Herbs (No. 76) and Allot- 
ments (No. 90) have been published, and reprints of each 
have already been necessary. 

Every effort is made to provide advice on subjects that are 
attracting attention. For example, the increased demand for 
salads, and the tariffs imposed on imported produce, have 
enhanced interest in the cultivation of winter salads and early 
vegetables in frames. Bulletins Nos. 65 {The Cultivation 
of Vegetables in Frames) and 55 (Salad Crops) were 
accordingly issued. 

The production of flowers for market is now an industry 
of considerable importance. To supplement the earlier 
Bulletins on Narcissus Culture and Commercial Bulb Pro- 
duction, further volumes on Chrysanthemums and Commer- 
cial Flower Production (Part i — Spring Flowers) have been 
issued. A Bulletin on the production of summer flowers is 
now in preparation. 

The important subject of poultry keeping has not been 
overlooked. The work of the National Poultry Institute at 
Reaseheath and Wye, on inbreeding poultry and on table 
poultry production respectively, is summarized in Bulletins 
Nos. 83 and 91. Other Bulletins deal with Diseases of 

345 



The Ministry's Publications 


Poultry (No. 6), Scientific Principles of Poultry Breeding 
(No. 7), Housing (No. 56) and Culling (No. 59). The whole 
range of poultry keeping, including turkeys, ducks and geese, 
is covered by one or other of the Bulletins. 

Although not in the Bulletin series, mention may be made 
here of the “Land Drainage Act, 1930, Handbook.” This 
collection in convenient form of the provisions of the Act is 
intended for the use of members and officers of Catchment 
Boards and other local authorities, but it should also be useful 
to the many landowners, land agents and farmers who may 
be concerned in drainage schemes. Over 2,500 copies of the 
Handbook have been sold to date. 

Advisory Leaflets are brief, simply-written statements on 
subjects treated. Up to four copies in any one main group 
(e.g.. Diseases of Animals, Manures, Insect Pests of Fruit 
Trees, etc.), with a maximum of 20 in all, are supplied free 
and post free by the Ministry. Copies of leaflets required in 
excess of these limits are obtainable from the Sale Offices'*' of 
His Majesty’s Stationery Office — price id. each {i\d. post 
free) or 9<i. net per dozen (lod. post free). 

During the past seven years about 280 Advisory Leaflets 
on a wide range of subjects have been issued, and total free 
distribution has been in the neighbourhood of 1,200,000 
copies. In addition, large numbers have been sold by His 
Majesty’s Stationery Office. 

To meet the wishes of readers who desire to have, in a 
convenient form, all the available leaflets on insect pests and 
diseases of plants, four collections have been issued in loose- 
leaf covers at a uniform price of is. 6 d. per volume. New 
or revised leaflets may be obtained and inserted in these 
covers at any time. A similar collection, at the same price, 
includes all the leaflets on birds of agricultural importance. 

Publications on Marketing. The main items of propa- 
ganda have been recipe books for housewives. The first 
of these publications — ^the National Mark Recipe Book — ^was 
published in 1934 and in all 400,000 copies were issued. This 
book was succeeded in January, 1936, by the National Mark 
Calendar of Cooking, issued free by the Ministry. This pmb- 
lication contains numerous recipes for each month, and each 
monthly section is prefaced by a list of National Mark 

♦ Adastral House, Kingsway, London, W.C.2 ; 120, George Street, 
Edinburgh, 2 ; 26, York Street, Manchester, i ; x, St. Andrew's Crescent, 
Cardiff ; 80, Chichester Street, Belfast. 

346 



The Ministry's Publications 

products in season; 480,000 copies of the Calendar have been 
issued to date. 

In addition to publications for producers and consumers, 
the Ministry has arranged during the past eight years for 
the designing of numerous posters and cards advertising 
National Mark products for display in retail shops. There has 
been a large and continuous demand for this display material. 

Marketing Leaflets. These, which are supplied free of 
charge, are published in two distinct categories : (i) leaflets 
for the guidance of producers, and (2) leaflets of a propa- 
ganda nature and intended mainly for consumers. The 
former deal mainly with the National Mark Schemes and are 
of special interest to producers and distributors. The dis- 
tribution of these leaflets is approximately 50,000 per annum. 

The second series is distributed chiefly to housewives, and 
the leaflets are therefore couched in non-technical language. 
They set out briefly the object of the National Mark move- 
ment, and give details of the measures taken to maintain the 
national standards of quality required by the regulations. 
Apart from the National Mark Calendar of Cooking (men- 
tioned above) the distribution of the marketing propaganda 
leaflets during the past twelve months has been as follows: — 


Copies 

H.S. I. What the National Mark Means .. .. 357,000 

H.S. 2. National Mark Beef . . . . . . 306,000 

H.S. 3. ,, Creamer^’ Butter . . . . 371,000 

H.S. 4. Canned and Bottled Fruit and 

Vegetables , . . . . . 552,000 

H.S. 5. Cheese . . . . 335, 000 

H.S. 6. Eggs . . . . . . . . 417,000 

H.S. 7. .. Flour .. . 401,000 

H.S. 8. ,, Fruit Juice Syrups . . . . 240,000 


“ Orange Books.” The Economic Series of Reports, 
popularly known as the Ministry’s “ Orange Books,” is 
mainly devoted to a study, commodity by commodity, of the 
technique of marketing of agricultural products. It also 
includes reports issued by Commissions appointed by the 
Minister to inquire into the possibilities of reorganizing the 
marketing of certain of the more important agricultural 
products, e.g. milk, pigs, eggs and poultry. 

Up to the present 41 volumes have been published in the 
series. There has been a wide public demand for these books 
and 18 of the earlier volumes are now out of print. The 
total sales up to the end of December, 1936, amounted to 
nearly 238,500 copies. 


347 



COUNTY COUNCIL SMALL-HOLDINGS IN DORSET 
AND HAMPSHIRE*: 

IV. POULTRY SMALL HOLDINGS 

Edgar Thomas, B.Litt., B.Sc., 

Agricultural Economics Department, Reading University. 

In view of the supposed adaptability of poultry for small- 
scale farming it is rather surprising that the number of 
specialist poultry smallholders in the two counties is not 
greater. The information here given is from 21 poultry 
holdings, all of which were in Hampshire. They were more 
or less concentrated in two groups, one in the neighbourhood 
of Fareham and the other at Pitt Corner some three miles 
west of Winchester. 

The 21 holdings covered a total area of 150 acres; ii 
holdings were less than 5 acres, 5 holdings were between 5 
and 10 acres, and 5 holdings wore over 10 acres. 

Management. Each of the 21 holdings was predominantly 
concerned with poultry, and on 14 holdings there was no 
other enterprise. Of the other 7 holdings, 3 kept pigs, 2 had 
some market-garden crops, i had pigs and market-garden 
cro|)s and i had a fruit orchard. 

The total number of all kinds of poultry on the 21 holdings 
at the time of the survey was 14,675 made up as follows : — 

6,942 hens and sttick biids 
6,110 pullets 
1,513 chickens 
70 ducks 
40 turkeys. 

The following classification of the holdings according to the 
size of the poultry flocks gives a good indication of the size 


of the undertaking: — 


Size of Flock 

No 0] Holdings 

Under 200 

. . . . 1 

1 

0 

6 

400-800 

6 

Over 800 

8 


The most popular breed of poultry kept was the Rhode 
Island Red and its various crosses, but the following figures 
show that various breeds were kept: — 

♦ Previous articles in this series appeared in the issues of this Journal 
for April, May and June, 1937. 

348 



County Council Small-Holdings 


Breed 

No. of Holdings 

Rhode Island Red 

1 

Rhode Island x White Leghorns . . 

5 

Rhode Island x White Wyandotte 

4 

Game Cross , . 

i 

Sussex ('ross . . 

2 

Rhode Island Light Sussex 

I 


21 


'J'hc production of eggs was the main and almost only 
concern on 20 of the holdings; but, on i holding, the 
rearing ot table birds was as important as the sale of eggs. 
All the smallholders reared their own birds, buying in new 
stock cockerels at regular intervals. Blood testing was done 
on 3 holdings. On most holdings the houses and runs were 
moved as regularly as possible on to fresh ground. The 
produce of 17 holdings was sold wholesale and that of 4 
holdings retailed. 

The greater proportion of the eggs sold wholesale were 
graded. Seven smallholders sent their eggs into Fareham 
market, where, for a small charge, the eggs were candled and 
graded and were subsequently sold by auction. As regards 
the other eggs wholesaled, the grading was done by the small- 
holders themselves, and the eggs were either collected by 
dealers or sold direct to shopkeepers. Grading was done by 
only one retailer, and he mixed his “ specials " and 
“ standards ” because he found the housewife reluctant to 
pay the higher price for the better grade. 

Capital Invested. Only 14 poultry smallholders were able 
to give financial data about their businesses. These data 
are presented in the following tables on a per acre basis in 
order to make them comparable with those already given for 
the dairy and horticultural holdings, but they are also given 
on the basis of “ per layer ” for purposes of illustrating the 
specific conditions of the poultry-keeper. 

The average capital invested on all 14 holdings was 
^£48 10.S'. od. per acre. This is a much higher figure than for 
either the dairying or the horticultural holdings, and may 
partly account for the different type of smallholder who seems 
to have been attracted to poultry keeping. The figure of 
£48 10s. od. per acre is equivalent to an investment of 
I2S. 3^/. per layer, which is lower than the ;^i per layer often 
given as typical of poultry farming. This lower figure is 
partly explained by the low valuation put on their buildings 

349 



County Council Small-Holdings 


by the smallholders, most of whom had constructed their own 
poultry houses. Of the total investment 56 per cent, was 
for poultry houses and 44 per cent, for poultry livestock. 

Expenses. The average expenses per acre, per layer and 
per cent, arc shown in Table XI. 

TABLE XI 


IlM’EN.SES ok T.4 Pori.TKV Smai.liioldkhs 


Expenses 

Per acre 

Per layer 

I'er cent. 


L 

vS. 

d 

£ 

.V. d. 


Kent and rates 

5 

6 

9 

0 

T 5 

10-0 

Family labour . . 

,12 

1 

10 

0 

3 *2 

22'() 

Hired labour . . 

3 

4 

« 

t) 

0 1 1 

(>•0 

Feeding stufts . . 

27 

2 

3 

0 

b 1 1 

50 • b 

J.,ivestock bought 

. . I 

14 


0 

0 5 


ITpkeep of buildings, etc. 


(> 

0 

0 

0 ()J 

4*3 

Other expenses 

. . J 

15 

0 

0 

0 5 

3*3 

Total . . 

• * 53 

11 


0 

13 9 

100*0 


This table of expanses contrasts with the corresponding 
tables for the dairying and horticultural holdings in that 
labour does not appear as the biggest item of expense. On 
the contrary the purchase of feeding stuffs is easily the most 
important item, accounting for 506 per cent, of total ex- 
penses. Labour accounted for a further 28-6 per cent, of 
the total expenditure, but the bulk of this represents an 
estimated charge for family labour and, as such, did not 
involve an actual cash expenditure by the smallholders. The 
other items in order of importance were rent and rates, up- 
keep and repairs of buildings, straw, transport charges, oil 
and lighting, and disinfectants. 

Receipts. Table XII shows the distribution of the receipts. 

TABLE XU 


RL( KIP1S of J 4 I’OULTKY SMALLHOLDERS 


KcceijUs 

I’er acre 

Per layer 

Per cent. 

Eggs 

£ s. d. 

45 8 8 

£ s. d. 
on 8 

74*7 

Birds . . . . . . . . 

13 .4 0 

« 3 .5 

Zl-J 

Miscellaneous . . 

^34 

007 


Total 

60 16 0 

0 15 8 

100*0 


350 





County Council Small-Holuings 


The average total receipts of £6o i6s. od. per acre include 
the value of eggs and poultry consumed by the smallholders' 
families. This amounted to an average of ;^9 6s. 4d. per 
holding, the average consumption per family being approxi- 
mately 85 dozen eggs and 34 birds. In addition, 8 small- 
holders stated that they produced all their own vegetables 
and a further 2 a part of their own vegetables, but it was 
not possible to put an estimated value on these. 

Receipts from the sale of eggs formed 75 per cent, of the 
total, and on all holdings, except i, this was the major 
source of income. The over-all average egg yield per layer 
was approximately ()-5 dozens per annum. Of the total eggs 
sold 81 per cent, were sold wholesale and ig per cent, sold 
retail. 

Receipts from sale of birds were made up as follows: — 
64 per cent, table birds, 28 pt^r cent, culled hens, 5 per cent, 
day-old chicks and 3 per cent, cockerels. The sale of table- 
birds was important on 8 holdings, sale of day-old chicks 
on 3 holdings and of cockerels (to table-bird producers) on 
2 holdings. 

The unclassified receijrts represent the sale of market- 
garden and fruit crops from 3 holdings, of jjoultry manure 
from 5 holdings and of pigs from i holding. 

Profits and Losses. The average profit (i.e. excess of 
receipts and closing valuations over expenses and opening 
valuations) of the 14 smallholders amounted to £54 14s. lod. 
per holding, or £6 12.'?. 8d. per acre or £0 is. gd. per layer. 
Of the 14 smallholders 8 showed a profit and 6 showed a 
loss, the exact position being as follows: — 

IVo, oj Holding 


Profit of over ;fioo per holding . . . . 3 

.. ;^50-£loo 4 

.. £^5-£5o .. • • ■ • i 

Loss of less than £25 per holding . . . . 2 

„ from £ 25-£50 i 

,, of over £50 3 


When no charge was made for family labour all the 
smallholders, except i, showed a surplus, the average 
“ family " income being £154 los. od. and the average 
income per person employed being £112 13s. 3<i. 

An examination of the individual results indicated that the 
most important influencing factor was the size of the flock, 
the chances of success being reduced as the size of the flock 

351 



County Council Small-Holdings 

was reduced. Thus of the 8 holdings having flocks of under 
800 birds, 3 only made a profit, while 5 of the 6 holdings 
with over 800 birds appeared in the profit group. Again 
the average “ family income ” of the 8 holdings having 
under 800 birds was £75 14s. od., but for the 6 holdings 
with over 800 birds it was £268 15.V. od. 

V. MISCELLANEOUS HOLDINGS 

Of the 28 miscellaneous holdings included in the inquiry, 
24 were in Hampshire and 4 in Dorset. It is not possible 
to give very full details for these holdings, largely because 
of their heterogeneous nature. Thej'^ may roughly be divided 
into 2 groups on the basis of acreage. 

In the first group come 13 holdings under 20 acres each. 
On these market-gardening, fruit-growing or poultry-keeping 
play a more or less important part; but other enterprises 
such as pig-keeping or dairying were also of considerable 
importance and the holdings could not rightly have been 
included with any of the 3 main types already described. 

In the second group come 15 holdings all over 20 acres. 
On most of these dairying was important, but other enter- 
prises such as market-garden crops or pigs or sheep were 
of almost equal importance and the holdings could not 
rightly have been grouped with the dairying holdings. 

Information about the systems of farming was obtained 
for all 28 holdings, but only for 9 holdings were financial 
data obtained. In view of the very mixed nature of the 
group it would be largely meaningless to present these data 
in the usual tabular form. It can be stated, however, that 
when family labour was charged for, 7 of the 9 hold- 
ings showed a profit, the average profit being £150 per 
holding or £6 13.'?. ^d. per acre. When no charge was made 
for family labour all 9 holdings showed a surplus income; 
the average “ family income ” was £262 and the average 
income per person employed was £166. These figures cor- 
roborate the impression formed at the time of the survey 
that this group of mixed holdings compared favourably with 
the more specialized types. 

{Concluded) 


352 



CROP HUSBANDRY IN THE 18 th CENTURY: 
BEDFORD, CAMBRIDGE AND HUNTINGDON 

G. E. Eussell, 

Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. 

Writing at the end of the seventeenth century, Meager 
was able to say of the group of three counties, Huntingdon, 
Cambridge and Bedford, that " in stiff clays, of which all 
the fruitful Valleys of the Kingdom arc composed, as also 
in (these counties) and many others, all manner of Arable 
business must be begun early in the Year, and the Ploughs 
and Instruments to be used, made ot the largest size, the 
Timber strong, and the Labour great and painful.”’* The 
soil of Bedfordshire is reported by Herman Moll not very 
much later, as being ‘‘ ge-nerally fertil, producing all sorts 
of Grain in great Plenty, especially Wheat and Barley, 
which are not e.xceeded by any one County in England ; and 
their Pastures feed very good Cattle, and they have great 
Dairies, but their Sheep deserve no veiy great commen- 
dations.”’* The wheat produced in the county was said to 
be the finest in the world in 1760, and it was much sought 
for as seed by farmers in other counties,” one in particular 
being Northampton.^ The rotations changed from the con- 
ventional three-course open-field system even before in- 
closure, and Young reports courses of five crops at Wooburn 
in 1770, even longer courses elsewhc're, and wheat, barley 
and turnips as fine as he had ever seen, in the Vale of Bed- 
ford, although he did not approve of the slow-moving, heavy 
ploughs drawn by three horses at length and the over-heavy 
sowing of beans.® Owing, perhaps, to the backward state 
of inclosure in the county, Ernie complains that the county 
shared with Cambridgeshire ” the reputation of being the 
Boetia of agriculture ” at the end of the century,® but on 
the open light lands the Norfolk course was followed in 
1794 as well as in the enclosures, and in the open fields on 
the heavy lands a six- or seven-year course, including two 
fallows and some pulse was customary.'* It is true that the 

* The list of references is given on p. 357. 


353 



i8th Century Crop Husbandry 


heavy land was ridged up in the old curved ridges, seven 
yards wide, with deep furrows, but wheat was sown on two- 
thirds of the fallows, after they had been folded or treated 
with farmyard manure, and the ploughing was only 4 or 5 in. 
deep, but the farming was not entirely unimproved. Marl, 
chalk and lime were used as manure, and peat ashes and 
dust on the chalk lands, while the waste of London was also 
imported for the purpose.® 

The farms in the county were not very large. Batchelar 
estimated that they were about 150 acres on the average. 
He thinks the number had diminished in the last 50 years 
of the century, but does not suggest consolidation as the 
cause of this. The system of tenure was generally from year 
to year, or for the three years’ rotation on unenclosed land. 
There were, however, a few short-term leases.® The 
implements had not changed much. Half the county still 
used the old flat wooden mouldboard plough, although an 
improved implement was used near Wooburn, and some 
gentlemen used the light Norfolk plough. The Duke of 
Bedford’s bailiff used a plough with an iron mouldboard con- 
structed on the principles set out by Bailey.^® Harrows were 
of the ordinary type, scufflers were not much used, there 
was little drilling and few machines, and Batchelar had never 
known a horse hoe used. There were, however, some rollers 
and a few threshing machines." Some of the barley land 
round Dunstable was more turned to the cultivation of wheat 
at the end of the century.^® Many of the modern implements 
had, however, their genesis in the county, owing to the 
Woobum sheep shearings held by the Dukes of Bedford, for 
their surveyor from 1790 to 1821 seems to have been par- 
ticularly fecund in this direction.^® 

Cambridge laboured under physical difficulties, particu- 
larly as regards the low-lying lands of the Isle of Ely, but 
as early as 1701, the south of the county was said to be 
fertile and well tilled, and to yield an abundance of barley, 
although the fertility of the soil was labelled “ pretty fruit- 
ful ” only, by the same writer at a later date. At the same 
time he says that the Isle had been improved by draining 
and the planting of sainfoin, while the county seems to have 
been as well known for saffron as Essex"; moreover, on the 
lands in the fens reclaimed by the process known as bum- 
baking, lucerne was grown, and one of Tull’s pronounced 
protagonists was of the opinion that this must “ certainly 

354 



i8th Century Crop Husbandry 


take effect if the Drill and Horsehough Ploughs succeed; 
the first of which will plant and cover the seed well, the 
second will help to keep the weeds down whilst the grass is 
young and tender, and in danger of being spoil’d.”’® Some 
of the barley grown was Bigg or Sprat barley, similar to 
that grown in Norfolk and Northampton.’® 

In 1739 Trowell suggested that there was a great deal of 
land in the Isle of Ely, Wisbech, Bedford, Lindsey Levels 
and parts of Lincoln of very little use for anything else, that 
might be devoted to producing hemp in order to avoid the 
necessity for importation,’^ and this suggestion seems to 
have been acted upon, because hemp was “ largely grown ” 
in 1813, as was flax.’® The sheep of the county were fed on 
rape, which was grown in the Isle as well as in the lower 
parts of Cambridge and Huntingdon, and, if harvested for 
the seed, the edish was used for feeding.’” 

The process known as bumbaking was intimately bound 
up with the cultivation of rape. The soil was pared off 
I in. thick with a paring plough, stacked till dry and then 
burnt, the ashes being scattered as manure. Oats were then 
sown after one ploughing, followed by wheat, and then cole 
seed for oil or fatting sheep.”® A great deal of the land on 
which this was practised had been made available for cul- 
tivation by draining operations. Young reckoned as much 
as 500,000 acres in the two counties of Cambridge and 
Lincoln,”’ but the Cambridge fens”” were not esteemed so 
good nor so well drained as those of Lincoln, although the 
uplands, which seem to have been in large farms, were 
suited for turnips, and lime and dung were used as manure.”® 
The farms in the county were, however, of a great diversity 
in size, varying from 20 acres to 100 acres, and although 
there were a few over 1,000 acres, yet many were between 
TOO and 1,000 acres.”’ Few leases were granted, and the 
feeling of insecurity this induced may have had something 
to do with any lack of progress there was in the farming.”® 
The position as reported by Gooch, while showing that the 
old system of three courses, including a fallow, was general 
in the open fields, admits that the Norfolk system had been 
adopted in the enclosures, while heavy manuring was 
common in the higher land. There was no lack of forage 
crops, and some parts of the county had evolved a system 
that suited the type of land. Cambridge was one of the 
counties where potatoes were grown, if possible for the 

355 



i8th Century Crop Husbandry 


market, if not, for feeding. The implements were not greatly 
improved, the common foot plough being used in the Fens 
and the half or three-quarter Dutch plough, introduced into 
Yorkshire in the early part of the century, being used else- 
where in the county. Threshing machines were becoming 
general in 1813.“ 

Huntingdon is another county, the cultivation of which 
was still in open field, in the main, at the end of the century, 
and it accordingly comes in for its share of blame from Ernie ; 
and the lens were .still some 44,000 acres in extent.’^'^ The 
higher land was arable and the highest sheep walk at the 
beginning of the century, the pasture then being spoken of 
well.®® The arable was still in the high crooked ridges so 
often condemned by Young and other writers, and these were 
often a yard high. It was recommended that they should be 
ploughed from east to west to get the sun, and if the furrows 
were not deep enough the earth should be cleared out with 
a spade.®® Young, however, speaks of the county in 1774 
as one of those in which much open field land under the 
three-field system, " that vile course,” had been inclosed 
and laid down within the previous 30 years. The other 
counties where this had happened were, he says, Northamp- 
ton, Leicester, and parts of Warwick and Buckingham. St. 
Neots was, however, a great corn market and the ” vile 
course ” must, therefore, in some circumstances, have been 
capable of producing a net gain that was saleable.®* In 
travelling from Harford to Branton and Huntingdon to 
Thrapston he found a long line of new enclosures, where the 
land was broken up for beans, followed by wheat, barley 
and clover.®® Again, 10,000 acres of the fens were under the 
alternate system in 1793, coleseed being sown after paring 
and burning with a breast plough or a paring plough from 
Holland, and followed by oats, wheat, and oats with seeds, 
and the ploughmen of the county were said to be the best 
in the world.®® There were some parts under a four-course 
rotation, though the three-course was common. Moreover, 
the common swing and Dutch ploughs were giving way to a 
double-furrow plough, which had originally come from 
^alop, but was then generally obtained from Northampton.®* 
A similar description of the county is given in the first 
report.®® Parkinson goes into the matter in much greater 
detail, l)ut does not add materially to our knowledge, though 
he does say that turnips were fairly general, and mentions 

356 



i8th Century Crop Husbandry 


hemp and flax. The sheep fold and farmyard manure were 
the mainstay of manuring.®® He is not, however, so em- 
phatic about the double-furrow plough, having the general 
idea that types of the Dutch were mainly used, although 
others had been tried. Drills were used in several parishes 
and there were six threshing mills in the county.®^ There 
were some large farms, as we would expect from Young’s 
statement that enclosure had led to depopulation in some 
parts,®® but the small preponderated, and there were but few 
leases granted, those that were being only for short terms.®® 

^Mystery of Husbandry, 1697, P- ^ New Description . . . 17-24, 

p. 106 — see also other topographers ; ^ The Farmer s Compleat Guide, 

1760, p 21 ; * John Laurence, New System . . . 1726, p. 64 ; ^Northern 
Tour, 2nd ed., 1770, 1 , pp. 21-50 — see also Museum Rusticum, 1 (i'/ 66 ), 
p. 187 ; ^English farming past and present, 4th ed , p. 241 , ’ T. Stone, 
County Report, 1794, pp. 14, 21 ; ® Thos. Hatchclar, County Report, 1808, 
pp. 276, 27g, 337, 358, 363, 388, 394, 308, 404, 41 1, 421, 427, 431, 434, 494, 
495, 504. 510, 518 ; • tbid., pp. 25, 27, 40, 41 , James Bailey, Essay on 
the construction of the Plough, 1795 ; Op. cit , pp. 161, 162, 163, 165, 174, 
177, 179, 190, 195, 196, 198, 211, 215 , J Baker, The Imperial Guide, 
1892, p. 4 , Sij. p; Clarke, Agriculture and the House of Russell, Jour. 
R A S L , 1891, p. 132 ; Herman Moll, System of Geography, 170T, p. 25, 
ibid , New Description . . . 1724, p. 161 (sec also Samuel Simpson, 
Agreeable Historian, 1746, p 78 Malachy Posthethwayt. Universal 
Dictionary of Trade . . . 1751, 1 , p 436 Cantabngia Depicta, 1763, 
pp. 2, 16. Stebbing Shaw, A Tour in 17H7, p. 6) , Stephen Switzer, 
A dissertation on the true Cythisus of the ancients, 1731, p 38 ; W. Ellis, 
New Experiments , . . for . . . April, 1736, p. 6 0 ; Samuel Trowell, 
New Treatise of Husbandry, 1739, p 24 , W. Gooch, Cambridge, 1813, 
pp 160, 167, ^’Trowell, op. cit., p. 29, \V. Ellis, Modern Husbandry, 

July, p 34, also Gooch, op. cit., p. 104 , Political Essays, 1772, p. 130 ; 

.see Ernie, p, 245; Charles Varlo, New System . . . 1770, p 130, 
also Thomas Stone, An Essay on AgricuUuye, 1785, p. 119; Gooch, 
County Report, 1813, p. 32 , ibid., p. 38, Henry C. Taylor, An Introduction 
. . . 1905, p. 294 ; Gooch, op. cit., pp. 47, 50, 95, 96, 98, 100, 119, 123, 
133. L36, 138. 13^. 14L 15L 153. 274 ; ^U)p. cit , pp 238, 244 ; 

James Beeverell, op. cit., p. 142, and other topograjilu is , John 

Mortimer, op. cit., p. 47 ; Political Arithmetic, p. 148 ; Annals, XVI 
(1791), p. 482; Annals, VI (1786), pp. 454-455; Annals, XXI 
(1793), pp. 155, 156 ; ibid., pp. 163-108 , Tliomas Stone, Huntingdon, 

1793, pp. 9-13 (it is, of course, repeated by George Maxwell in his Report, 

1794, pp. 8, 10, 17) ; Report, 1813, j)p. 100-103, 116 0 ., 122, 133, 136, 

140, 150, 204, 211, 2510.; ibid., pp. 32-35, Annals, VI (1786), 

P* 454 P.arkinson, Report, 1813, pp> 41, 45. 


357 



COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURE FOR ENGLAND 

The 48th meeting of the Council of Agriculture for England 
was held at the Middlesex Guildhall, Westminster, on 
Thursday, June 3, 1937- Mr. Robert Bruford, J.P. {Somerset), 
was elected Chairman for the year, in succession to Alderman 
G. E. Hewitt. The Minister, the Rt. Hon. W. S. Morrison, M.C.. 
K.C., M.P., and the Second Secretary of the Ministry, Mr. 
Arthur W. Street, C.B., C.M.G., M.C., attended on behalf of 
the Ministry. 

The McCreagh Estate. Mr. H. W. Thomas {Hants.) 
asked whether anything had yet been done by way of acquiring 
the derelict estate in Hampshire. Mr. George Dallas, for the 
standing Committee, said that the matter was still before that 
Committee and had not been overlooked. It raised a very 
difficult and complicated problem and the Committee would 
ask the Minister to look at it again. At a time like the present, 
when we wanted to grow as much food as possible in the 
country, it was a public scandal that the estate should be left 
as it was. Lord Selborne agreed and said he had never been 
able to understand why the Ministry had been unable to deal 
with the matter. 

Standing Committee. The Standing Committee of the 
Council for 1937 was elected as folows : — 

For Landowners. — Lt.-Col. Sir Merrik l^urrell, Bart., C.B.k!. ; I.ord 
Craiiworth, M C. ; Lord Fdtisley, K.B.E. ; Sir Arthur Hazlcrip;^?, Hart , 
and Mr. Charles H. Roberts. 

For Tenant Farmers — Mr. Robert Bruford, J.P. ; Mr. W. J. Cumber ; 
Mr. Cecil Robinson, J.P. ; Mr. Clement C. Smith, f.P. , and Alderman 
R. L. Walker. 

For Workmen -—Professor A. W. Ashby, M.A. ; Mr. George Dallas ; 
Alderman G. K. Hewitt, J.P. ; Mr. W. R. Smith, J.T\ ; and Mr. Denton 
Woodhead 

The Minister’s Address. The Minister said he recognized the 
value of the Council in passing on to him and to those who 
assisted him experienced knowledge about agriculture. Agri- 
culture was a vastly varied subject and it was very hard for 
one small head to contain all the requisite knowledge, and thus 
the Council and its Committee had been of great value to him. 

He would this morning say something in explanation of the 
statement he had made in the House of Commons recently on 
the instalment of agricultural policy then announced. Since 1931 
the Government had been attempting to deal with agriculture 
according to its most pressing needs caused by the collapse of 
prices in various commodities. Marketing schemes had been 

338 



Council of Agriculture for England 

launched in rapid succession for such articles as pigs, milk, 
potatoes and hops. The work had been urgent and could not 
wait for a comprehensive policy. At the last meeting of the 
Council , he had been asked when he would produce a ‘ ‘balanced 
policy” for agriculture. That was a phrase w'hich had been in 
many people’s mouths and to which different people attached 
different meanings. What he meant by a “balanced” agricul- 
ture was the use of the land to the best advantage, having regard 
to the two limiting factors of soil and climate. If the land was not 
in good health and fertility, sufficient to yield its produce to the 
labour of the farmer, then any superstructure raised on such 
a foundation was bound to be defective. The proposals he had 
made the other day were intended to place a solid foundation 
under the schemes for individual commodities. He would make 
a few observations in fuller explanation of certain items of the 
policy. 

Taking drainage first, since 1930 the Catchment Boards had 
been discharging their duties in the Catchment Areas with a 
marked measure of success. Works estimated to cost more than 
£6,000,000 had been approved and the situation had, no doubt, 
been bettered. The first step was to improve outfalls, after 
which, drainage could be carried further up the hills without 
fear that the extra water discharged into the valleys would prove 
a danger to agriculture and to life instead of a benefit. The 
present proposal was to extend the system of grants to internal 
drainage boards, and to local authorities where no drainage 
boards existed, in order that the streams which carry the water 
from the fields to the river might be cleaned out and improved. 
They would then be able also to carry the water which later 
improved field drainage might discharge into them. 
This was not subsidizing field drainage, though it should help its 
efficacy. 

The next proposal was of a more novel character. It was the 
improvement of the fertility of the soil by restoring the ancient 
practice of applying lime to it. He was convinced that there 
was no one thing that could be done of more general benefit 
to fertility than liming. Much land was in a sour and acid condi- 
tion and, if expensive fertilizers and manures were applied, 
it could not realize their full benefit because of the absence 
of lime. The Government, then, would offer a very substantial 
inducement, namely half the cost of the lime, to all those who 
knew their land was deficient in this respect and used that 
article for its improvement. As regards grass-land, the Govem- 

359 



Council of Agriculture for England 


ment would similarly assist the application of basic slag, but the 
contribution. would be one-quarter the cost of the fertilizer. It 
might be asked why the Government were assisting these two 
operations and not the application of superphosphate, 
sulphate of ammonia, etc., to the soil. The two reasons were 
that he was s(H'king (i) some lasting benefit to the land, and in 
this lime and slag had an advantage over other artificial ferti- 
lizers— though the valu(‘ of the use of slag might not be so lasting 
as that of lime; and (2) that in spending public money it 
was necessary to see that it should be devoted to the purpose 
for which it had been approved. Both lime and slag were 
home-produced, and by co-operation with the home suppliers 
rises in price because of increased demand could be prevented. 
With superphosphate and other substances, however, we should 
have no control over the foreign e.xporter, who would dictate the 
price. 

The Minister added that the other question upon which he 
would remark to-day was the last of the proposals included 
in his recent statement. It was the question of making a 
resolute attack upon disease in livestock. The losses from this 
cause were estimated at about ;£[i4,ooo,ooo a year. Not only 
did disease afflict agriculture in actual casualties in animals, 
but it diminished their productivity and lessened their 
usefulness as wealth-producing elements. Strong measures had 
been taken in the past against disease and the great change 
now proposed was the centralization of the veterinary services. 
Complaint had been made that while some Local Authorities 
exercised their functions under the Diseases of Animals Acts 
and Acts relating to milk with great thoroughness, skill and 
enthusiasm, tht'y were not invariably copied by their neigh- 
bours. It was a discouraging thing to a man who lived in one 
county where there was a high standard of efficiency to be 
asked to co-operate in regulations burdensome to himself in 
order to achieve* eradication of disease, when the same burdens 
were not being placed on other farmers in the next county, 
the continuance of whose state was a frustration to his own 
improvement. 

In order that the plan might succeed, the eradication of disease 
had to be tackled upon a nation-wide scale. The cost to the State 
of the present proposal would be £660,000 a year. Local 
Authorities would be relieved of about £170,000 a year by 
their officers being taken over, but there was no question that 
certain public health and allied functions would still require 

360 



Council of Agriculture for England 


Local Authorities to maintain their committees. The Minister 
then gave some particulars of the negotiations that were going 
on with Local Authorities, the County Councils’ Association 
and the Association of Veterinary Officers, adding that 
it was his intention to ask all whole-time Veterinary Inspectors 
of Local Authorities to join the new central service, subject to an 
age limit which, subject to Treasury sanction, would be 
interpreted as liberally as possible. The interests of 
Local Authorities and their staffs would be consulted 
and he was confident that willing co-operation between 
them would be forthcoming. The goal was worth striving 
towards, because, if only half the incidence of disease could be 
removed, it would be a very great boon to agriculture, which 
really could not afford the appalling wastage of stock now 
going on. 

The Minister then mentioned the extension of the Wheat 
Act provision from 6,000,000 to 8,000,000 quarters a year, and 
the Government’s aim at bringing in oats and barley where 
either of them and not wheat was the chief crop under cultiva- 
tion. With regard to these other crops, what was wanted was 
rather an insurance against such disastrously low prices as they 
had suffered in recent years. It would be an acreage subsidy, 
limited to ;£i per acre at the most, and the cost to the Exchequer 
could not be more than £1,750,000 a year. 

In conclusion, the Minister said that these were very simple 
proposals. Their effect would be understood by the ordinary 
man who should be stimulated and encouraged by the belief 
that the Government desired to see an improvement in agri- 
culture and its increased prosperity. Other problems at which 
he was working hard were milk and bacon and other items. He 
would not go through the whole list now but he hoped later 
in the session to announce details of other proposals. 

Sir Merrik Burrell {West Sussex) congratulated the Minister 
on his proposals and on the clarity of his explanations. He was 
sure that already the farming world was perfectly confident 
that in our present Minister of Agriculture it had a real friend. 
Soil-health and animal-health were the two things chiefly aimed 
at, and, as the Minister said, they were the underlying funda- 
mental things. In addition, it was necessary, where grass-land 
was concerned, to have it adequately grazed. That was where 
it was necessary to have a sufficiency of good animals to put on 
it. One of the difficulties to-day was to get sufficient well-bred 
stores. 


361 



Council ok Agriculture for England 


As regards the absorption of the county veterinary services 
by the State, he thought the County Agricultural Committees 
should back the Minister up in the wide policy he had adopted. 
He urged that no exception to the plan should be taken until 
Committees knew exactly what was intended. That would be 
known when the necessary legislation appeared. 

Mr. W. R. Smith seconded the vote of thanks to the Minister. 
He referred to the “ balanced ” policy and called attention to 
the apparent lack of balance in the treatment of the labourer. 
It was necessary to keep the labourer on the land in a happy 
and contented position. To-day, the housing problem of the 
countryside made that very difficult. The labourer should be 
given housing conditions that would not only make him happy 
and contented, but would establish in his mind a desire to 
remain on the countryside rather than to drift to the town. 

The Chairman here intimated that, before the vote of thanks 
was put, he would allow members to ask the Minister questions 
on his statement. Several were asked, the chief being on the 
use of chalk, the agricultural wage, the special schemes for 
barley and oats, lime, land settlement from distressed areas, 
housing and electricity for rural areas, the method of fixing the 
basic figures for wheat, barley, and oats, varying prices with 
the cost of production, and the fear that the subsidy on oats 
might reduce the market price for general sellers of oats. 

The Minister, in replying, said he was grateful to Sir Merrik 
Burrell for mentioning the point that fertility of the land 
depended largely upon the livestock population. Liming and 
slagging were no substitute for livestock, and, as to the latter, 
the Livestock Industry Bill would do much to improve 
conditions. The Bill aimed at controlling the market and pre- 
venting the bottom being knocked out of it. The International 
Beef Conference had already met and had had a successful and 
auspicious beginning. The improvement in prices of livestock 
that had taken place recently was encouraging, and the 
farmers were paying good prices for store cattle 
to-day, which meant they had a certain confidence in 
the future. As regards housing conditions in rural areas, 
he regarded it as vital that these should be such as to attract 
young men to marry and settle down and live on the land. 
As agriculture improved, so the prosperity of the worker 
would tend to increase, and there had been some improve- 
ment in recent years. The wages were not tiie whole matter 
by any means, as many people preferred to live in the 

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country on less money than in the town on more. He beheved 
and hoped that something could be done to improve rural 
housing conditions. There was an Advisory Committee set up 
by the Minister of Health especially to consider rural housing, 
and there already existed the Rural Housing Act of 1926, 
under which much had been done in some counties and very 
little in others. He hoped that those counties that had hitherto 
done little would now see their way to use the facilities 
provided. 

As regards electricity, the McGowan Report was still under 
consideration and the rural aspect of it would not be over- 
looked. Costs of production of cereals were variable things, 
depending on the weather, yield, and so on. He believed that 
the present proposals for wheat would make it remunerative 
under most conditions, and that those for oats and barley 
would provide insurance against disastrous disparity between 
costs and prices. Chalk would be regarded as within the scope 
of the liming proposals. 

As regards the criticism that the subsidies for wheat, barley 
and oats ought to be available to the same man at 
the same time, the intention was that anyone who grew both 
oats and barley, or only one of them, and wheat should each 
year be able to elect which scheme of assistance he desired 
to use. He could choose between wheat and the other two 
crops each year. Consideration would make the justice of 
the proposals apparent. For example, barley was grown very 
largely in East Anglia, and, for a decent sample, the price was 
well above the range of the insurance proposals. It was the 
grower of feeding-barley who required the insurance against 
slump prices. The Wheat Act provided assistance for the grow- 
ing of wheat, much more valuable to the wheat grower than the 
insurance against slump prices to the barley man. He would put 
the matter this way, that a greater output of wheat was desired 
and the Government framed the Wheat Act Scheme to insure 
it, but there were districts where farmers, through climatic 
conditions, were cut off from any participation in that 
national scheme. If, then, a man came under the Wheat Act, 
the Minister did not think he need complain too much because 
his brother farmer — ^higher up the hill under worse conditions 
— ^had the benefits provided for oats and barley. 

Another point as to market prices; the Government intended 
to do its best to make sure that stable market conditions 
existed, but it was not the market price so much as the relation 

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between costs and prices that was important. The Government 
intended to persevere along the line of making ample supplies 
of food available consistent with a reasonable return to the 
producer. 

The vote of thanks was carried unanimously. 

Marking of Imported Eggs: Mr. W. B. Pinching 
{Middlesex) moved: — 

" That the Minister of Agriculture he urged to take immediate steps 

to secure the effective marking of all imported eggs/’ 

Mr. Pinching stated that from 1930 to 1933 there was a 
considerable increase in egg production, though, since the last- 
named year, it had dropped back. He gave particulars of the 
production of eggs in this country and of the importation from 
foreign sources, showing how the latter had increased in recent 
years at the expense of the former. The law required eggs 
to be marked as “ Foreign ” or “ Empire ” or, alternatively, 
with the name of the country of origin. What happened to-day 
was that many imported eggs were ticketed “New laid ” and 
were really preserved eggs, because one could not differentiate 
between preserved and fresh eggs in the case of importations. 
He had never seen a Chinese egg in this country sold as such, 
and was told that only dried eggs and eggs not in shell came 
from China. He did not find this borne out by the trade return, 
which showed that about 140,000,000 eggs per annum were 
imported from China in shells. He asked that the intention 
of the Merchandise Marks Act should be carried out and that 
eggs coming from foreign countries, if pre.served, should be 
marked “ Preserved.” 

Mr. Graves {Middlesex) seconded the Resolution, which was 
put to the Meeting and carried. 

Wheat Act, 1932. Mr. H. W. Thomas {Hants.) moved: — 

" That in the opinion of this Council there should be no limit to the 

amount of home-grown wheat entitled to the full deficiency payment 

and that the standard price should be raised to 50s. per quarter." 

Mr. Thomas said he was glad to see the limit under the Act 
raised from six to eight million quarters, but he would better 
like to see the limit removed altogether and the standard price 
raised to 50s. a quarter. His reason was that there had been 
a large increase in the cost of production since 1932. The 
world price of wheat was high, and, if his proposals were 
carried out, there would be a greater run on wheat production, 

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Council of Agriculture for England 

so that some of our worn-out pasture which had been let down 
could be ploughed up and returned to a useful purpose. Much 
of it might be got into condition to plant next autumn, and he 
thought the wheat would certainly be required, since the 
world wheat situation was none too promising. He also 
thought that this improvement of worn-out pasture and its 
return to grass after two or three years would bring an 
improvement to the cattle industry by the resulting ability to 
carry more and healthier stock. 

Major Nelson Rooke seconded the Resolution on the ground 
that for national defence we should not limit our wheat acreage, 
and also because, if 45s. was the correct figure in 1932, then 
50s. was a fairer figure now, having regard to the increased 
costs of production. 

Lord Hastings pointed out the difficulty of dealing with this 
Resolution in proper perspective, apart from the requirements 
of barley and oats. He thought that if the prospect to the 
wheat grower was improved, it would be necessary to make 
that to the oat and barley grower also sufficiently attractive or 
the latter would be drivem into wheat cultivation, which he 
gathered was not desired. Indeed, the argument for a balanced 
agriculture was lost the more one particular kind of crop was 
subsidized. He thought this point should be borne in mind, but 
he supported the Resolution. Alderman T. Byass agreed with 
the last speaker and said for that reason he could not support 
50S. a quarter. 

The Minister said there was no limit of acreage for wheat 
growing under the Act, but the yield, which was limited for sub- 
sidy purposes, was being raised by one-third, i.e., from 
6,000,000 to 8,000,000 quarters, and in none of the years since 
the passing of the Wheat Act had this figure been reached. 
The question of an alteration of the standard price was foreseen 
in the Wheat Act, which required a committee to be set up not 
later than 1935 to consider it. This committee, under the 
chairmanship of the late Sir John Beale, had been set up and 
had reported in 1933 that there should be no alteration in the 
standard price It would not now be desirable to 
undertake the responsibility of raising the price without 
another such investigation as the Act itself foresaw as 
necessary. He thought that farmers would agree that the 
additional insurance of getting 45s. for their wheat was a very 
good inducement in these days when prices were so apt to vary. 
He did not, however, wish to oppose the motion, but thought 

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Council ok Agriculture for England 

the Council should have these observations in order to see that 
the question of raising the standard price was not so simple 
as it looked. 

Mr. Charles Roberts asked whether this question had been 
considered from the point of view of requirements for national 
defence. Sir Arthur Hazlerigg suggested that the matter should 
be referred to the Standing Committee for consideration and 
Mr. D. C. Watkins seconded that. The Minister said that the 
matter had been considered from the point of view of national 
defence and what the Govc'niment wanted to .see was 
that such wheat as could pro|Xirly be grown should be grown, 
and he thought that the projxjsal he had made would ensure 
that result. It was then put to the Meeting and agreed that 
the resolution be referred to the Standing Committee, 

Beef Prices. Sir Arthur Hazlerigg presented the Ki'port 
of the Standing Committee on the question of Beef Prices and 
the Subsidy (sec Ap{x;ndix I, j). 360). He said that the Report 
was a very restrained one, and confined itself almost entirely to 
a statement of actual facts. He commented on various state- 
ments in the Report, adding that the Minister was “flirting” 
with a standard price for oats and he (Sir Arthur) hoped that it 
would come to a standard price for beef in the end. 

Mr. T. C. Ward (Salop) said that the Report was merely a 
recital of facts and there was not a single recommendation in 
it. He would move that it be referred back to the Standing 
Committee. Mr. J. V. Wheeler (Salop) seconded. Alderman 
E. Peat (Derby) asked whether anything could be done to 
remove the taxation on the importation of Irish steers. Mr. 
Hewitf said that he agreed with Sir Arthur Hazlerigg that 
stabilization of prices for steer beef was required. He would 
not have it applied to cow beef. Under the pressure towards 
greater milk production there were more fat cows brought to 
market than formerly. Fattening steer beef meant more 
manure for the land. Mr. John Beard asked if sometiiing 
could not be done to give a guarantee to steer beef. He thought 
that Londoners to-day got mainly cow beef. Mr. J. O. Adams 
(Northanis.) asked about encouraging the rearing of young 
stock. Milk, at the manufacturing price, ought to be used to 
feed calves, and he hoped that people rearing young stock 
would be able to retain some of their milk for that purpose at 
the manufacturing price. Sir Arthur Hazlerigg here suggested 
that, if the mover and seconder of the amendment agreed, the 
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Report might be received as it stood, and a rider added that 
the Standing Committee be instructed to consider further the 
question of a satisfactory policy for beef. That was agreed, 
and the Report adopted. 

Cheaper Milk Schemes. Mr. George Dallas moved the 
adoption of the Standing Committee’s Report on the subject of 
increasing the consumption of milk by the extension of the 
Cheaper Milk Schemes already operating (sec; Appendix II, 
}). J70). Mr. C. H. Roberts said that the object was eminently 
desirable, but not so easy as it looked. Milk-producers did not 
like the idea of a retail price of is. qd. per gallon for their milk. 
He did not think they realized that it was better for them to get 
8d. a gallon for milk on a cheap scheme than 5d. a gallon for 
manufacturing milk. The milk-producer was rather afraid that 
the schemes would lower the total amount coming to him, but 
Mr. Roberts did not agree. He held that, from the national point 
of view, it was vitally necessaiy that the price of milk to the con- 
sumer should come down. At prestmt prices, for three children 
in a family to get the recommended amount of milk it would cost 
the family about qs. a week on milk alone. That was far too 
much. He desired also to emphasize the sentence in the Report 
which invited the co-operation of Local Authorities, because 
some of them were inclined to feel that they should not take 
the trouble. These said “ It is the Milk Marketing Board’s 
job ; that Board would apparently make something out of it, 
and why should we have to fill up complicated forms, &c.” He 
thought, therefore, that, if these schemes came into force, the 
simpler they were and the less burden that was thrown upon 
the Local Authorities, the better. The Report was adopted. 

Expenses of Worker Members on County Agricultural 
Committees. Mr. W. R. Smith moved the adoption of the 
Report on payment by Counties, etc. , of the expenses of worker 
members on County Agricultural Committees (see Appendix 
III, p. 373). The Report was adopted. 

Field and Tile Drainage. Mr. R. Anderson {Northumber- 
land) moved : — 

“ That the Council of Agriculture considers that as a means of 
alleviating unemployment and improving agricultural land, the Ministry 
of Agriculture and Fisheries be urged to rcston^ the grants which ceased 
to be made in respect of field and tile drainage schemes in England in 
1931 ; and that it be pointed out to the Ministry that grants are still 
being made in respect of similar schemes in Scotland." 


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Council of Agriculture for England 


Mr. Anderson said that there were hundreds of acres in 
Northumberland and thousands of acres in the countiy 
that required proper arterial drainage. Tile drainage 
was the most effective and lasting if the drains 
were put in at suitable depths, but it was expensive, costing 
anything from ;^I 5 to ^20 per acre. The Minister had men- 
tioned the health of stock. Many of our sheep diseases were 
attributable to grazing on wet land. He considered that public 
money spent on field drainage would safeguard a vital asset. 
It would give plenty of work during the winter months. The 
Minister’s proposals as regards drainage would appear to be 
made only in respect of the drainage schemes which would be 
carried out by drainage authorities. There were no such 
authorities functioning in Northumberland and grants for 
field drainage were being made over the border, in Scotland, 
and none in his own county. Mr. Briggs {Soke of Peterborough) 
seconded. He welcomed the words of the Minister that his 
scheme included the clearing out of dykes and sewers in an 
effort to get rid of surplus water. That would obviate, in many 
instances, the complaints now being made by County Agri- 
cultural Committees that water was being held up. The people 
in his district had realized that dykes had to be cleaned out. 
Everybody knew that potatoes standing in water for twenty- 
four hours were finished. 

Mr. Roberts asked whether the announcement was that local 
authorities would have grants for cleaning out dykes and 
streams in areas where there were no internal drainage boards. 
An answer was given in the affirmative. Mr. Roberts then 
asked whether it was not possible to go further and restore the 
grants for field and tile drainage so that there would be no 
discrimination between the farmers of Northumberland and 
Cumberland and those of South Scotland. Mr. T. C. Goodwin 
{Cheshire) and Mr. E. F. Brewis {Northumberland) spoke in 
favour of outfall drains being cleaned. 

The Minister said that, inasmuch as the problem of drainage 
in Scotland was different from that in England and there was 
very little arterial drainage in Scotland owing to the generally 
high level of the country, Scotland had received grants for 
field and pipe drainage, while England had had the 
benefit of the money for the drainage of the main rivers by 
Catchment Boards. It was not proposed to give grants for field 
drainage in England and Wales, but to extend grants to Internal 
Drainage Boards and to Local Authorities for the purpose of 

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Council of Agriculture for England 


clearing out the lesser streams and thus making field drains 
effective. The grants would also cover boundary dykes or minor 
water-courses. The grants would be available to County 
Councils where no internal drainage boards existed. Mr. 
Matthews (Hereford) advocated helping mole drainage. The 
Resolution was then put to the Meeting and carried. 

Appendix 1. 

Report from the Standing Committee on the present position 
as regards Beef Prices and the Subsidy. 

1. The Standing Committee has, from time to time during the last 
eight or nine years, presented reports to the Council on the state of the 
livestock industry in this country. In May, 1932, the Committee called 
the Council's attention to the very serious position which had arisen in 
the industry through the falling away of the wholesale prices of beef, 
veal, mutton and lamb. Then, the cost of store cattle one and two years 
before, when the animals had been taken on the farms by the feeders, 
was high, and farmers found, on sale of the finished animals at lowering 
prices, that they had been producing at a loss. Prices still further declined 
and farmers, always hoping for better prices, which never materialized, 
continued to produce at a loss until the subsidy of 55. per live cwt. for fat 
cattle was brought in, in 1934. In many parts of the country, even with 
the subsidy, fat cattle have since been only able to be produced by farmers 
trenching on capital or going into debt. There is, at the present time, 
a likelihood of improvement in this respect, as the prices of fat cattle 
are to-day somewhat higher, though in our view, remembering also the 
increases in costs of production, to some of which we refer later, they have 
not yet reached a point at which, with the subsidy, they can be considered 
as giving more than a scanty return to the average producer. 

2. To realize the position more clearly the following facts and figures 
from official sources are set out : in 1932, the average annual price of first 
and second quality fat cattle (shorthorns) in England and Wales amounted 
to 425. 2}(f. per live cwt., representing a decline of about 12 per cent, 
compared with the annual average for the period 1927-31. In the next 
three years, a further severe fall occurred, the average price, excluding 
subsidy, in 1935 showing a fall of 30 per cent, as compared with the 
period 1927-31. Prices in 1936 showed a slight recovery, but the average 
for the year, excluding subsidy, was still nearly 27 per cent, below the 
1927-31 average, excluding subsidy, or 16 per cent, including it. 

3. So far this year — and especially in recent weeks — there has been a 
further improvement in fat cattle prices which appears to represent 
somewhat more than the seasonal increase which normally occurs in the 
first half of the year. For the first quarter of 1937, the average price of 
first and second quality fat cattle (shorthorns), including subsidy, was 
41S. 2^d. per live cwt. as compared with 39s. lod. per cwt. in the first 
quarter of 1936 and 485. 6d. per cwt. in the corresponding quarter of the 
quinquennium 1927-1931. But it is doubtful whether producers of fat 
cattle have so far benefited to any appreciable extent by the increase, 
because of the sharp rise in the prices of purchased feeding stuffs which 
has accompanied it. In the first quarter of the present year, the Ministry's 
index of feeding stuffs prices was 117, representing a rise of 33 points as 
compared with the corresponding quarter of last year. In fact, producers 
who rely on purchased feeding stuffs are now, for the most part, paying 

c 369 



Council of Agriculture for England 


prices appreciably higher than those ruling in 1932, although fat cattle 
prices, exclusive of subsidy, are about 15 per cent, less than in that year. 

4. If the official index numbers of cattle prices are compared with 
those of other agricultural commodities, it will be seen that the cattle 
industry is still one of the most depressed branches of agriculture. In 
March this year, the Ministry's index of fat cattle prices was 102 (without 
subsidy), whereas fat sheep stood at 145, pork pigs at 124, bacon pigs at 
122, and the general index for all agricultural products at 130. After 
full allowance is made for the effect of subsidy payments, the index for 
fat cattle stands only at 117 for March. For April the corresponding 
figure is 120, and so far as the present month is concerned prices arc 
still slowly rising. 

5. The Committee would, then, sum up the situation by saying that the 
industry has, for some years past, been suffering under great difficulty, 
and that it is a fine testimony to the hardihood of the livestock feeder that 
he has been able to maintain himself in the face of adverse marketing 
conditions. Some recompense in the form of a period of stable remunera- 
tive conditions is certainly due to him. 

6. The Livestock Industry Bill proposes that a sum of not more than 
3^5,000,000 shall be available in any one financial year to assist the live- 
stock farmer by means of payments of approved rates of subsidy on the 
sale of fat stock. The Committee considers that in deciding on the rates 
of assistance for future years, such facts as those set out above should be 
taken into careful account. Further, the Committee is definitely of the 
opinion that the 3^5,000,000 provided in the Bill is not likely to be more 
than sufficient, if it is sufficient, to give the necessary help to the industry 
in the first year of what we hope will be the beginning of a better period 
for a much harassed and impoverished branch of home farming. Whether 
it will prove sufficient for all years in the future will depend on the levels 
of prices and costs of production and remains to be seen. 

Appendix II. 

Report from the Standing Committee on the question of 
increasing the Consumption of Milk by the extension of the 
cheaper milk schemes already operating. 

PART I. 

1. The Standing Committee's report to the Council on the subject of 
increasing the consumption of milk, dated June, 1936, commented upon 
the outstanding merit of Milk as a food containing all materials essential 
for the growth and maintenance of life in a form ready for utilization 
by human beings, and drew attention to the evidence in this respect 
published in a memorandum on “ The Nutritive Value of Milk " by the 
Advisory Committee on Nutrition appointed by the Ministry of Health. 
Since that report was issued, this Advisory Committee has issued its 
First Report, to which the Committee now draws the Council's attention. 

2. The Report deals with food in general and refers, in its comments 
on recent advances in the study of nutrition, to the essential need for correct 
feeding in the case of expectant and nursing mothers and young children ; 
the younger the child the more important it is that it should be properly 
fed, for the effects of a dietary deficiency during childhood or adolescence 
may persist through life. In its remarks on milk, the Report compares 
the present consumption per head with the nutritional requirements 
suggested by the Technical Commission of the League of Nations Health 
Organization. It finds that, whereas the requirements suggested by the 
Commission are equivalent to an average daily allowance per head of 

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Council of Agriculture for England 


seven-eighths of a pint, less than one-half this amount is estimated to be 
consumed per person in this country. If condensed and dried milk are 
included the national consumption is still only 6o per cent, of the amount 
suggested by the Commission. The Advisory Committee states the 
desirable amount of milk for children to be from one to two pints per 
day, for expectant and nursing mothers about two pints per day and for 
other adult members of the community about one-half pint per day. 
It deplores the fact, therefore, that while the volume of milk offered for 
sale IS growing and there is a substantial surplus on the market, there is, 
at the same time, ‘ ‘ a severe deficiency of milk in the diet of large sections 
of the population."' 

3. The Standing Committee sees no escape from the conclusion that 
steps should be taken to remedy this position either by a drastic reorganiza- 
tion of the methods of distribution which would enable an all-round 
reduction in the price of milk to be effected or by a considerable extension 
of the schemes for the supply of cheaper milk to special classes, or by both 
methods. 

PART II. 

4. At the last meeting of the Council, the following resolution by Major 
Nelson Rooke was referred to the Standing Committee for consideration 
and report : — 

“ That the Council of Agriculture for England is of the opinion that 
the Government should be asked to take immediate steps to ensure 
that any so-called ' surpluses,' i.e , amounts of agricultural produce 
grown in excess of ordinary requirements, shall be diverted, without 
loss to the producer, to any needy section of the population, such as 
those m receipt of National Health In.surance, Unemployment Relief 
or other form of public assistance, as, in the interests of food production 
against an emergency, of proper nutrition for the under-fed and of the 
agricultural industi*y itself, it is essential to stimulate production in 
this country." 

5. The Committee has carefully considered Major Nelson Rooke’s 
suggestion and agrees that, wherever foodstuffs are grown surplus to 
ordinary market requirements, it would be an undoubted advantage to 
the community if workable schemes could be devised whereby the surpluses 
could be dealt with as suggested, and not permitted to swamp the market 
.so that the price for the whole crop or production is lowered beneath a 
profitable price to the producer. The Committee considers that the few 
commodities which would lend themselves to the treatment suggested 
are to be found amongst those that are the subject of marketing schemes 
and as to which the amounts of the comparable imports are known or 
can be foreshadowed. Only in respect of such can it be stated with 
reasonable accuracy how much, if any, of the crop or production in any 
particular year is surplus to ordinary market requirements. 

6. Whatever commodities come within the purview of such schemes, 
milk is clearly one and outstandingly deserves first consideration. It is 
entirely home produced and there is always a large surplus to ordinary 
liquid milk sales. The Committee decided to restrict its examination 
to this commodity in the first instance, and to deal only with the question 
of the extension of existing schemes for the sale of milk at cheaper rates 
than those ordinarily in operation. 

7. The schemes already existing are the Milk-in-Schools Scheme and 
those at present in force through the co-operation of the Milk Marketing 
Board, the Commissioners for Special Areas, the distributors and the local 
authorities in the distressed areas, particularly in the Rhondda Valley. 

8. The Rhondda Valley scheme was started in July of last year and its 
object was to sell additional milk for special classes in families, namely, 

C2 371 



Council of Agriculture for England 


for expectant and nursing mothers and children under five years of age, 
at 2d. per pint, i.e., js. 4d. per gallon. Under the authority of the Medical 
Officers of Health, persons in these categories are allowed one pint daily 
at the reduced price, though the allowance can be increased on the recom- 
mendation of the M.O.H. who can approve either raw or pasteurized milk 
or both. There is no income test and no reference is made to the financial 
status of the applicant. Dairymen approved for supplying the special 
categories under the scheme are allowed 8d. a gallon as a distributive 
margin. 

9. The effect of this and similar schemes in distressed areas now 
operating appears to be that more milk is sold, the distributor deals with 
larger quantities and does not lose money, and the producer gets a some- 
what better price for it than he would if the milk were sold for manufacture. 

10. The Standing Committee suggests that, since these schemes have 
been successful in bringing more liquid milk into consumption, they should 
be extended to similar classes throughout the country, the local authorities 
and the Medical Officers of Health being invited to co-operate in this 
national work. The Milk Marketing Board on behalf of all milk producers 
has already shown its active interest in such schemes, and the Government 
would no doubt be ready to assist in any way which it deemed to be 
advisable and equitable. It might be necessary to apply an income test 
to recipients as it is essential that the cheaper milk should go to the really 
needy classes and be in addition to and not in substitution of existing 
supplies. With such recipients the present average consumption of milk 
would be likely to be low, and, therefore, supplies of cheaper milk, especially 
if accompanied by conditions as in the case of the Rhondda Valley supplies, 
are likely to be taken as additions to the present consumption. If thought 
advisable and practicable, needy cases amongst the unemployed and old- 
age pensioners might also be dealt with, possibly with slight variations 
of the scheme to meet special cases. 

11. Apart from this proposal, it appears to the Standing Committee 
that there is ample room for advance on the lines suggested by the Re- 
Organization Commission of Milk Marketing Schemes in Great Britain of 
supplying factory workers, mine workers and even large office staffs with 
cheaper milk during working hours. Where all the recipients are under 
one roof, the distributors may find themselves able to accept a margin 
of 6d. per gallon, as in the case of school milk ; and, since this milk would 
not be in competition with household supplies, but would otherwise be 
sold for manufacture, it might be supplied to the distributor for sale at 
IS. 4d. per gallon. This would enable workers to purchase milk delivered 
at a suitable time at their place of work at id. per half-pint. 

12. The Committee would repeat the suggestion put forward by the 
same Commission that there might also be sales of cheaper milk from 
selected shops or depots for those people who were prepared to send for it. 
It is not reasonable that the purchasers who are prepared to do without 
the services of an expensive distributive system should be charged the 
same as others who require milk delivered at their door twice or thrice 
daily. It was suggested by the Commission that these special shops 
could be supplied with milk at a lower rate than that to ordinary dis- 
tributors, and that they should be tied to a low retail price and to sales 
over the shop counter. If such a scheme were introduced, it would be of 
especial advantage in areas where the consumption of milk is already low, 
80 that there would be a good chance of a largely increased consumption 
of milk resulting therefrom. Here, again, the Standing Committee would 
like to see a retail price of is. 4d. per gallon for milk sold from those shops. 

13. It will be realized that, in making the above suggestions, the 
Standing Committee is putting forward very little that is new. It is 

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Council of Agriculture for England 


rather bringing several proposals together : (a) for the extension of existing 
schemes which have met with a measure of success, and (b) for the inaugura- 
tion of schemes suggested in reports by ad hoc Committees and Commis- 
sions, whose views should have much weight. If this can be done, con- 
siderable advance would be achieved in the direction of utilizing the 
surplus liquid milk for the good of the community and the benefit of 
the producer. 

14. In conclusion, the Standing Committee would repeat the words of 
the Advisory Committee on Nutrition in their First Report mentioned at 
the opening of this Report : “ The national advantages of an improved 
standard of health for the rising generation cannot be expressed in pounds, 
shillings and pence ; but even from the point of view of industrial efficiency, 
it is not over-stating the case to say that a high general standard of physical 
well-being is the nation’s greatest asset.” The Report continues : ” From 
the health standpoint, there is no single measure which would do more to 
improve the health, development and resistance to disease of the rising 
generation than a largely increased consumption of safe milk by mothers, 
children and adolescents.” 

Appendix IIL 

Report from the Standing Committee on the subject of Payment 
by Counties, etc., of Expenses of Worker Members of County, etc., 
Agricultural Committees. 

1. At the last meeting of the Council of Agriculture (December 10, 1936) 
a resolution was passed on the motion of Mr. John Beard, as follows : — 

” That this Council of Agriculture calls the attention of the Govern- 
ment to the difficulty of securing labour representatives on many 
County Agricultural Committees owing to County Councils declining 
to make financial provision to meet the needs of the labourers for 
travelling, subsistence and loss of pay , and asks the Government to 
remedy this defect in the Act either by itself, or through instructions 
to County Councils to make such financial provision as wull make it 
possible for labourers to give their quota of service.” 

2. The Standing Committee has looked into this question and finds 
that local authorities have power only to pay travelling and subsistence 
allowances, not loss of pay. It is, moreover, informed by the Ministry 
of Agriculture that the matter has been taken up with the fifteen County 
and Borough Agricultural Committees which liad, at the date of the 
Council meeting, made no effective provision for the payment of travelling 
expenses or subsistence allowances to members generally or to those 
representing agricultural labour, with the following result : six of the 
agricultural committees have come into line, and there is a likelihood of 
four others doing so, leaving only five authorities in England and Wales 
at present apparently indisposed to make any change in the practice 
they have followed in this matter in the past. 

3. The Committee considers that it is to be regretted that these five 
authorities have come to a decision adverse to the spirit of the Council 
of Agriculture's resolution, as set out above. It sugge.sts that these 
bodies should now reconsider the proposal, bearing in mind the fact that 
other committees have agreed, and that out of 68 such authorities set 
up in England and Wales under Part 3 of the Ministry of Agriculture 
and Fisheries Act, 1919, only five have declined to adopt the course 
recommended. 

4. The Committee sees no reason why there should not be absolute 
uniformity in the practice of County and Borough Agricultural Committees 
in the treatment of its members who are chosen to do public work and 
freely give their time and experience for the benefit of their fellows. 

373 



MARKETING NOTES 


Milk Marketing Scheme. Pool prices and rates of 
producer-retailers' contributions for May, 1937, are given 
below, with comparative figures for April, 1937, and May, 
1936. The montUy wholesale liquid milk price was is. ojd. 
per gallon, the same as for the corresponding month last year. 
The ^d. represents the purchasers’ contribution towards a 
publicity fund; a similar contribution is made by producers 
by an allocation from the Board’s funds. 


Pool Prices Producer-Retailers' 

Contributions 



May 

Apr. 

May 

May 

Apr. 

May 


1937 

1937 

1936 

1937 

1937 

1936 


d. 

d. 

d. 

d. 

d. 

d. 

Northern 

9 i 

12 \ 

8i 


3 i 

2tt 

North-Western 

9 i 

12J 

8| 

2i 

3 l 

2« 

Eastern 

9 i 

12 § 

9 

2* 


2f 

East Midland 

9 i 

12 i 

8} 

2i 

3 l 

2« 

West Midland 

9 


8J 

2^ 

3 * 

3 

North Wales 

9 

I2i 

8i 

2* 

3 * 

3 

South Wales 

9 i 

12 i 

8i 

2| 

3 i 


Southern 

9I 

12} 

9 i 

2 

2^ 

2 -fff 

Mid-Western 

9 

12 

81 

2* 

3 l 

3 

Far-Western 

9 

12 

81 

2* 

3 i 

3 

South-Eastern 

10 

13 

9 l 

III 

2j 

2i 

Unweighted Average 

9-30 

12-45 

8'8o 

2 ‘34 

3-i6 

2-78 


These prices are exclusive of any premiums for special 
services and level deliveries, and also of the accredited 
producers’ premium of id. per gallon. 

The accredited premium was paid on 34,446,193 gal., and 
the sum required for the payment of the premium was 
equivalent to a levy of •34d. per gal. on pool sales. 

The inter-regional compensation levy was fixed at ijd. 
per gal., compared with i|d. per gal, in May, 1936. 

Sales on wholesale contracts were as follows : — 



May, 1937 
(estimated) 

May, 1936 


Gallons 

Gallons 

Liquid 

49,730.968 

48,031,378 

Manufacturing 

39.352.145 

42,531,859 


89,083,113 

90.563.237 

Percentage liquid sales 

55-83 

53-04 

Percentage manufacturing sales 

44 ’ 17 

46-96 


The average realization price of manufacturing milk during 
May was 5-53d. per gal, compared with 4 92d. per gal. for 

374 



Marketing Notes 


May, 1936. The quantity of milk manufactured into cheese 
on farms was 2,946,687 gal., compared with 1,323,449 gal. in 
the previous month and 2,642,717 gal. in May, 1936. 

Regional Elections. Elections of Regional members took 
place in three Regions on June 5. Mr. J. W. Rickeard, the 
retiring member, was returned unopposed for the Eastern 
Region, and Messrs. F. Jackson and C. T. Sproston, and Mr. 
J. Garton, retiring members, were re-elected for the North- 
Western (two vacancies) and South-Eastern Regions, respec- 
tively. 

Annual General Meeting. The Fourth Annual General Meeting 
of registered producers was held on June 10, 1937. The retiring 
special member of the Board, Mr. T. Baxter, was re-elected. 
The Board presented to the meeting a Report on the working 
of the scheme for the year ended March 31, 1937, together 
with a Statement of Accounts. According to the Report, the 
number of producers selling milk by wholesale on March 31, 
1937, was 84,610, compared with 81,984 on March 31, 1936 
— an increase of 2,626 or 3.2 per cent. During the same period 
the number of contracts registered with the Board increased 
from 88,510 to 91,588, i.e., by 3,078 or 3.5 per cent., while 
the number of licensed producer-retailers declined from 65,786 
to 64,846, i.e., by 940 or 1.4 per cent. 

The total quantity of milk sold under the scheme, compared 
with the two previous years, was as follows: — 


Thousands of Gallons 



1936-37 

1935-36 

1934-35 

Sold by wholesale under contract . . 

883,612 

868,386 

783>424 

Producer-retailers* sales 

105,964 

103,699 

105,941 

Farmhouse cheese-makers’ sales . . 
Milk for schools sold direct by pro- 

18,274 

15,182 

21,319 

ducers 

4.032 

4,046 

2,017 

Total quantity of milk passing through 

the Board . . 

1,011,882 

991,313 

912,701 


The respective quantities of milk sold in the liquid and 
manufacturing markets were : — 


Liquid 

Manufacturing 


Thousands of Gallons 

1936-37 1935-36 1934-35 


669,372 656,775 650,452 

342,510 334»538 262,249 


Total 


1,011,882 


991,313 


912,701 

375 



Marketing Notes 


It is of interest to note that liquid sales accounted for 6i per 
cent, and manufacturing sales for 39 per cent, of the total 
increase in 1936-37, as against 8 per cent and 92 per cent, 
respectively in 1935-36. 

There are 1,070 farmhouse cheese-makers’ contracts in 
operation this year, compared with 963 a year ago, showing 
an increase of 107, while the average grant payable to farm- 
house cheese-makers was 4.58d. per gallon, compared with 
4.35d. per gallon last year. 

The Board have extended their manufacturing facilities 
by alterations and additions to existing buildings and plants 
and by the acquisition of new premises. At the end of the 
financial year the Board were operating ten creameries; the 
number a year ago was five. 

Hops Marketing Scheme. The retiring district members 
of the Hops Marketing Board have been re-elected for a 
further year. At a meeting of the Board on April 23, Mr. 
W. J. Woolrich and Mr. G. H. Edwards were re-elected 
Chairman and Vice-Chairman respectively. 

The estimated market demand for hops for 1937 has been 
fixed at 222,500 cwt., as compared with 225,000 cwt. for 1936, 
and the total of annual quotas at 98 per cent, of basic quotas, 
as against 100 per cent, for 1936. Interchange of annual quotas 
for the 1937 crop will be permitted until October 7, 1937. 

The latest date for tendering to the Board hops of the 1937 
season is October 6, 1937. 

Cattle Fund. The following table gives particulars of 
payments made under the Cattle Industry (Emergency 
Provisions) Acts, 1934 to 1936. 



Payments 

Animals 

Average 
Payment per 
Animal 

April and May, 1933 

April and May, 1936 

April and May, 1937 

i 

660,803 

649,815 

650,040 

277,258 

276.881 

275.426 

1 

L s- A. 

2 7 8 

2 6 ] I 

272 

♦Sept. 1, 1934, to May 31, 1937 

10,530,093 

1 

4,443,269 

275 


♦ Commencement of subsidy payments. 

376 





Marketing Notes 


Livestock Industry Bill. The Second Reading and Com- 
mittee stages of this Bill in the House of Lords have now been 
completed. The Bill has been amended to provide that the 
" appointed day ” for the purposes of Part II of the Bill 
(subsidy payments) shall be August i, 1937. 


Milk Acts, 1934 and 1936: Manujacluring Milk. Advances 
made by the Ministry up to June 15, 1937, in respect of manu- 
facturing milk were as follows : — 


Section 

of 

Act 

1 

1 Period 

1 of 

j Manufacture 

Quantity ' 

! 

Advances 


1 

(a) Milk Marketing Board for England and Wales, \ 



In respect of milk : 


(gallons 

£ 

I 

Manufactured at 

A])nl, 1934. to 

523,141,426 ' 

2,241 ,910 


factories other 

March, 1937. 




than the Board’s 




2 

Manufactured by 

April, 1934, 

2,573.662 

12,850 


the Board. 

Sept., 1435. 



3 

Made into cheese 

April, 1934, 

43,658,147 

193.078 


on farms 

Dec., 1936. 




Total for England and Wales . . 

57 o> 37 i .235 

2,447,838 


{b) Government of Northern Ireland. 




In respect of milk . 




6 

Manufactured into 

April, 1934, to 

1 ^>7.3^5.527 ! 

3^1.231 


cream and butter 

March, 1937. 

I ' 

1 



at registered 


! ! 



creameries. 


; ^ 




Total 

1 637,738,762 

.i.839,069 


Owing to the Cheese Milk prices for April, May and June of this year 
being in excess of the Standard Price, no advances are payable in respect 
of milk produced and manufactured in these months. 


Milk in Schools Scheme. The following figures show the 
gallonage of milk consumed in the first 6 months of the third 
year of the scheme compared with the corresponding period 
in the first and second years. The figures for the third period 
will be slightly increased when further returns are received. 

Exchequer 
Gallons Contnbutton 

October, 1934, March, 1935 . . 13,104,996 285, 807 

October, 1935, to March, 1936 . . 12,045,800 75,974 

October, 1936, to March, 1937 • • 11,860,627 £2^1,806 


377 





Marketing Notes 


Cheese-Milk Price. For the purpose of payments under the 
Milk Acts (whether by the Exchequer to Milk Marketing Boards 
or by Boards to the Exchequer) in respect of milk used for 
manufacture, the cheese-milk price has been certified by the 
Minister and the Secretary of State for Scotland to be 6.26 
pence per lb. for the month of June, 1937. 

Wheat Act, 1932: Sales of Home-grown Wheat, Cereal 
Year, 1936-37. Certificates lodged with the Wheat Commission 
by registered growers during the period August i, 1936, to 
June 4, 1937, cover sales of 20,589,592 cwt. of millable wheat 
as compared with 30,964,244 cwt. in the corresponding period 
(to June 5) in the last cereal year. 

Deficiency Payments — Cereal Year 1936-37. The Wheat 
Conunission have decided that no further advance on account 
of deficiency payments in the current year be made to registered 
growers. 

Regulation of Imports of Bacon and Hams. In the light 
of a recommendation of the Market Supply Committee, it has 
been decided that the foreign bacon quota for the first eight 
weeks of the third quarter shall be fixed provisionally at the 
rate operative in the first six months of the year. The alloca- 
tions to the individual foreign exporting countries for the 
period July i to August 25 are as follows : 


Country 



Allocations 
Cwt, (a) 

Denmark 


. . 

516,280 

Netherlands 



77.240 

Poland . . 



64,640 

Sweden . . 



38,216 

Lithuania 



23.984 

Estonia . . 



6,096 

Finland . . 



3.252 

Latvia . . 



5.692 

U.S.S.R. 



6,912 

Argentina 


. . 

5.692 

U.S.A 

Allowance for imports from foreign 
countries not scheduled to the Bacon 

65.043 

(Import Regulation) Order . . 

Total 

• ■ 

19,670 

832.717 


(a) Subject to any adjustments necessitated by overshipments or 
undershipments in previous periods. 

378 



Marketing Notes 


Imports of Mutton and Lamb, 1937 : Agreement in principle 
has been reached with New Zealand and Australia concerning 
the arrangements for the regulation of imports of mutton and 
lamb from the Dominions in 1937. 

New Zealand and Australia will receive the same basic 
allocations as for 1936, i.e., 3,900,000 cwt. and 1,750,000 cwt. 
respectively. As regards Australia, however, the year October i, 
1936, to September 30, 1937, has been adopted as the period of 
allocation in lieu of the calendar year 1937 in order 
to fit in with the Australian shipping season. The basic alloca- 
tions may be increased if the United Kingdom Government 
are of the opinion that additional quantities can be accepted 
without endangering the stability of the market; on the other 
hand it was arranged that they might be reduced by not more 
than 3^ per cent, if, in the first six months of 1937, prices of 
United Kingdom mutton and lamb fell appreciably below the 
average of 1935-1936 prices. 

In view of the improved price position, it has been agreed 
that New Zealand and Australia should be entitled to ship 
110,000 cwt. and 50.000 cwt., respectively, additional to their 
basic allocations. A further review of the market position is 
now taking place. 

As provided for in the Ottawa Agreements and the recent 
Trade Agreement with Argentina, imports of mutton and 
lamb from foreign countries are being regulated on the same 
basis as in 1936, when they were limited to approximately 
65 per cent, of the quantities sent in the Ottawa Standard 
Year (July, 1931- June, 1932). 


National Mark Scheme for Plums. The Minister has given 
notice of intention to make revised regulations, under the 
Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Acts, 1928 and 
1931, prescribing grade designations, grade designation marks 
and standards of quality for plums. The amendments relate 
to the amount of dispersed russet permitted in the various 
grades, to a reduction in the existing size specifications for the 
variety “Belle de Louvain,’’ and to the inclusion of all varieties 
of greengages. 

Copies of the draft regulations may be obtained from 
H.M. Stationery Office, Adastral House, Kingsway, London, 
W.C.2, or through any bookseller, price 2d. each (2|d. 
post free). 


379 



Marketing Notes 


National Mark Canned Fruit and Vesretables. At a recent 
meeting the National Mark Canned Fruit and Vegetables Trade 
Committee recommended the inclusion in the Scheme of 
certain varieties of broad beans, mainly those with 
pale green hilums. Draft Regulations prescribing a grade 
designation, " Select Fresh Broad Beans,” and definitions of 
quality, will shortly be published. 

The Committee further recommended the inclusion in the 
" List of approved varieties of vegetables,” of the varieties 
of peas known as ” Dwarf Canner ” and ” Onward.” Effect 
will be given to this recommendation. 

A recommendation was also made that all sizes of cans 
approved for the packing of other fruits should be approved 
for the packing of apples. (The range of cans includes sizes 
A. 10, A. 2^, A. 2, E. I and Picnic.) The recommendation is 
being adopted. 


National Mark Fruit Products Scheme. The National 
Mark Cider, Perry and Fruit Products Trade Committee 
considered the question of extending the scope of the National 
Mark Scheme for Fruit Products which has hitherto been 
confined to two grades of fruit juice syrups. In view of the 
progress which has been made in the technique of production 
of other fruit products, the Committee recommended the 
extension of the scheme to include fruit juice, fruit concentrates 
and aerated fruit beverages. The proposed grade designations 
for these products are ” Select Fruit Juice,” ” Select Fruit 
Concentrate ” and ” Select Aerated Fruit Beverage.” 

These grade designations, together with definitions of quality, 
will be included in draft regulations proposed to be made under 
the Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Acts. As 
with fruit juice syrups, the definitions of quality will specify 
certain requirements as to flavour, colour, specific gravity, 
alcohol content and the use of sweetening materials and 
preservatives. 

The same conditions as regards the minimum output 
qualification of applicants for enrolment in the scheme will 
apply as for fruit juice syrups, viz. , makers and bottlers not 
enrolled in any of the National Mark schemes relating to cider, 
perry, canned and bottled fruit and vegetables and jam will 
normally be required to have an annual output of fruit products 
of all kinds of not less than 3,000 gallons. 

380 



Marketing Notes 


Marketings Demonstrations. Particulars of exhibits and 
demonstrations to be staged by the Ministry during July are 
as follows : — 


Show 

Royal, Wolverhampton . . 
July 6-10. 

Great Yorkshire, York . . 
July 13-15. 

Kent, Canterbury 
July 14-16. 

Royal Welsh, Monmouth 
July 21-23. 

Royal Lancs, Manchester 
July 29-Aug. 2. 


Demonstration 

Egg testing, fruit grading and live- 
stock demonstrations. Fruit, dairy 
produce, egg and honey exhibits. 

Egg testing and grading, and live- 
stock demonstrations. Dairy pro- 
duce, egg and honey exhibits. 

Plum grading demonstration. Fruit, 
table poultry, honey and vegetable 
exhibits. 

Egg - testing demonstration. Dairy 
produce, egg and honey exhibits. 

Egg testing and grading, and livestock 
demonstrations. Dairy produce, egg 
and fruit exhibits. 


IJnion of South Africa: Agricultural Marketing Act, 
1937 . The Agricultural Marketing Bill referred to in the April, 
1937, issue of the Journal (p. 67) has been enacted, subject to 
certain amendments and additions made in committee. The 
most important of these excludes the need for the approval of 
a marketing scheme by Parliament, it being held that con- 
sumers are sufficiently protected by the provision for an ad hoc 
committee of investigation should cause for complaint arise. 
Existing boards of control are now entitled to submit schemes 
to the Minister for approval, but other schemes must have the 
approval of three-fifths of the producers, representing more 
than half the total production of the product proposed to be 
regulated. A consumer’s committee may propose to the 
Minister the amendment of any scheme. The Governor-General 
may suspend any provision of the Dairy Industry Control Act 
which is inconsistent with a scheme relating to dairy products, 
and a regulatory board is now empowered to impose a variable 
levy on a sliding (quantitative) scale on different classes or 
qualities of a product. 



JULY ON THE FARM 

R. W. Wheldon, D.Sc., 

Armstrong College. Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

In normal years in southern and earlier districts, July sees 
the end of hay-making and the commencement of harvest, 
while in the north and later districts July sees the peak of 
hay-making activities and August is the harvest month. 

At the time of writing, it looks as if good hay crops will be 
won in most areas if there is favourable weather. 

A sufficient supply of well- won hay will be a great asset to 
many farmers, as purchased feeding stuffs are high in price 
and there seems to be little prospect of any great reduction in 
the immediate future. Where sufficient really good quality hay 
is available the feeder is certainly less dependent on purchased 
concentrates. 

The tendency to reduce labour and to depend more on 
machinery for hay-making makes it most important that all 
machines should be in good repair, and risks of breakdown 
reduced to a minimum. Good hay-making certainly depends 
veiy much upon weather conditions, but skill in handling the 
crop in the correct manner is of very great importance. 

The root crop has been sown under variable conditions and 
although the weather in the early part of June was favourable 
for germination there were many complaints of trouble from 
the Turnip Flea beetle. Where potatoes were planted under 
good conditions they have come through quickly and are 
making rapid growth. Little opportunity was afforded for 
cleaning land before putting in green crops, and it is therefore 
desirable that no opportunity should be missed for drill cultiva- 
tion and cleaning. The root crop usually allows for an 
opportunity to reduce weeds, but in many districts the 
opportunity is still to come this year. 

Lime and Phosphates. The proposed Government aid in 
relation to the use of lime and basic slag will no doubt encourage 
many farmers to more liberal use of these fertilizers. Many 
of our soils are very deficient in the constituents supplied by 
these manures. On certain soils lime is lost at a rapid rate, while 
for many generations phosphates have too commonly been 
sold off the farm in milk, in the bones of live-stock and in 
crops, without any recompense. The result is that on large 
areas of land the need for one or other, or both, of these fertili- 

382 



July on the Farm 

zers definitely limits crop production. It is important, therefore, 
to try to ensure that an economic return will be obtained from 
money expended on such manures. 

At Cockle Park, excellent results have been obtained from 
the use of lime on arable land. Greatly increased crops and 
reduction in losses from finger-and-toe and other diseases have 
followed its application. It is nevertheless true that on much 
of the grass land that lies on the Boulder Clay, and is only 
moderately acid in character, no economic return has resulted 
from the application of lime. The Cockle Park results hold 
good for considerable areas of Boulder Clay land in North- 
umberland and possibly for other parts of the country. On 
some of the lighter soils in the North of England lime has given 
veiy good returns on grass land, and in the West Riding of 
Yorkshire the results from lime have often been most striking. 

Experience of the use of lime suggests the desirability of 
arriving at some measure of the need for lime by having samples 
of the soil analysed, and, if the need is not abnormally high, 
to dress a small area only in order to make sure that an 
adequate return may be expected before embarking on great 
expenditure. County Agricultural Staffs have a good knowledge 
of the likely response of soils in different areas to applications 
of lime, and may be able to arrange a chemical test if re- 
quired. While it is true that, in a general way, lime is greatly 
needed, there are particular instances even with indications of 
acidity, where no economic return may be obtained. 

As far as phosphates are concerned, it should be borne in 
mind that different types of phosphatic manures give varying 
results according to conditions. In the drier districts of East 
Anglia, insoluble ground mineral phosphates are not largely 
used, superphosphates being usually preferred. The soluble 
phosphate of the latter gives good results under dry climatic 
conditions. In the North of England on poor pastures of low 
productivity, especially those of a rather wet, acid t)q)e, 
ground mineral phosphates frequently give good results, 
especially in the first stages of improvement. For later dressings, 
after the productivity of the pastures has been considerably 
increased, and with a greater demand for available phosphates, 
good quality high citric soluble basic slag usually gives better 
returns. On light soils it is often necessary to apply potash in 
addition to phosphates, and always it is wise to make sure 
potash is not a limiting factor to improvement. 

Basic slag of high citric solubility costs more per unit of 

383 



July on the Farm 

phosphoric acid than the low soluble types. For dry soils and 
land of high productivity the high citric soluble slags usually 
give the best results and justify the extra expenditure. 

While manuring may provide the basis for pasture improve- 
ment, correct management of the grazing is equally important. 
Greater production of pasturage needs increased stock : without 
this, waste and deterioration of the pasture will follow. 

Grazing Stock. On pastures grazed mainly by sheep and 
with only few cattle, the flowering stems of the grasses are 
now seen in abundance. The disadvantage of allowing pasture 
plants to produce seed, on account of waste, loss of vitality and 
productiveness, has already been referred to in these articles. 
Where pastures tend to run to seed, topping by the mowing 
machine does much to prevent harmful effects. 

On early feeding land, many cattle will already have been 
sold. If such pastures are to maintain a high output it is of first 
importance that they should be kept properly grazed. Good 
graziers are at great pains to ensure efficient grazing manage- 
ment of the best feeding pastures. Sometimes efficient grazing 
of the poor pastures on the farm may be sacrificed for these 
good feeding fields. 

During recent years, it has often been said of some of the 
best graziers that they would rather waste money than waste 
grass. The poor return for beef frequently meant that the full 
stocking of the pasture led to increased loss, but these pastures 
have been maintained in first-class condition ready to give 
increased returns as the market for beef improves. What may 
have appeared to be waste will have, in many instances, proved 
to be a profitable investment. 

In many districts there has been an abundance of pasture. 
During the first week in June after a good spell of growing 
weather there were many complaints of a falling off in yield 
of dairy cows in the North of England. An opportunity was 
taken of inspecting the pasturage of several farms and it was 
found that the more abundant the pasture, especially if there 
was much stem growth, the greater was the fall in yield. This 
emphasizes the need for control, not only of the amount of 
i;rass consumed by the cow, but also the type of the herbage. 

Every effort should be made to prevent a falling away in 
milk yield, as the loss is very difficult to recover, and the 
efficiency of the individual cow is reduced for the remainder 
of the lactation. July is frequently a month when pastures 

384 



July on the Farm 

deteriorate and some compensation in the way of concentrates 
should be given to the cows on most farms. Judicious manage- 
ment and feeding can do much to reduce the fall off in yield 
that is usually experienced in dairy herds during July, August 
and September. 

Sheep. During the month ewes for drafting and casting will 
be drawn. With hill and running flocks, the draft ewes go out 
according to ages, but with breeding flocks on lower ground 
ewes may be retained as long as they are serviceable. With 
some flockmasters as with other breeders of farm livestock, 
there is a definite prejudice against age and frequently first- 
class breeding stock are disposed of when they could be usefully 
retained for a longer period and are replaced by (unproved) 
youngsters. The desirable qualities in a breeding ewe such as 
type, economic conversion of food, mothering or milking 
qualities, constitution prolificacy and prepotency are difficult to 
combine in an individual. When these are found developed to 
a high degree in any individual every effort should be made 
to propagate this type of animal. In sheep-breeding, greater 
attention to individual selection on the female side would no 
doubt result in an improvement in many of our flocks. It is 
done in some of our successful breeding flocks but there appears 
to be need for an extension of the practice. 

Whatever the inherent possibilities may be with an animal, 
management in tire end plays an important part in determining 
just how far these possibilities are developed. With the increased 
demand for lamb and the selling off of sheep at light weights, 
more lambs arc needed. Hence prolificacy is a factor that is 
sought after as evidenced by the popularity and higher prices 
obtained for prolific breeds or crosses. There is no doubt that, 
on certain types of farms, much advantage is obtained from 
“ flushing ” the ewes before mating. Sheep should be kept 
in improving condition at mating time. “ Flushing ” also 
helps in that the ewes come to the ram at about the same time, 
with the result that the lambing period is shortened, manage- 
ment is easier, and a more uniform lot of lambs can be 
marketed. 

Bovine Mastitis. This trouble is responsible for serious 
losses in dairy herds. The term mastitis covers a number of 
distinct pathological conditions of the mammary gland caused 
by a number of different species of organism. Thus, what is 
commonly called a " weed ” is a chronic form of mastitis due 

385 



July on the Farm 

to infection with micro-organisms called streptococci, while an 
acute form of mastitis prevalent in summer months and known 
as " udder clap ” or “ garget ” is brought about by a micro- 
organism of an entirely different species. 

The chronic form of mastitis occurs among dairy cows 
throughout the year and especially in older cattle, produces 
udder damage, and ultimately leads to hardening of the quarter 
and reduced yield. Edwards estimates that about 30 per cent, 
of daily cows are affected with this disease. 

The channel of infection is now thought to be almost 
exclusively by way of the teat canal and infection of the udder 
is facilitated by wounds or abrasions of the gland. It is interest- 
ing to note that the disease does not arise spontaneously once 
all known sources of infection have been removed. Recent 
researches have proved the disease to be contagious (i.e. , spread 
by contact) and transmission is frequently by way of the 
milker’s hand. 

Efficient control of contagious mastitis demands the segrega- 
tion of infected cows, or where this is not possible the chance 
of spread is limited by milking them last. Some success has 
recently been claimed by treating infected udders with infusions 
of chemical substances, and those interested in this new 
treatment are advised to consult their veterinarians. 

With regard to the acute or summer form of mastitis, this 
principally affects dry in-calf cows and heifers that are at 
grass during July and August. This form is characterized by 
marked systemic disturbance and the affected quarter is 
swollen, hard and painful. The course of this disease is 
frequently rapid and may result in death. Care should be 
taken in drying off cows at this season and frequent inspection 
is advisable when animals are at grass. In certain localities 
dairy cattle would appear to be more prone to this form of 
mastitis, which may be carried by flies. 

Finally it must be emphasized that cleanliness in all dairy 
operations is the sheet anchor for the prevention of mastitis, 
as indeed of other troubles, and daiiymen should do all in 
their power to increase the efficiency of herd hygiene. If a 
single case occurs it should be viewed with grave concern and 
prompt measures should be adopted. 


386 



PRICES OF ARTIFICIAL MANURES 


1 


Average prices per ton (2,240 lb.) 


Description 



during week ended June 9th 

1 










Costs 


Ikistol 

Hull 

L’pool 

London 

per 










Unit^ 


i 

s. 

£ 

5 . 

£ 

s. 

£ 

s. 

s 

d. 

Nitrate of Soda (N. 15^%) . . ] 


7 

12c 

7 

I2C 

7 

12c 

7 

\2C 

9 

10 

,, ,, Granulated (N. 16%) 


7 

12c 

7 

I2r 

7 

12c 

7 

\2C 

9 

6 

Nitrate of Lime (N. 13%) 


7 

oc 

7 

oc 

7 

oc 

7 

OC 

10 

9 

Nitro-Chalk (N. i5i%) 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

♦ 

7 

5^ 

7 

'SO 

7 

so 

7 

so 

9 

4 

Neutral (N. 20-6%) . . 

1 7 

5C' 

7 

SO 

7 

SO 

7 

so 

7 

0 

Calcium Cyanamidc (N. 20*6%) 

i ^ 

5d 

7 

Sd 

7 

Sd 

1 7 

Sd 

7 

0 

Kainite (Pot. 14%) . . • • > 

! 2 

18 

2 

15 

1 2 

15 

2 

L5 

3 

II 

Potash Salts (Pot. 30%) 

' 5 

0 

4 

17 

1 4 

^5 

: 4 

17 

i 3 

3 

„ (Pot 20%) 

3 

15 

3 

12 

3 

12 

3 

12 

: 3 

7 

Muriate of Potash (Pot 50 %) 

• 8 

3 


I 

1 7 

17 

1 8 

1 

3 

3 

Sulphate (Pot 48%) 

! <) 

15 

■ 9 

13 

1 9 

9 

' 9 

13 

1 4 

0 

Basic Slag (P A 152%) 

Z 

126 

i ^ 

S'b 

1 - 

1 

— 

; 2 

106 

1 3 

2 

„ (PA. 14%).. 

§ 

1 2 

86 

! 2 

06 

1 2 

06 

' 2 

66 

3 

3 

Grd. Rock Phosphate (P.A 26- 



i 


! 




i 

8 

27 i%) 

2 

12a 


— 

2 

loa 

'i 2 


i I 

Superphosphate (S.P.A. i6%) 

3 

4 


— 

’ 3 

SO 

' 3 

of 

i 3 

9 

(S.PA. I3l%) 

! 3 

I 

, 2 

17 

i 2 

ige 

i 2 

ibf 

1 ^ 

I 

Bone Meal {N 3 }%. P A 2oi%) 
Steamed Bone Flour (N. }%, 

i 

5h 

, 6 

10 

; 7 

SS 

, 7 

0 

1 ’ 

- 

P.A. 27i-29i%) 

• 5 

' 5 

) 

10 

i 5 

og 

, 5 

0 

1 



Abbreviations : N. = Nitrogen ; P.A. Phosphoric Acid , 

S P.A = Soluble Phosphoric Acid ; Pot. = Potash. 


♦ Prices are for not less than 6-ton lots, at purchaser’s nearest railway station 
unless otherwise stated. Unit values are calculated on carriage-paid prices. 

§ Prices are for not less than 2-ton lots, net cash for prompt delivery f o.r. in 
towm named, unless otherwise stated. Unit values are calculated on f o.r. prices. 
a Prices for 4-ton lots f.o r. Fineness 85% through standard sieve. 
h Prices for 6-ton lots. Prices at Bristol are f.o r. Bridgwater ; at Hull and 
I.iverpool f o.r. neighbouring works, and at London f.o r. at depots m London 
district. Fineness 80% through standard sieve. 

c For lots of 4 tons and under 6 tons the price is is per ton extra, for lots 
of 2 tons and under 4 tons, 55. per ton extra, and for lots of i ton and under 
2 tons. los. extra. 

d Delivered in 4-ton lots at purchaser’s nearest railway station. For lots of 
2 tons and under 4 tons the price is 5s. per ton extra, for lots of i ton and under 
2 tons, los. per ton extra, for lots of 10 cwt. and under i ton, 15s. extra, and 
for lots of less than 10 cwt. but not less than 2 cwt., 20s. extra. 
e Prices shown are f o.r. Widnes. 

/ Prices shown are f.o.r. northern rails ; southern rails 15. id, extra. 
g Prices shown are f.o.r. Appley Bridge. 
h Price shown is f.o r. Newport, Mon. 

K These are calculated by regarding a ton as comprising 100 “ units ” (equal parts 
of 22*4 lb.) so that a fertilizer, for example, with 16 per cent, nitrogen contains 
16 such ” units ” in a ton. Then, if the price per ton of such a fertilizer be divided 
by the percentage figure, the deduced cost is that of a*' unit ” of that agent. Those 
%n the table above are based on London prices. (^For further explanation, see 
Advisory Leaflet No. 146, “ The Valuation of Artificial Manures,'* obtainable from 
the Ministry, free of charge.) 

387 




NOTES ON FEEDING 

Charles Crowther, M.A., Ph.D., 

Harper Adams Agricultural College. 

Research at Shinfield. In commemoration of the twenty- 
fifth anniversary of the establishment of the National Institute 
for Research in Dairying, the staff of the Institute have issued 
a special volume, in which is given, along with an outline of 
the history of the Institute, a condensed' summary of the 
research results achieved in the many lines of activity covered 
by its work. These are set out in twelve chapters, of which 
those dealing with Dairy Herd Management, Pig Feeding, 
Milk Taints, and Nutritional Value of Milk have special interest 
for us in these notes, and may be briefly reviewed. 

Calf Rearing. On the farm side much attention has been 
given to rearing problems. After several years’ work 
involving tests of free choice feeding and the rearing of groups 
of calves on different quantities of milk and on different 
mixture of concentrates, a satisfactory method of rearing calves 
with a minimum use of whole milk was evolved, in which not 
more than 30-40 gallons of milk, spread over the first eight 
weeks, are required. This amount can be reduced to 15-20 
gallons per calf, if dried milk is also utilized. 

Moderately heavy winter feeding of young dairy heifers 
brought them to suitable breeding size about five months earlier 
than when on light feeding, but no advantage was shown in 
the subsequent milk yield's. 

For yearling heifers, grazing during the daytime, a daily 
allowance of 16 lb. of good hay gave fair results, which became 
quite satisfactory when the hay was supplemented by ^Ib. of 
concentrates containing 20-30 per cent, of protein. If a pro- 
portion of straw was included in the rations it was found of 
advantage to give a small supplement of ground chalk. 

Protein Requirements. Special interest attaches to the large- 
scale co-operative experiment on the protein requirements of 
dairy cows, at present in progress under the direction of the 
Institute. This experiment was started in 1935-6 with eighteen 
herds, including some 500 cows, and in the present year data are 
being obtained from twenty-eight herds, with some 900 cows. 
Protein supplies are mostly expensive, and in large measure 

388 



Notes on Feeding 


derived from imported materials, so that precise information 
on protein requirements is of great importance to the economy 
both of the farm and of the nation, and the results of this co- 
operative effort cannot fail to be of great value. 

In recent years, work at the Hannah Dairy Research 
Institute on the influence of the “ quality ” of the protein 
supply on milk secretion, has indicated that the amount of 
the amino-acid lysine in the make-up of the protein may have 
an appreciable influence upon the amount of milk secreted. 
Practical feeding tests at this Scottish institute demonstrated 
that some rations that contained proteins poor in lysine gave 
less milk than when proteins rich in lysine were included. These 
results were not confirmed, however, in an experiment carried 
out at Shinficld last year, when the effect of adding a high 
protein food rich in lysine to a ration of low protein content 
was compared with the effect of adding another high protein 
food poor in lysine to the same ration. A more extended study of 
this important problem is clearly desirable. 

Pig Feeding. The experimental work of the Institute with 
pigs has been chiefly concerned with studies of the nutritive 
value of milk and vitamin requirements. The general growth- 
promoting properties of even small quantities of milk — ^no 
more than one-half pint per head daily — have been strikingly 
demonstrated. As the quantity of milk was increased a still 
further improvement was effected, but not proportionate to the 
increase of supply. The most economic return from a given 
quantity of milk is thus obtained by spreading it over as many 
young pigs as possible. 

The vitamin research of the Institute has demonstrated the 
practical importance of vitamins A, B and D in pig-feeding. In 
recent years attention has been largely concentrated upon 
vitamin A, and it has been shown that some of the rations 
commonly used in pig-feeding practice may be deficient in this 
vitamin. 

In studies of anaemia in suckling pigs confirmation has been 
obtained of the now generally accepted view that this disorder 
is due to deficiency of iron in the sow’s milk, and may be 
checked by administration of iron direct to the suckers before 
the critical third and fourth weeks of life. Dosing the piglets 
with solutions of iron salts, smearing the sow’s teats with the 
iron solutions, and providing cinders treated with ferrous 
sulphate in the " creep ” were all found to be effective. 

389 



Notes on Feeding 


Milk Taints. The work on milk taints arising from the food 
has included studies of the effect of chamomile, marrow-stem 
kale and molassed sugar-beet pulp. The weeds known collec- 
tively as chamomile, when present in quantity in hay, were 
found to impart an unpleasant tar-like flavour to the milk. The 
taint was more pronounced in early than in later winter, pre- 
sumably owing to volatilisation of the tainting ingredient from 
the hay during storage. 

The sickly, kale-like flavour sometimes found in milk from 
cows receiving marrow-stem kale was found to be dependent 
upon the quantity fed, the limit of safety varying as between 
individual cows. In a few instances not more than 20 lb. per 
day could be fed without producing the taint, although the risk 
was greatly reduced by giving the kale immediately after 
milking. 

With molassed beet pulp it was proved that the primary 
cause of taint was the fishy smelling trimethylamine oxide, 
which arises from the breakdown of the nitrogenous ingredient, 
betaine, that occurs in sugar-beet and passes into the molasses. 
From this work further studies have developed on the develop- 
ment of fishy taints in meat fats. 

Vitamins in Milk. The Institute was founded in the year in 
which the first publication was made of the discovery of the 
vitamins in milk, and much of its work on the nutritional value 
of milk has been concerned with vitamin problems. An early 
achievement in this field was the demonstration of the superior 
vitamin potency of summer (grass-fed) milk over winter (stall- 
fed) milk. This was followed by the demonstration of the 
possibility of raising the vitamin A and vitamin D potency 
of butter by adding codliver oil to the ration; this being 
accompanied, however, by the less desirable effect of a slight 
reduction in the percentage of fat in the milk. In other experi- 
ments the vitamin D content of milk has been raised by feeding 
yeast that had been exposed to ultra-violet radiation, and 
also by feeding cacao shell. 

Elaborate tests carried out later with the Institute dairy herd 
have confirmed the earlier findings that the fat-soluble vitamins 
of milk (vitamin A, carotene, and vitamin D) are subject to 
marked seasonal variations, and are present in larger quanti- 
ties in summer than in winter milk. The amounts of vitamin 
A and carotene are largely dependent upon the supply of grass, 
but a high level can be maintained into late autumn if kale or 

390 



Notes on Feeding 


other greenstuff be supplied as the pasture deteriorates. On 
the other hand, fresh grass was found to be of little value as 
a source of vitamin D for the milk, this vitamin being mainly 
produced by the direct action of the sun's radiation on the 
cow’s skin. In contrast to vitamins A and D the proportions of 
the other vitamins in milk were found to be relatively constant 
throughout the year, and to be independent of changes in the 
cow’s diet. 

The concentration of vitamin A and carotene is much higher 
in colostrum than in later milk, and probably the same holds 
good with vitamin D, especially in summer. 

Raw V. Pasteurized Milk. The acute controversy that has 
long prevailed as to the relative nutritive merits of raw and 
heated milk made it inevitable that this problem should figure 
prominently in the research programme of the National Insti- 
tute. The w’ork has included studies of the effects of sterilization 
and of the less drastic heat treatment involved in pasteurization. 

In early feeding experiments with rats, on a diet of milk and 
white flour, life could be sustained when raw or pasteurized 
milk was used, but not with sterilized milk. 

In later experiments with rats, in which raw milk was com- 
pared with milk from the same bulk submitted to commercial 
pasteurization by the holder method, no difference could be 
detected between the two supplies, either in the digestibility 
and biological value of the protein, or in the availability of 
the calcium and phosphorus. When used for rats as an exclusive 
diet pasteurized milk supplemented with iron, copper and 
manganese was, pint for pint, not inferior to raw milk supple- 
mented in the same way. The heating apparently did not 
affect the vitamin A or its precursor, carotene, but caused some 
loss of B and C vitamins. 

Apart from its bearing upon the sale of liquid milk, the 
question of the possible influence of pasteurization upon the 
nutritive value of milk is of interest on the farm in its incidence 
upon the use of milk in pig-feeding, and also in calf -rearing 
where measures of eradication of tuberculosis from the dairy 
herd are in progress. Whether conclusions based upon work 
with rats or other laboratory animals are applicable to farm 
livestock must clearly remain doubtful until tested out directiy 
with the latter. It is of interest, therefore, to note the results 
of a calf-rearing experiment, carried out on a scale not hitherto 
attempted, that are contained in a report issued by the Milk 

391 



Notes on Feeding 

Production Department of the West of Scotland Agricultural 
College. 

The Scottish trial was conducted with 35 dairy calves, 
divided into three groups of winter heifers and three of winter 
bulls in the trial for 150 days, and two groups of spring bulls 
and two of spring heifers in the trial for 120 days. Four groups 
received the colostrum of their dams for 5 days, and the 
others for ro days before going on to the raw or pasteurized 
mixed milk of the herd. The milk was pasteurized by heating 
at 145— 150 degrees F. for 30 minutes. The milk was given at the 
rate of i lb. per 10 lb. liveweight until a maximum daily allow- 
ance of 15 lb. was reached. After the third week the calves had 
free access to good hay and received an allowance of concen- 
trates (maize, oats, linseed cake and bran) graduated according 
to age. Each calf was weighed at birth, and thereafter every ten 
days. Certain body measurements were also taken at the time 
of weighing. 

All the groups made reasonably good liveweight gains. The 
winter bull calves on raw milk throughout gave an average 
gain in liveweight in 150 days of 364 per cent, of their average 
weight at birth; while those fed on pasteurized milk after 5 
days gained 330 per cent. The spring bull calves on raw milk 
throughout gained 272 per cent, in 120 days, and those on 
pasteurized milk after 5 days gained 244 per cent, in the same 
period. There appeared therefore, to be a small advantage in 
the raw milk feeding. 

With heifer calves there was a similar difference only in the 
earlier weeks. Heifer calves put on pasteurized milk after 10 
days on colostrum took two months to catch up with those on 
raw milk throughout, while those put on pasteurized milk after 
5 days took four months to overtake the raw milk heifers. By 
the end of the first year the heifers on raw milk had made a 
liveweight gain of 590 per cent., as compared with 554 per cent, 
for those on pasteurized milk after 10 days old. 

Whether the differences recorded would be accepted as "signi- 
ficant ’’ by the statistician is doubtful, but taking them as they 
stand they suggest a small superiority of raw milk over pasteur- 
ized milk, which was greater with bulls than with heifers. It 
is also recorded that the calves on raw milk had the best 
coats, whilst those on colostrum for 5 days only and then on 
pasteurized milk were worst in this respect. 

Disease was more frequent among the calves on pasteurized 
milk than among tho^e on raw milk, the incidence being the 

392 



Notes on Feeding 


heavier the shorter the initial period on colostrum. This applied 
also to the specific incidence of tuberculosis, three out of four 
calves that reacted being the group of winter heifers put on 
pasteurized milk after only 5 days on colostrum. A colostrum 
feeding period of at least 10 days would thus appear to be 
desirable on the grounds both of growth-rate and health. 

Experimental work of this kind suffers from the difficulty of 
securing and handling a sufficiently large number of compar- 
able animals, and whilst the Scottish trial excels previous trials 
in this respect, so far as the total number of calves is concerned, 
the complexity of the scheme reduced the numbers per group 
to only 3 or 4 calves. The results will therefore hardly be 
accepted as decisive, but they are certainly suggestive and 
establish a prima facie case for a more extensive test of this 
important practical issue that arises both in calf-rearing and in 
pig-feeding. 


393 



PRICES OF FEEDING STUFFS 


Description 

Price 

per 

ton 

Manu- 

rial 

value 

per 

ton 

Cost of 
food 
value 
per 
ton 

Starch 

equiv. 

per 

TOO lb. 

Price 

per 

unit 

starch 

equiv. 

Price 

per 

lb. 

starch 

equiv. 

Pro- 

tein 

equiv. 


£ 

s. 

£ 5 . 

£ 


s. 

d. 

d. 

% 

Wheat, British . . 

9 

17 

0 8 

9 9 

72 

2 

7 

1-38 

9-6 

Barley, British Feeding 

8 

15 

0 8 

8 7 

71 

2 

4 

1*25 

6*2 

„ Argentine 

9 

0 

0 8 

8 12 

71 

2 

5 

1-29 

6-2 

„ Danubian 

8 

5* 

0 8 

7 17 

71 

2 

3 

I ‘21 

6-2 

„ Persian . . 

8 

12 

0 8 

8 4 

71 

2 

4 

1-25 

6*2 

Oats, English, white 

9 

7 

0 9 

8 18 

60 

3 

0 

i*6i 

7-6 

„ „ black and 










grey .. 

9 

3 

0 9 

8 14 

60 

2 

II 

1-56 

7-6. 

„ Scotch, white 

10 

0 

0 9 

9 II 

60 

3 

2 

1-70 

7*6 

,, Canadian No. 2 










Western 

10 

13* 

0 9 

10 4 

60 

3 

5 

1-83 

7-6 

,, ,, mixed feed 

9 

7 

0 9 

8 18 

60 

3 

0 

I *61 

7-6 

Maize, Argentine 

7 

0 

0 7 

6 13 

78 

I 

8 

0*89 

7-6 

„ Gal. Fox 

6 

I2t 

0 7 

5 

78 

I 

7 

0-85 

7-6 

Beans, English, Winter 

7 

o§ 

0 17 

6 3 

66 

I 

TI 

1*03 

19*7 

Peas, Japanese . . 

22 

i 3 t 

0 15 

21 18 

69 

6 

4 

3-39 

i8-i 

Dari 

8 

i 5 t 

0 8 

8 7 

74 

2 

3 

1*21 

7*2 

Milling Offals : — 










Bran, British . . 

6 

17 

0 16 

6 I 

43 

2 

10 

1*52 

9-9 

„ broad . . 

7 

17 

0 16 

7 I 

43 

3 

3 

1*74 

10*0 

Middlings, fine, im- 










ported 

8 

3 "' 

0 13 

7 10 

69 

2 

2 

i*i6 

12*1 

Weatingsf 

7 

17 

0 14 

7 3 


2 

7 

1*38 

10*7 

„ Superfine t 

8 

7 

0 13 

7 14 

69 

2 

3 

1*21 

12*1 

Pollards, imported . , 

7 

2 

0 14 

6 8 

50 

2 

7 

1*38 

II-O 

Meal, barley 

9 

17 

0 8 

9 9 

71 

2 

8 

1*43 

6-2 

„ „ grade II . . 

9 

2 

0 8 

8 14 

71 i 

2 

5 

i 1-29 

6*2 

,, maize 

7 

7 

0 7 

7 0 

78 ! 

I 

10 

1 0-98 

7*6 

„ „ germ 

7 

10 

0 II 

6 19 

84 i 

I 

8 

0-89 

10-3 

,, locust bean 

7 

15 

0 5 

7 10 

71 

2 

I 

1*12 

3.6 

,, bean 

8 

12 

0 17 

7 15 

66 

2 

4 

1-25 

19*7 

„ fish (white) 

14 

15 

2 2 

12 13 

59 

4 

3 

2*28 

53*0 

„ soya bean 







! 



(extracted )t 

9 

0 

I 9 

7 II 

64 

2 

4 1 

1-25 

38*3 

Maize, cooked, flaked . . 

7 

15 

0 7 

7 8 

84 

I 

9 1 

0*94 

9-2 

Linseed cake — 










English, 12% oil 

10 

2 

I 0 

9 2 

74 

2 

6 

1-34 

24*6 

» 9 % 

9 

10 

I 0 

8 10 

74 

2 

4 

1-25 

24*6 

»» 

9 

5 

I 0 

8 5 

74 

2 

3 

1*21 

24*6 

Cottonseed cake, English, 










Egyptian seed, 










oil 

6 

2 

0 18 

5 4 

42 

2 

6 

1*34 

17*3 

Cottonseed cake. 










Egyptian, 4J% oil . . 

5 

12 

0 18 

4 14 

42 

2 

3 

1*21 

17*3 

Cottonseed cake. 










decorticated, 7% oil . . 

8 

i 5 t 

I 8 

7 7 

68 

2 

2 

I -16 

34*7 

Cottonseed meal. 










decorticated, 7% oil . . 

8 

5 t 

I 8 

6 17 

70 

I 

II 

1*03 

36*8 

Coconut cake, 6% oil . . 

7 

5 

1 

0 18 

6 7 

77 

I 

8 

0*89 

16*4 


394 




PRICES OF FEEDING STUFFS {continued) 


Description 

Price 

per 

ton 

Manu- 

rial 

value 

per 

ton 

Co.st of 
food 
value 
per 
ton 

Starch 

equiv. 

per 

100 lb. 

Price 

per 

unit 

starch 

equiv. 

Price 

per 

lb. 

starch 

equiv. 

Pro- 

tein 

equiv. 


£ 5. 

£ s. 

£ s. 


s. d. 

d. 

% 

Ground nut cake, 








decorticated, 6-7% oil 

8 i7§ 

I 8 

7 9 

73 

2 0 

1*07 

41-3 

Ground nut cake, 
imported decorticated. 







6-7% oil 

Palm-kernel cake, 

8 0 

I 8 

6 12 

73 

I 10 

0*98 

413 

4l~5i% oil . . 
Palm-kernel cake, meal. 

7 i2§| 

1 

0 II 

1 

1 7 1 1 

73 

I II 

1-03 

16-9 

4i% oil 

Palm-kernel meal, 1-2% 

8 2§| 

i 

1 0 II ! 

1 

i 7 II ■ 

73 

2 I 

I‘I2 

16-9 

oil . . . . . , 

; 7 io§i 

^ 0 12 

6 18 1 

71 

I II 

1-03 

i6-5 

Feeding treacle . . . . | 

Brewers' grains, dried ale ' 

1 ^ 1 

1 0 8 i 

i 4 12 i 

51 

I 10 i 

0*98 

2-7 

5 10 , 

0 II 

4 19 ' 

48 

2 I i 

I • 12 

12-5 

Brewers’ grains, dried ' 








porter . . . . . . ' 

5 2 ! 

! 0 II 

4 II : 

48 i 

I II 

1-03 1 

12-5 

Dried sugar-beet pulp . . 

i 

May delivery — From £$ ys. Gd. to £6 2s. 6 d. 

June delivery — From £$ ys. 6 d. to £$ 15s. per 
ton ex factory (according to factory). 


♦ At Bristol. § At Hull. t At Liverpool. 

{ In these instances manurial value, starch equivalent and protein 
equivalent are provisional. 


Note. — ^I'he prices quoted above represent the average prices at which 
actual wholesale transactions have taken place in London, unless other- 
wise stated, and refer to the price ex mill or store. The prices were 
current at the beginning of June, 1937, and are, as a rule, considerably 
lower than the prices at local country markets, the difference being due to 
carriage and dealers’ commission. Buyers can, however, easily compare 
the relative values of the feeding stuffs on offer at their local market by 
the method of calculation used in these notes. Thus, if linseed cake 
is offered locally at £11 per ton, then since its manurial value is £i per 
ton as shown above, the cost of food value 'per ton is ;{io. Dividing this 
figure by 74, the starch equivalent of linseed cake as given in the table, 
the cost per unit of starch equivalent is 2 s, Sd. Dividing this again by 
22*4, the number of pounds of starch equivalent in one unit, the cost 
per lb. of starch equivalent is i • 43<i. Similar calculations will show the 
relative cost per lb. of starch equivalent of other feeding stuffs on the 
same local market. From the results of such calculations a buyer can 
determine which feeding stuff gives him the best value at the prices 
quoted on his own markets. The figures given in the table under the 
heading manurial value per ton are calculated on the basis of the 
following unit prices : — N., ys, ^d . ; P,^ 0^, 2s. 3c?. ; K^, 3s. 6 d, 


395 



FARM VALUES OF FEEDING STUFFS 


The prices in respect of the feeding stuffs used as bases of comparison 
for the purposes of this month’s calculations are as follows : — 



Starch 

Protein 

Per 


equivalent 

equivalent 

ton 


Per cent. 

Per cent. 

£ s. 

Barley (imported) . . 

• 71 

6*2 

8 12 

Maize 

78 

7-6 

7 0 

Decorticated ground-nut cake 

• 73 

41*3 

8 8 

„ cotton-seed cake 

. 68 

34-7 

8 15 

(Add I os. per ton, in each instance, for carriage.) 


The cost per unit starch equivalent 

works out 

2 *16 shillings, 

and 


per unit protein equivalent o • 78 shillings. An explanation of the method 
of calculation employed is given in the Report of the Departmental 
Committee on Rationing of Dairy Cows.* 

The table is issued as a guide to farmers respecting the feeding value of 
their crops in relation to current market prices. (The “ food values,” 
which it is recommended should be applied by Agricultural Organizers 
and other advisers in connexion with advisory schemes on the rationing 
of dairy cows, are given in the November, 1936, issue of the Ministry's 
Journal, p. 816.) 

Farm Values 


Crop 

Starch 

equivalent 

Protein 

equivalent 

Food Value 
per ton, on 
farm 

Wheat 

Per cent. 

7 ^ 

Per cent. 
9-6 

£ s. , 

8 3 

Oats . . 

60 

7-0 

6 16 

Barley 

7 T 

6*2 

7 J8 

Potatoes 

18 

0-8 

2 0 

Swedes 

7 

0*7 

0 16 

Mangolds 

7 

0-4 

0 15 

Beans 

I 66 

19-7 

7 18 

Good meadow hay . . 

37 

4*6 

4 4 

Good oat straw 

20 

0-9 

2 4 

Good clover hay 

38 

70 

4 8 

Vetch and oat silage 

13 

I -6 

I 9 

Barley straw 

^3 

0-7 i 

2 10 

Wheat straw 

13 

0-1 I 

1 8 

Bean straw . . 

23 

1*7 

2 II 


♦ Obtainable from H.M. Stationery Office, Adastral House, Kingsway, 
W.C.2, price 6d., post free 7^. 


396 






MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 
The Agricultural Index Number 

The general index number of prices of agricultural produce 
for May is 133 (base, May, 1911-13 = 100) or 7 points below 
the previous month and 18 points above that for May, 1936. 
If allowance be made for payments under the Wheat Act 
and the Cattle Industry Act, the revised index is 136. The re- 
duction in the price of liquid milk to the summer level 
occurred in May whereas in the base period it took place in 
April and, in consequence, the fall in index is considerable; 
this reduction is entirely responsible for the decline in the 
general index. 


Monthly index numbers of prices of Agricultural Produce. [Corresponding 
months of 1911-13 ~ 100 ) 


Month 

; 193-2 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

January 

.. 1 122 

107 

114 

117 

119 

130 

February . . 

i 117 

106 

1 12 

115 

118 

129 

March 

.. ’ 113 

T02 

108 

112 

116 

130 

April 

•• , 117 

105 

III 

119 

123 

140 

May 

.. , 115 

102 

112 

111 


133 

June 

. . Ill 

100 

110 

1 1 1 

116 

— 

July 

. . i io(> 

; 

114 

1 

117 

— 

August 

•• i *^5 

1 105 

119 

1 ”3 

1 19 

— 

September . . 

. . 1 104 j 

107 

1 19 

1 120 

127 

— 

October 

. . ' 100 

i ^^7 

114 

I 

1-25 


November . . 

. . 1 101 

109 

T14 

I 113 

1^5 

— 

December . . 

103 ; 

1 

no 

1 

1 1 

113 

114 

126 



Revised monthly index numbers of prices of Agricultural Produce, allowing 
for payments under the Wheat Act [a) and the Cattle Industry [Emergency 
Provisions) Act (b). 


Month 

193^ 

1933 

J 934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

January 

— 

III 

1 19 

124 

125 

133 

February . . 

— 

110 

117 

122 

123 

133 

March 

— 

106 

112 

1 18 

122 

134 

April 

— 

109 

116 

126 

128 

143 

May 

— 

105 

116 

117 

120 

136 

June 

— 

104 

114 j 

1 117 i 

121 

— 

July 

— 

104 

117 

120 

121 1 

— 

August 

108 

108 

122 

120 

124 

— 

September . . 

108 

III 

1-25 

128 

133 

— 

October 

104 

112 

121 

119 

129 

— 

November . . 

105 1 

113 

120 

119 

129 

— 

December . . 

107 ! 

1 

114 

! 

120 i 

j 

120 

130 



(a) Commenced August, 1932. (6) Commenced September, 1934. 


397 







Miscellaneous Notes 


In the following table the monthly index numbers of prices 
of individual commodities are shown for the months of 
February to May, 1937, and May, 1936, and May, 1935; 
base, the corresponding months of 1911-13 = 100. 


Commodity 

1935 

1936 

1937 

May 

May 

Feb. 

Mar. 

i Apr. 

May 

Wheat 


67 

84 

122 

I 2 T 

131 

124 

Barley 


91 

105 

124 

124 

: 13^ 

133 

Oats 


97 

82 

116 

115 

; 119 

119 

Fat cattle . . 


89 

94 

99 

102 

106 

IT 2 

„ sheep . . 


140 

130 

137 

145 

153 

160 

Bacon pigs . . 


104 

113 

126 

122 

1 119 

118 

Pork ,, . . 


106 

108 

1^5 

124 

1 ii 7 

116 

Eggs 


99 

109 

1 15 

J 2 I 

i 112 

1 12 

Poultry 


i 

121 

121 

1^3 

1 IJ 3 

122 

Milk 


162 

162 

171 

I7T 

i 215 

162 

Butter 


87 : 

96 

97 

100 

104 

106 

Cheese 


94 

103 

107 

110 

i 109 

112 

Potatoes 



174 1 

201 

200 

I 191 

196 

Hay 


100 

82 ! 

98 

lOI 

' 100 

100 

Wool 


83 

96 , 

131 

130 

: 138 

141 

Dairy cows 

1 

98 

lOI i 

III 1 

III 

112 

112 

Store cattle 


90 

96 1 

101 

105 

109 

TI5 

,, sheep 

• • 1 

105 

107 : 

115 

117 

1 128 

T33 

M pigs . . 

! 

1 

115 

I18 j 

139 j 

129 

i 126 

125 


Revised index numbers due 
Cattle Industry [Emergency Prot 

0 payments under the Wheat Act and the 
nsions) Act. 

Wheat 

109 

115 

134 


131 

125 

Fat cattle . . 

102 

107 

114 


120 

126 

General Index 

117 

120 

133 

■1 

143 



Grain. At an average of 9s. lod. per cwt., wheat was 
lower on the month by id. per cwt., the index moving down- 
wards by 7 points. Barley at los. 2d. and oats at 8s. lod. 
per cwt. showed a rise of id. and ^d. per cwt. respectively; 
the index for the former is slightly higher than in April, but 
that for oats is unaltered owing to a proportionately similar 
increase having taken place in the base price. In May, 1936, 
wheat averaged 6s. gd., barley 8s. id. and oats 6s. id. per 
cwt. 

Live Stock. During the month under review quotations 
for fat cattle showed a further advance, the average of second 
quality at 41s. 6d. per live cwt. being again higher by 

398 







Miscellaneous Notes 


2s. gd., and the index rises by 6 points to 112. The addition 
of the subsidy under the Cattle Industry (Emergency Pro- 
visions) Act, 1934, brings the index up to 126. Fat sheep, 
at IS. per lb. for second quality, were reduced by \d. per 
lb., but, as a fall of \d. per lb. was recorded during the 
corresponding months of 1911-13, the index moves upwards 
by 7 points. Baconers and porkers at iis. M. and 12s. 2d. 
per score (20 lb.) declined by 2 ,d- and 2d. per score respec- 
tively, and as these reductions were slightly more than in 
the base period, the index of each is i point lower than in 
April. 

All classes of store stock were dearer than a month earlier; 
indices for store cattle and sheep are 6 and 5 points 
respectively higher, but those for dairy cows and store pigs 
are about unchanged. 

Dairy and Poultry Produce. As a result of the decline of 
^d. per gallon in the regional contract price of liquid milk, 
the index shows a fall of 53 points to 162. The latter figure 
is, however, the same as in May, 1936, and May, 1935. At 
IS. o%d. per lb. butter averaged id. per lb. less than in April, 
but as the reduction was smaller than that recorded during 
the base years, the index moves upwards by 2 points. Eggs 
averaged 9s. 2d. per 120 compared with 8s. 6 d. in the 
previous month, but the index remains the same. At 
£4 IS. 6 d. per cwt. cheese was slightly lower in price; here 
again the downward movement which occurred during the 
base period was greater and, in consequence, the index rises 
by 3 points. 

Other Commodities. Prices of potatoes rose during May 
by 2s. to £8 15s. 6d. per ton, but in the base months showed 
a slight reduction, and the index is 5 points higher than in 
April. Both clover and meadow hay were slightly lower in 
price, but the combined index figure is not altered. At 
IS. 6Jd. per lb. quotations for wool were higher by fd. per 
lb. and the index shows a further rise to 141. 

The National Diploma in Agriculture and the Fream 
Memorial Prize 

The 38th Annual Examination for the National Diploma 
in Agriculturai^as held, under the auspices of the National 
Agricultural Examination Board, at the University of Leeds 
from April 14 to 22|^937, when 208 candidates presented 
themselves. Of this nrahber, 13 took the whole examination; 

399 



Miscellaneous Notes 


8o who had already passed in certain subjects appeared to 
take the remaining portion; and the other 115 came up for 
a first group of subjects. Of this last 115, 53 (including 2 
women) passed in a group of subjects and are eligible, there- 
fore, to take the remaining subjects in either 1938 or *939. 

Of the 93 candidates sitting for the Diploma, 48 (including 
2 women) were successful, four of them obtaining Honours. 
These were Mr. H. R. Kirby (Midland Agricultural College), 
Mr. D. L. Sinclair (Harper Adams Agricultural College), 
and Messrs. J. Pearce and K. N. Russell, both from Reading 
University. The training colleges of the successful candidates 
were as follows : — 

First 

Diploma > Group of 




Subjects 

England : 

Armstrong College, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

2 

3 

East Anglian Institute of Agriculture . . 

6 

— 

Harper Adams Agricultural College 

7 

4 

Leeds University 

I 

2 

Midland Agricultural College 

9 

10 

Non-collegiate 

— 

I 

Reading University 

5 

6 

Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester 

— 

3 

Seale-Hayne Agricultural College 

I 

4 

School of Agriculture, Cambridge 

I 

— 

South-Eastern Agricultural College 

5 

I 

WdUs : 

University College of Wales, Aberystwyth 

2 

2 

Scotland : 

Bell Baxter Continuation School, Cupar 

— 

2 

Edinburgh University 

2 

— 

Edinburgh and East of Scotland Agricultural 

College . . 

— 

5 

Glasgow University 

4 

3 

West of Scotland Agricultural College . . 

3 

7 


48 

53 



— 

The Fream Memorial Prize, awarded to 

the 

Candidate 


obtaining the highest marks in the examination, was secured 
by Mr. H. R. Kirby, of the Midland Agricultural College. 
The prize, of an approximate value this year, of £y, 
pro|Nkied from a fund entrusted to the Ministry as a memorial 
to lire late Dr.*Fream, is applied to the purchase of books 
selected by the recipient as best calculated to assist him in 
pursuing his agricultural studies. 

400 



Miscellaneous Notes 


The Maynard Ganga Ram Prize: Third Award 

The Managing Body of the above Prize have now made 
their award for the year 1935. The Prize, of the value of 
3,000 wpees, goes to R. S. L. Jai Chand Luthra, I.A.S., 
Professor .of Botany, Punjab Agricultural College, Lyallpur, 
for hi^iliifew method of treating wheat-seed to free it from the 
fungal disease called Loose Smut. The disease is present in 
most parts of the Punjab and causes considerable loss to 
cultivators. The old method of treatment, involving the use 
of a thermometer, required skill and accuracy in raising 
water to a temperature that, while sufficient to kill the spores 
of the disease inside the wheat-grain, would yet leave the 
germinating power of the seed undamaged. Such a method, 
needless to say, was unsafe in the hands of unskilled and 
illiterate people. In the treatment devised by Professor 
Luthra, the use of a thermometer is dispensed with. The 
wheat-seed to be treated is merely soaked in water at ordinary 
temperature for four hours during the morning of a day in 
summer. The soaked grain is then spread in the sunshine 
until it is thoroughly dried. Experience has shown that this 
treatment is effective in controlling the disease without 
damaging the germinating power of the seed ; and the process 
can be carried out safely by any illiterate worker. 

The Maynard Ganga Ram Prize owes its inception to the 
generosity of the late Sir Ganga Ram, C.I.E., M.V.O., who 
gave a sum of 25,000 rupees to the Punjab Government for 
its endowment. The Prize is awarded triennially for a 
discovery, or an invention or a new practical method which 
will tend to increase agricultural production in the Punjab 
on a paying basis. The competition is open to all the world, 
government servants also being eligible to compete. 

The first award, in respect of the year 1929, was made to 
Dr. Barber, late Imperial sugar expert, for discoveries that 
resulted in the production of Coimbatore sugarcane. The 
second (1932) award was given to Mr. T. A. Miller Brownlie, 
late Agricultural Engineer to the Punjab Government, for 
an improved slip strainer for use in connexion with well-water 
supplies. By its use, owners of lands irrigated from well- 
water supplies have been able to increase their output of water 
and, consequently, their crops. 

The Prize is now open for award in resp>ect 0^1938, and 
entries should reach the Director of AgriculWre,' Punjab, 
Lahore, on or before December 31. 1938- 

D 


401 



Miscellaneous Notes 


Farm Institute Live Stock Judging Competition 

The eleventh annual Live Stock Judging Competition, open 
to teams of three from Farm Institutes in England and Wales, 
was held at the farm of Mr. J. H. Rowe, Bridgetown House, 
Stratford-on-Avon, on Thursday, June 3, 1937. Teams from 
the following counties competed : — Cumberland and Westmor- 
land (Newton Rigg), Hertfordshire (Oaklands), Monmouthshire 
(Usk), Northamptonshire (Moulton), Staffordshire (Rod- 
baston). 

The teams were required to judge Dairy Shorthorn Cows, 
Shire Horses, Large Black and Large White Cross-bred Pigs 
for bacon purposes. Cross-bred Down Ewe Tegs for the butchet 
and Buff Rock Poultry. The stock to be judged were typical 
commercial stock. The classes were not easy and provided a 
good test. 

The team from Monmouthshire were the winners with a score 
of 281 marks out of a possible 365. The second team, Cumber- 
land and Westmorland, were 15 marks behind. 

The following judges officiated: — Dairy Cows — Mr. W. J. 
Wheeler; Horses — Mr. E. B. Wynn; Sheep — Mr. G. A. Lea; 
Pigs — Mr. N. D. Clarke; Poultry — Mr. R. G. Virtue. 

The teams and officials were afterwards entertained to lunch 
by the National Farmers’ Union Mutual Assurance Society, 
when Mr. Black, a Director, presented to the winning team the 
Silver Challenge Cup provided by the National Farmers’ 
Union. 

The Committee has expressed its disappointment at the small 
entry for the Competition this year. 

Register of Dairy Cattle 

Volume XX of the Register of Dairy Cattle has just been 
published. It contains particulars of 766 cows in respect of 
which Certificates of Merit have been issued by the Ministry 
since October 1, 1936, as compared with 722 cows entered in 
the previous volume. To be eligible for a Certificate of Merit, 
a cow must have given, during a period of three consecutive 
Milk Recording Years, not less than the prescribed yield of 
milk and must normally have calved three times during those 
years. The prescribed yields for the three-year period are 
30,000 lb. forFriesians; 27,000 lb. for Ayrshires, Blue Albions, 
Lincoln Red Shorthorns, Red Polls and Shorthorns; 24,000 lb. 
for all other breeds except Dexters; and 21,000 lb. for Dexters. 

402 



Miscellaneous Notes 


The Register contains a statement showing the number and 
distribution of the yields of the cows of the various breeds 
entered, and the highest yield certified for each breed for the 
three years ended October i, 1936. Of these cows 15 gave over 

50.000 lb. of milk during the three years concerned; 47 over 

40.000 and under 50,000 lb.; 91 over 35,000 and under 

40.000 lb.; 238 over 30,000 and under 35,000 lb.; 227 over 

27.000 and under 30,000 lb. ; and 115 over 24,000 and under 

27,000 lb. 

Particulars of pedigree bulls of proved milking strain are 
also given. The condition of entry of a bull in the Register is 
that its dam and sire’s dam have given the standard yield 
prescribed for their breed or type in any particular Milk 
Recording Year. The volume contains entries relating to 16 
bulls. 

A list of the Milk Recording Societies in England and Wales, 
with particulars of each Society and the name and address of 
its Secretary, is included in the Register. 

Dairy farmers and others desirous of acquiring high-yielding 
milk-recorded cows that have been regular breeders should 
find the Register a valuable book of reference. 

The Register can be obtained through any bookseller or 
from H.M. Stationery Office, Adastral House, Kingsway, 
London, W.C.2, price is., post free is. 3d. A copy of the 
volume is issued free to all members of Milk Recording 
Societies. 

The Work of Agricultural Research Institutes 

The annual volume of reports on the work of the Agri- 
cultural Research Institutes in Oreat Britain and Northern 
Ireland has become well-known to the readers of this Journal, 
and this note is intended to draw attention to the appearance 
of the latest volume.* In addition to the reports of the 
Research Institutes, the volume contains reports of the 
research work undertaken by Agricultural Advisory Officers, 
and special investigations financed by the Departments of 
Agriculture and the Agricultural Research Council. Naturally 
enough, it is not possible in this publication to give anything 
more than a brief summary of the work done but this 
summary is presented in non-technical language, so that it 
shall be readily understood by the layman. It is difficult to 

* Report on the Work of Agricultural Research Institutes, i934~35* 
London : H.M. Stationery Office, 1937. 5s. post free. 

B 2 


403 



Miscellaneous Notes 


select examples, but amongst the wide range of activities it 
describes may be mentioned a number of soil surveys of 
different parts of the country, a large number of references 
to the cultivation of grass-land, and the allied problems, a 
subject which is very much to the forefront at the present 
time. 

In addition to the combined reports contained in this 
volume, it forms a useful reference work for those who wish 
to pursue inquiries into the originally published work, because 
it contains a list of the publications of the workers concerned. 

The Carnegie Trust 

The activities of the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust 
continue to include several of an agricultural type, the most 
remarkable being grants in aid of land settlement schemes. 
The twenty-third annual report of the Trust just issued^ 
records that to the end of last year specific grants for this 
purpose amounted to £35,000 in addition to an annual grant 
of £1,500 for five years towards the administrative expenses 
of the Land Settlement Association. The Trustees have 
intimated their willingness to consider during 1937 applica- 
tions for grants in respect of new settlements up to a maximum 
of £40,000. During the year twenty-six grants totalling 
£3,310 were made in respect of village halls. For the quin- 
quennium 1936-40 an allocation of £2,400 has been made to 
Young Farmers’ Clubs, which now number 250. During the 
past six years the Trustees have taken a keen interest in the 
preservation of rural amenities, and over £14,000 has been 
devoted to this object. 

Vegetable Oils and Oilseeds 

This survey, issued by the Imperial Economic Committee, t 
follows the same general lines as the Committee's commodity 
studies of meat, fruit, etc. The seeds, etc., to which most 
attention is given are those used for the production of the 
leading oilcakes, such as cotton seed, linseed, ground-nut 

♦ The Twenty-third Report of the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust* 
Obtainable from the Secretary, Carnegie United Kingdom Trust, Comely 
Park House, Dunfermline, Fife. 

t Vegetable Oils and Oilseeds : A Summary of Figures of Production and 
Trade relating to Cottonseed, Linseed, Rapeseed, Sesame Seed, Soya Beans, 
Ground Nuts, Copra, Palm Kernels, Palm Oil and Olive Oil, Obtainable 
from H.M. Stationery Office, Adastxal House, Kingsway, London, W.C.2. 
Price 25 . 6 d,, post free 25. gd. 

404 



Miscellaneous Notes 


and palm kernel cakes, but statistics are also provided for 
the minor seeds and for margarine, compound lard, etc. As 
far as is possible with the limited data available, the survey 
gives figures for world production, world trade, utilization 
and prices, with emphasis particularly on the supplies and 
requirements of the Empire. A short preface is provided on 
the “ Nature and Utilization of Vegetable Oils.” This branch 
of the trade in animal feeding stuffs has previously been so 
ill documented that all concerned will be grateful to the 
Imperial Economic Committee for the additional information 
they have provided, particularly at the present time when the 
price levels of feeding stuffs are a matter of concern. 


Fifth Selected Bibliography of Literature on Mechanization 

of Agriculture. 

The Ministry has issued a further selected bibliography on 
“ Mechanization of Agriculture,” containing references to 
books and periodicals filed in the Ministry’s library. Although 
the bibliography cannot be said to be a complete list of publica- 
tions dealing with the mechanization of agriculture, it includes 
references to mechanization in most branches of the industry 
and contains the titles noted from certain publications issued 
during the year January to December, 1936. A few titles of 
articles which appeared in January, 1937, are also included as 
it has not been found practicable to confine such a list precisely 
to the limits of time mentioned. 

Amongst the many subjects included may be mentioned the 
numerous entries relating to tractors and tractor equipment. 
The articles on crop drying will be of particular interest at the 
present time. 

The bibliography has been widely circulated in Great Britain 
and a few copies are available, free of charge, to any agri- 
cultural worker or person interested. 

The N.I.A.B. Farm Crop Variety Trials. — The National Institute of 
Agricultural Botany again invites farmers and others interested to visit 
the accurate field trials of cereals, root crops, etc., carried out by the 
Institute at Cambridge and at its Sub-stations at Askham Bryan (Yorks), 
Cannington (Somerset), Long Sutton (Hants), Newport (Salop), and 
Sprowston (Norfolk) . Profitable varieties of the crops may be seen growing, 
and their relative merits discussed with members of the staff, July is the 
best month for visits, either to Cambridge or, if more convenient, to the 
nearest of the Sub-stations mentioned above. Parties or single visitors 
are welcome, but arrangements should be made beforehand by writing to 
the Secretary, N.I.A.B., Huntingdon Road, Cambridge. 


405 



Miscellaneous Notes 


Farm Workers’ Minimum Rates of Wa^es. — ^Meetings of the Agricultural 

Wages Board were held at Kings Buildings, Smith Square, London, S.W.i, 

on May 24, 1937, June 21, 1937. 

The Board considered notifications from Agricultural Wages Committees 

of decisions fixing minimum and overtime rates of wages, and proceeded 

to make the following Orders : — 

Derbyshire . — An Order cancelling the existing minimum and overtime 
rates of wages (other than the overtime rates for the hay and corn 
harvests of 1937, which remain m force), and fixing fresh rates in 
substitution therefor to come into operation on June 26, 1937, and to 
continue in force until December 25, 1937. The minimum rate for 
male workers of 21 years of age and over is per hour (instead of 
as formerly). For whole-time workers provision is made for payment 
of not less than 37s. i\d. (instead of 36s. as formerly) per week of 
54 hours, except in the week in which Christmas Day falls when the 
hours arc 45. The overtime rates for adult male w^orkers remain un- 
changed at lod per hour on Sundays and gd per hour for employment 
on Christmas Day. The minimum rates for female workers of 18 years 
of age and over are unchanged at ^d. per hour, with overtime (i.c., 
employment on Sundays) at M. per hour. 

Dorset . — An Order fixing the minimum and overtime rates of wages to 
come into operation on July i, 1937 (i.e., the day following that on which 
the existing rates are due to expire), and to continue in force until 
June 30, 1938. The minimum rates are (1) in the case of male workers 
of 21 years of age and over 335. (instead of 31s. as formerly) per week 
of 51 hours in summer except in the weeks in which Good Friday, 
Easter Monday, Whit Monday and August Bank Holiday fall when the 
hours are 42, and 48 hours in winter, except in the weeks in which 
Christmas Day and December 27, 1937, when the hours are 39J ; 
(ii) in the case of female wwkers of 2 1 years of age and over (other than , 
part-time and casual workers) 245. (as formerly) per week of 48 hours, 
except in the weeks in which Good Friday, Easter Monday, Whit 
Monday, August Bank Holiday, Christmas Day and December 27, 1937, 
fall when the hours are 39^, with, in addition, in the case of all workers 
referred to above, not more than 3 hours on the holidays mentioned 
on work in connexion with milking and the care of and attendance 
upon stock ; and (iii) in the case of part-time or casual female workers 
of 18 years of age and over, ^d. per hour. The overtime rates are ^d. 
per hour for male workers of 21 years of age and over (except for over- 
time employment in the hay and corn harvests when the rate is gd. 
per hour) and 6 d. per hour for all classes of female workers of 20 years 
of age and over (as formerly) . 

Hampshire and Isle of Wight . — An Order cancelling the existing overtime 
and minimum rates of wages and fixing fresh rates in substitution 
therefor to come into force on June 6, 1937, and to continue in operation 
until January i, 1938. The minimum rates for male workers of 21 years of 
age and over are 325. (instead of 315. as formerly) per week of 51 hours in 
summer, except in the week in which August Bank Holiday falls when 
the hours are 41^, and 48 hours in winter, except in the weeks in which 
Christmas Day and Boxing Day fall when the hours are 40. The over- 
time rates are unchanged at gd. per hour throughout the year, except 
in the case of carters, cowmen, shepherds or milkers for work in 
connexion with the immediate care of animals in which case the over- 
time rate is M. per hour. The minimum rate for female workers of 18 
years of age and over remains unchanged at $d, per hour for all time 
worked. 

406 



Miscellaneous Notes 


Lancashire . — An Order cancelling the existing minimum and overtime 
rates of wages and fixing fresh rates in substitution therefor to come into 
operation on June 27, 1937, and to continue in force until April 30, 
1938. The minimum rates in the case of male workers of 21 years of 
age and over are : In the Southern Area, workers employed wholly or 
mainly in one or more of the following capacities — Stockman, Teams- 
man, Poultryman, Pigman or Shepherd (instead of for w'orkers employed 
wholly or mainly with animals as formerly) 385. per week of 52 J hours, 
and other workers 34s. 6 d. per week of 50 hours (as formerly), and in 
the remainder of the area of the Committee, workers of the special classes 
mentioned above (instead of for workers employed wholly or mainly 
with animals as formerly) 415., and other workers 385. 6rf. per week 
of 60 hours (as formerly) in each case. The overtime rates for all 
classes of adult male workers remain unchanged at gd. per hour on 
weekdays and is. i\d. per hour for employment (other than time 
necessarily spent in the immediate care of and attention to animals) 
on Sundays. Overtime at c)d per hour is also payable for employment 
(other than immediate care of and attention to animals) on Christmas 
Day and Good P'riday. In the case of female workers of t8 years of 
age and over, the minimum rate remains unchanged at ^d. per hour 
for all time worked. 

Lines. {Holland ). — An Order cancelling the exi.sting minimum and over- 
time rates of wages and fixing fresh rates in substitution therefor to 
come into force on June 27, 1937, and to continue in operation until 
October 39, 1937. minimum rates in the case of male workers 

of 21 years of age and over are 36s. (instead of 35s. as formerly) per 
week of (1) 41 hours in the week in which August Bank Holiday falls, 
and (11) 50 hours in any other week. In the case of horsemen, cattlemen 
and shepherds of similar age additional weekly sums are fixed to cover 
all time worked in excess of the number of hours mentioned above, 
except employment which is to be treated as overtime employment. 
The overtime rates in the case of male workers of 21 years of age and 
over arc is. i\d. per hour on Sundays, gd. per hour on August Bank 
Holiday and lojcf. per hour for all other overtime employment (as 
formerly). The minimum rate for female workers of 15 years of age and 
over is unchanged at ^d. per hour, with overtime at 'jd. per hour for all 
employment in excess of 5J hours on Saturday or other agreed weekly 
short day, on Sundays and in excess of 8 hours on any other day (as 
formerly). 

Lines, (Kesteven and Lindsey ). — An Order cancelling the existing minimum 
and overtime rates of wages and fixing fresh rates in substitution therefor 
to come into force on June 27, 1937, and to continue in operation until 
January 29, 1938. 

The minimum rates in the case of male workers of 21 years of age 
and over are: (i) waggoners, 405. (instead of 395. as formerly) per 
week of 50 hours in the week in which August Bank Holiday falls, 58 
hours in any other week up to October 14, 52 J hours in the week in 
which Christmas Day falls and 61 hours in any other "week subsequent 
to October 14 ; (11) shepherds, 38s. (instead of 37s. as formerly) per 
week of 45} hours in the week in which August Bank Holiday falls, 
55 hours in any other week in summer, 47 J hours in the week in which 
Christmas Day falls and 56 hours in any other week in winter with 
additional payments for the lambing season ; (iii) stockmen, 395. 
(instead of 38s. as formerly) per week of 46! hours in the week in 
which August Bank Holiday falls, 56 hours in any other week in summer, 
49J hours in the week in which Christmas Day falls and 58 hours in 
any other week in winter; and (iv) other male workers, 33s. (instead 

407 



Miscellaneous Notes 


of 325. as at present) per week of 41 hours in the week in which August 
Bank Holiday falls, 50 hours in any other week in summer, 39J hours 
in the week in which Christmas Day falls, and 48 hours in any other 
week in winter, with overtime in the case of all classes of male workers 
at lod. per hour on weekdays and is. on Sundays (as formerly). 
Provision is made for an adjustment of the hours in respect of which 
the minimum weekly wage is payable in the week in which Boxing 
Day falls to meet cases where a holiday is given in that week instead 
of in the week in which Christmas Day falls. In the case of female workers 
of 17 years of age and over the minimum rate is unchanged at per 
hour for all time worked. 

Shropshire, — An Order fixing minimum and overtime rates of wages to 
come into force on June i, 1937 (i.e., the day following that on which 
the existing rates are due to expire). The minimum rates for male 
workers of 2 t years of age and over are 345. (instead of 325. 6d. as 
formerly) per week of 54 hours, except in the weeks in which Christmas 
Day and Good Friday fall when the hours are 44J, with overtime un- 
changed at gd. per hour on weekdays and for attention to stock on 
Sundays, and lod, per hour for other employment on Sundays. The 
minimum rates for female workers of 18 years of age and over remain 
unchanged at ^d. per hour and overtime at 6d. per hour. 

Staffordshire. — An Order varying the existing minimum and overtime rates 
of wages, the rates as varied to come into force on June 27, 1937. 

The minimum rates in the case of male workers of 21 years of age 
and over are 34s. (instead of 32s. 6d, as formerly) per week of (a) 
44J hours in the weeks in which Christmas Day and Good Friday fall ; 
and (b) 54 hours in any other week, with overtime unchanged at gd. 
per hour. The minimum rates in the case of female workers of 18 years 
of age and over remain unchanged at ^d. per hour with overtime at 6d. 
per hour. 

Sussex. — An Order fixing minimum and overtime rates of wages to come 
into force on July 12, 1937 ^^ly following that on which the 

existing rates are due to expire), and to continue in operation until 
April 10, 1938. The minimum rates in the case of male workers of 
21 year^i of age and over are : (1) for workers employed wholly or mainly 
as horsemen, cowmen, stockmen or shepherds, 38s. ^d. (instead of 375. 6d. 
as at present) per week of (a) 50 hours in the week in which Christmas 
Day falls, and ip) 58 hours in any other week ; and (ii) for other workers, 
33s. 3tf. (instead of 32s. ()d. as at present) per week of (a) 52 hours in 
any week in summer ; (b) (i) 40 hours in the week in which Christmas 
Day falls, and (ii) 48 hours in any other week m winter. The overtime 
rates in the case of all classes of adult male workers are unchanged at 
gd. per hour on weekdays, and loj^d. per hour on Sundays. 

The minimum rate of wages for female workers of 18 years 01 age 
and over is ^d. per hour, with overtime at 6ld. per hour on weekdays 
and y^d. per hour on Sundays as at present. 

Yorks (West Riding). — An Order varying the existing minimum and 
overtime rates of wages, the rates as varied to come into force on 
June 27, 1937. 

The minimum rates in the case of male workers are (a) for all workers 
of 21 years of age and over, other than specified in paragraph (b) below, 
355. 6d. (instead of 34s.) per week of 52} hours in summer and 48 hours 
in winter, except (i) in the weeks in which Easter Monday, Whit Monday, 
and August Bank Holiday fall, when the hours are 43, and (ii) in the 
week in which Boxing Day falls, when the hours are 39J ; and (6) for 
workers of 21 years of age and over employed as waggoners or other 
horsemen, beastmen or shepherds, 40s. 6d. (instead of 395.) per week 

406 



Miscellaneous Notes 


of the hours specified in (a) above, with, in addition, not more than 12 
hours per week on weekdays and 3 hours on Sundays and when holidays 
on full pay are given, 3 hours on those holidays, for work in connexion 
with the care of and attention to stock. Provision is made for an 
adjustment of the hours in respect of which the minimum weekly rates 
are payable to meet cases where i, 2, 3 or 4 days’ holiday on full pay 
are given in particular weeks in lieu of Easter Monday, Whit Monday, 
August Bank Holiday and Boxing Day. The minimum rate for female 
workers of 18 years of age and over is (instead of 6d.) per hour for 
a week of 44 hours. The overtime rates are (1) male workers of 21 years 
of age and over (a) waggoners or other horsemen, beastmen or shepherds, 
gd. (as at present) per hour on weekdays and iid. (instead of lojd.) 
per hour on Sundays ; (6) other male workers, lojd. (instead of lod.) 
per hour on weekdays and is. o\d. (instead of is.) per hour on Sundays ; 
and (11) female workers of 18 years of age and over 8d. (instead of ^\d.) 
per hour on weekdays and g\d. (instead of gd.) per hour on Sundays. 

Anglesey and Caernarvon . — An Order fixing special overtime rates of 
wages for male workers employed in harvest work during the hay and 
corn harvests of 1937 ^.nd minimum and overtime rates of wages for 
male workers engaged specially for such work. The minimum rates for 
male workers of 21 years of age and over are (i) for all male workers a 
differential overtime rate of lod. per hour, and (2) for workers engaged 
specially for harvest work, (1) employed by the week or any longer 
period, 44s. ()d. per week of 58 hours, and (11) employed by the day (a) 
on weekdays other than Saturday, 8s. 8d. per day of 10 J hours, and (b) 
on Saturdays, 5s. per day of 6 hours. 

Denbigh and Flint . — An Order fixing minimum and overtime rates of 
wages for male workers employed on harvest work during the hay and 
corn harvests of 1937. rates for male workers of 21 years of age 
and over are (1) for workers (other than casual workers), a differential 
rate for overtime employment of is. per hour, and (11) for casual workers, 
a minimum rate of is. per hour for all hours worked on harvest work. 

Enforcement of Minimum Rates of Wages. — During the month ending 

June II, 1937, h'g^l proceedings were taken against five employers for 

failure to pay the minimum rates of wages fixed by the Orders of the 

Agricultural Wages Board. Particulars of the cases follow : — 


Committee 

Area 

Court 

Fines 

Imposed 

Costs 

Allowed 

Arrears of 
Wages 
ordered 

No. of 
workers 
involved 



£ 

S. 

d. 

£ 

5. 

d. 

£ 

d. 


Gloucester 

Stroud 

10 

0 

0 

0 

12 

6 

36 13 

7 

I 

Lancashire 

Ashton-under- 











Lyne . . | 

10 

0 

0 


— 


50 0 

0 

I 

,, 

Reedley 

I 

10 

0 

0 

4 

0 

14 15 

2 

2 

Glamorgan 

Neath 


* 


3 

0 

6 

6 0 

0 

I 

Pembroke 

Newport 

I 

0 

0 

0 

12 

0 

10 13 

6 

I 



22 

10 

0 

4 

9 

0 

00 

M 

3 

6 


♦ Dismissed under ** Probation of Offenders ” Act. 


Foot - and - Mouth Disease. — Outbreaks of Foot-and-Mouth Disease 
were confirmed on June 6 at Woodbury, Exeter, Devon, and on June 9 
at Westfield, Woking, Surrey. The usual restrictions were imposed over 
areas of approximately 15 miles radius round the respective premises. 

409 






Miscellaneous Notes 


The areas under restrictions he in the county of Devon, and in the counties 
of Berks, Buckingham, Hants, Middlesex and Surrey, respectively. The 
outbreak at Woodbury was the first in Great Britain for four months, the 
last outbreak previously having been confirmed at Donnington, Hereford, 
on February 5. 

No further outbreak has been confirmed in either of the Infected Areas, 
and the Devonshire Area was contracted to approximately 5 miles around 
Woodbury on June 21 and the Surrey Area to 5 miles around Westfield 
on June 24. 

APPOINTMENTS 

COUNTY AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION STAFFS: ENGLAND. 
Cheshire : Mr. F. H. Foster, B.Sc., N.D.A., has been appointed Assistant 
Lecturer in Agriculture and Farm Book-keeping, vice Mr. N. A. 
Selkirk, B.Sc. (Agric.), N.D.A. 

Cumberland and Westmorland : Mr. L. E. Edney, B.Sc. (Agric.), has 
been appointed Assistant Agricultural Organizer and Vice-Principal 
of the Farm Institute, vice Mr. A. Mann, B.Sc. 

Devon: Miss V. C. Milner, N.D.P., has been appointed Assistant County 
Poultry Instructress. Miss E. E. M. Cheal, N.D.P., has been appointed 
Instructress to the Travelling Poultry School. 

Surrey: Mr. J. E. Campion, M.A., has been appointed Assistant Agri- 
cultural Organizer, vice Mr. R. Line, B.Sc. 

WIRELESS TALKS, JULY, 1937 


AGRICULTURAL 


Station and 
Date 

Time ' 
p m. 

Speakers 

Subject 

“ 

National : 

i 

No talks in July. 

— 

Midland : 

1 



July 7 

6.20 : 

Various 

Discussion at the Royal Agn- 

1 


cultural Show, Wrottesley 
Park, Wolverhampton. 





Viewpoints and person- 
alities. 

West: 




July 8 

0 

00 

Various 

For WY^stern Farmers in par- 
ticular : The Agricultural 
and Horticultural Research 
Station, Long Ashton. 



North : 



July 19 

6 20 

1 Mr. J. A. Willis, a York- 

Drystone Walling (one of a 
series, " Tricks of the 



shire Farmer 

Trade "). 

Welsh : 



July 16 

7*30 

Professor R. G. Staple- 
don, Professor J. A. 
Scott Watson, Dr. F. 
T. Wahlin, Dr. P. D. 
Cardon and Dr. E. 
Bruce Levy 

WTiat is Grassland ? (in con- 
nection with the Fourth 
International Grassland 
Conference) . 


Scottish : 



July I 

8.0 

Mr. J. F Duncan 

For Scottish Farmers. 

,, 8 

6.30 

Mr. A Allan interviewed 

Moorland Pasture. 


by Mr J. R. Allan 


15 

6.20 

Mr. W. J. Wright 

For Scottish Farmers. 

,, 22 

6.30 

Mr. J. Anderson 

Heather Honey. 


410 




Notices of Books 


HORTICULTURAL 


Station and 
Date 

Time : 
p.m. 

Speakers 

Subject 

National : 




July 9 

715 

Mr. P. W. D. Izzard 

— 

,, 16 

7 15 

Mr H S. Redgrove 

— 

.. 23 

7 15 

Mr. H. H. Thomas 

— 

30 

715 

Miss Eleanour Sinclair 
Rohde 

— , 

West: 




July 7 

95 

Mr. I). Harris 

Eye-witness account of the 
National Sweet Pea Show 
at Bath 

,, 20 

9.40 

Mr. D Hams 

For Western Gardeners. 

North : | 




July 2 1 

8.40 

Messrs V/. E Shcwell- | 
Cooper and Arthur 

1 Behrend ; 

1 Flower Shows. 

,, 10 

650 1 

i 

; Mr. W E. Shewell- ; 
Cooper 

; Eye-witness account of the 
Alderley Edge (Cheshire) 
Flow’er Show 

, , 16 

6-45 

Messrs W. E. Shewell- ] 
Cooper and Oliver Mec 

Roses 

21 ; 

10.25 

_ 

Eyc-witness account of the 

1 Leeds Flower Show 

.. 30 

6.40 

1 

Messrs D. E Horton 

: Bulb-growing for the 

1 and W. E Shewell- 

; Amateur 

Scottish : 


1 Cooper. 

1 

July 21 

1 6.15 

j Mr. Alexander Keith 

1 July in the Garden. 

1 


NOTICES OF BOOKS 

Proceedings of the IV th International Conference of Agricultural 
Economists, 1936. Ed. J P. Maxton. Pp. xiv -f 528. Ulus. 
(London : Oxford University lYess. 1037. Price 175. (>d.) 

This volume records the papers and speeches delivered at the Fourth 
International Conference of Agricultural Economists held at St. Andrews 
during the first week of September, 1936, and provides a most interesting 
and informative collection of studies on a variety of subjects. Mainly 
as a result of the policy followed in drafting the programme for the St. 
Andrews Conference and used consistently by Mr. Maxton in editing these 
proceedings, it is, however, more homogeneous in its subject-matter than 
the proceedings of the previous three conferences. There arc only seven 
papers that are what might be called independent " papers, and most 
of these are mainly interesting for their informative character. Special 
mention, however, should be made of l^ofessor von Dietze's paper which 
raises important issues in the relation of planning or cartelization to the 
peasant system of production. 

The remainder of the volume is divided into eight subjects, which form 
the topic of more or less extended discussion from various angles. Four 
of these are fairly specialized. The first is a series of papers and a short 
discussion on The Provision of Agricultural Credit,” to which Dr. F. F. 
Hill, Deputy Governor of the U.S.A. Farm Credit Administration, con- 
tributed the first paper ; the second, ” Commercial Policy and the 
Outlook for International Trade in Agricultural Products,” the discussion 
of which was opened by Mr. A. Cairns, Secretary of the Wheat Advisory 

4II 







Notices of Books 


Committee, on the outlook for the regulation of world wheat supplies ; 
the third, " Problems of Milk Marketing Regulation," opened by Mr. 
W. H. Bronson, Statistician of the New England Milk Producers’ 
Association and J. LI. Davies of the Milk Marketing Board ; and fourth, 
" Part-time Holdings for Urban Workers," opened by H. Krause, Berlin, 
and K. Hood, of Pennsylvania. 

The larger part of the volume is occupied by the papers and discussions 
on the four subjects set down in the programme as the main subjects for 
discussion at the Conference. These are : — 

(i) The Relations of Agriculture to Industry and the Community, 

introduced by a paper from Professor W. R. Scott, of Glasgow 
University, 

(ii) The Relations of Land Tenure to the Economic and Social Develop- 

ment of Agriculture, introduced by papers from Professor M. 
Sering, Berlin, and Professor A. W. Ashby, University College, 
Aberystwyth. 

(iii) Farm Organization with Special Reference to the Needs of Technical 

Industrial and Economic Development of Agriculture, introduced 
by papers from Mr. L. Bridges, Oxford University, Professor 
H. Zomer of Berlin, and Mr. H. R. Tolley, Administrator of the 
A. A. A., Washington. 

(iv) Problems of Consumption of Agricultural Products, introduced 

by papers from Professor E. R. Cathcart, Glasgow, and Professor 
R. B. Forrester, Aberystwyth. 

The importance of the four main subjects mentioned above needs no 
emphasis, since they involve fundamental principles in the future planning 
of agriculture. There is, in fact, a main thread running through all four — 
namely, the issue of the responsibility of agriculture for its place in the 
economic and social structure of the community and the responsibility 
of the community to agriculture. The first main subject took that as the 
general theme, but its importance is also evident in the discussibn of 
Land Tenure, Farm Organization, and the Problems of Consumption of 
Agricultural Products. It is evident, although not brought out so clearly, 
in the papers and discussions on the first two subjects, that there is a 
fundamental conflict of opinion on what should be the structure of agri- 
culture and its place in the economic and social structure of the State. 
In the discussion of Farm Organization, however, this conflict of 
" philosophies " makes itself felt. The contrast is apparent in the different 
treatments of the opening papers and particularly between the excellent 
papers of Bridges and Zomer. In the discussion, especially in the contri- 
bution by Ashby and the reply by Zomer, this fundamental difference 
comes quite clearly to a head. Throughout the whole discussion there is 
an apparent opposition from the British and the Continental point of 
view, the former emphasizing the industrial and economic attitude 
towards agriculture and the social considerations which are implicit in 
it, the latter emphasizing the stabilizing and racial arguments for a large 
secured peasant population. The American speakers claim that the peasant 
(in their country the family farmer) is at one and the same time the most 
economic form of farm organization and the source of the social attributes 
which the Continental economists claim for it. In this connexion the 
paper by Professor Boss, of Minnesota, with the short discussion on it, 
though included as one of the " independent " papers at the end of the 
volume, is in some ways a most interesting continuation of the discussion 
on the subject of farm organization and should, therefore, be read along 
with the main discussion. 

Under the section dealing with the Problems of Consumption of 
Agricultural Products, Professor Cathcart and Dr. Stiebeling, Washington, 

412 



Notices of Books 


provide valuable information on consumption habits, while Professor 
Forrester and Dr. von Bulow (I.L.O.) and Dr. Bennett (Food Research 
Institute, California) deal with the economic implications of consumption 
on agriculture. 

This book is certainly the kind of publication that everyone interested 
in the economic, political and social aspects of national and international 
agriculture should read. The programme of the conference, and in 
particular the editing of the papers and discussions by Mr. Maxton and 
his colleagues at Oxford, make it easy to select the papers and discussions 
in which the reader is most interested. 

Report on the Marketing of Wheat in India. Pp. ix + 451, 4 maps, 
24 diagrams, 35 plates, 54 appendices. (Delhi : Government of 
India. Price Rs. 1.4 or 2s.) 

This is the first of a series of reports on the marketing of agricultural 
produce in India, which are being prepared by the Agricultural Marketing 
Adviser to the Government of India and the Central Marketing staff. The 
series is similar in scope and purpose to the familiar senes of Orange 
Books in this country. 

The report is mainly of interest to students of Indian conditions, but 
it offers much useful information to agricultural economists generally 
and is a welcome addition to our knowledge of agricultural marketing. 
It covers all aspects of marketing, including supply, demand, prices, 
processing, transport, storage, standardization and methods of distribution. 

In the chapter on supply, the official statistics of production come in 
for a certain amount of criticism. The position of India in relation to 
the world market is well brought out and the dependence of wheat exports 
on the world price of wheat and on the relative prices of wheat and gram 
and barley is shown in an interesting diagram on page 41. 

Perhaps the diversity of conditions in India is shown vividly in the 
statistics of consumption per head in Appendix XIV. Consumption 
varies from under 4 lb. per head m Madras to over 2501b in Delhi. 

The effect of weather conditions on marketing is brought out in detail ; 
for example, the effect of the monsoon on the periodicity of sales, and 
detailed recommendations for overcoming the difficulties are included. 

The lack of standardization in the wheat trade is emphasized throughout 
the report. It is mentioned in nearly all the chapters. The trade descrip- 
tions of similar types of wheat vary greatly from district to district and 
even in neighbouring localities. The amount of refraction allowed 
both in ready and in future sales varies just as much. Published prices 
are, therefore, valueless for the purpose of trading in distant markets. 
The confusion in weights and measures seems almost incredible and is a 
serious handicap to organized trading. 

The description of prevailing market charges, which range from 
** charity deductions to bribes to municipal servants and include in 
some cases payments to cooks and sweepers, shows the nature of the 
burdens borne by large numbers of small producers and the need for some 
measure of control on the lines of the local market legislation already 
adopted in some parts of India. 

The many detailed recommendations in the report are hardly of interest 
to English readers and they raise no theoretical questions. They do, 
however, reveal, in a striking manner, how wide are the opportunities 
for marketing reform in relation to the wheat, crop which represents more 
than one-tenth of the total cultivated area of the Indian Empire. 

The report is well written, but for the English reader a glossary of 
Indian terms is needed, as he will find it impossible to remember all the 
terms or to understand them if they are not explained. Even more 

413 



Notices of Books 


pleasing than the style, however, is the sound commonsense shown 
throughout the report, and the insistence that the trade should put its 
own house in order and not rely too much on Government assistance. 
The printing and the diagrams are clear and good, but some of the photo- 
graphs might have been better. Altogether, the report is a well-planned 
and thorough piece of work. 

The Mushroom Handbook. By Louis C. C. Kricger. Pp. xiv +550 and 
157 Figs. (London : Macmillan & Co., Ltd., 1936. Price 15s.) 

This attractive little handbook is written for American readers, and 
con.scquently contains descriptions of some species that do not occur in 
this country. Apart from this, however, the work can be recommended 
as a most useful introduction to the .study of the larger fungi. The general 
arrangement of the book follows more or less traditional lines. There is 
an introductory portion dealing with the ecology, life-histories, economic 
importance, and classification of the larger fungi, together with some 
information as to the more common edible and poisonous species and a 
brie